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The state and the law seem to be inextricably intertwined: The state is often identified with its legislative and adjudicative capacities. Law and legal institutions are likewise associated with public authority, conjuring the image of public courts and state law. But technological and social transformations, characterizing the modern age, pose a growing challenge to the connection between these two institutions. One type of challenge is posed by globalization, especially in this age of new information, which paves the way for legal transactions that traverse territorial boundaries and/or that occur in the stateless realm of cyberspace. Legal institutions whose jurisdictions are delineated according to geopolitical lines cannot adequately regulate behavior in a world in which physical-geographic location is gradually becoming irrelevant.
Security is often a non-excludable public good. On the one hand, it benefits the people who buy it; on the other, it also benefits those who live near the people who buy it. It benefits those neighbors even if they refuse to share in the cost of the security themselves. Security also entails economies of scale. In part because of the positive externalities involved, people economize when they purchase security together. Rather than each pay to protect him- or herself, they save resources if they purchase their security together.
Individuals with severe mental illnesses (SMI) often find it hard to perform daily activities such as grocery shopping, which require intact executive functions. The use of performance-based evaluations is valuable, but lacks the subjects’ point of view during task performance.
The aim of the current presentation is to bring together performance-based observation and cognitive science methods to provide insights regarding real-life behavior and problem solving in SMI populations.
In this quasi-experimental study, forty-three individuals performed the Test of Grocery Shopping Skills (TOGSS) while wearing an eye-tracking device. Eye-movement patterns served as a proxy of executive functions in people with and without SMI during a real-life ingredient selection task. We hypothesized that significant differences will be found between people with SMI and controls in TOGSS sub-outcomes as well as in eye-fixation durations.
TOGSS sub-outcomes indicative of performance efficiency (time and redundancy) were significantly higher in the research group compared to matched controls (P<0.01). Average fixation duration was found to be significantly higher for the research group compared to matched controls (P<0.05) for two of the four item-selection tasks.
These preliminary findings indicate that when confronted with a selection task, individuals with SMI spend more dwelling time while selecting ingredients. Further analyses on these data will examine how this time is spent (e.g. focusing on irrelevant information). The outlined approach may prove beneficial in illuminating specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in individuals with SMI, particularly in the evolving Covid-19 situation, which poses novel social and health-related challenges on real-life tasks.
Cost structure is the engineering of economics. Rather than approach economics as a study of the motivation toward maximum utility or profit, we approach it as a structural design problem for which cost structure is the starting point. The main distinction is between fixed and variable costs, a distinction first devised by ceramicist Josiah Wedgwood after a financial crash in the 1770s. We consider Mine Kafon, the wind-powered landmine removal device designed by Massoud Hassani (collected by the Museum of Modern Art), the willfully inefficient production of Lenka Clayton, who makes drawings on a typewriter, the intentionally market-allergic manufacture of Charlotte Posenenske, the advances of technology that change cost structure and artistic production (tube paints and machine learning), and the costs of the Impressionist painters, especially Camille Pissarro. We use the breakeven calculation and the income statement to organize costs and to diagnose the sustainability of operations.
The COVID-19 pandemic has placed significant strain on emergency departments (EDs) that were not designed to care for many patients who may be highly contagious. This report outlines how a busy urban ED was adapted to prepare for COVID-19 via 3 primary interventions: (1) creating an open-air care space in the ambulance bay to cohort, triage, and rapidly test patients with suspected COVID-19, (2) quickly constructing temporary doors on all open treatment rooms, and (3) adapting and expanding the waiting room. This description serves as a model by which other EDs can repurpose their own care spaces to help ensure safety of their patients and health care workers.
This chapter analyzes how competing notions of conditionality – primarily tensions between efficiency and solidarity – have played out in debates and discourses on development aid since the 1960s in one Scandinavian country and a small, yet highly profiled donor – Sweden. Repeated and shifting demands for accountability and transparency serve as a probe into the complex, competing, and often fluctuating aims, goals, and motives of international development aid. The chapter argues that current debates on “the end of aid” are informed by a historical and unresolved tension between “unconditional solidarity” on the one hand and “conditional efficiency” on the other: Demands for openness elucidate competing aims of aid, indicating a paradox in the transparency paradigm in contemporary development aid discourse, whereby efficient aid – as manifested in economic growth – eventually leads to the end of aid while its alleged inefficiency – as evidenced in social inequality – ensures its continued legitimacy.
This chapter traces the spread and evolution of proportionality in Greek public law. Contrary to English and French public law, proportionality met no major resistance in Greece. It emerged in this context during the 1970s and has been applied as a constitutional principle by courts for more than forty years. Greece is one of the rare legal systems where, since 2001, proportionality explicitly enjoys constitutional status. However, a survey of judicial practice nuances this image of success. Soon after the recognition of the constitutional status of proportionality, its application was limited to a manifest error test. Until the late 1990s, proportionality’s application in judicial review was particularly formal. Its function was more important in substantive case law, where it had a content close to equity. Since its constitutional entrenchment, proportionality is a hegemonic method of reasoning in Greek law. However, consensus as to its content has not led to its consistent application in case law.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of the Iranian Red Crescent Society (IRCS) in managing their nonmonetary resources involved in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) response.
For this purpose, the data envelopment analysis approach was used to measure the efficiency, considering the number of personnel and vehicles and screened passengers as the input and output parameters, respectively. It was examined the efficiency of 10 IRCS’s branches given 17 d of screening operation. For the analysis, the DEA SolverPro software 15a version was used.
The results show that only 1 branch had been fully efficient in using the resources, while 5 branches showed less than 50% efficiency. This study reveals that it is unnecessary to use a fixed number of volunteers at different stations with different passenger numbers.
Using resources without efficient planning can lead to direct costs such as food, transportation, and maintenance, as well as indirect costs such as burnout, fatigue, and stress when responding to the COVID-19 pandemic. This analysis should support IRCS’s managers to move their valuable resources from inefficient to efficient centers to increase the screening rate and reduce the fatigue of aid workers for the next pandemic rounds.
Most historians and social scientists treat cities as mere settings. In fact, urban places shape our experience. There, daily life has a faster, artificial rhythm and, for good and ill, people and agencies affect each other through externalities (uncompensated effects) whose impact is inherently geographical. In economic terms, urban concentration enables efficiency and promotes innovation while raising the costs of land, housing, and labour. Socially, it can alienate or provide anonymity, while fostering new forms of community. It creates congestion and pollution, posing challenges for governance. Some effects extend beyond urban borders, creating cultural change. The character of cities varies by country and world region, but it has generic qualities, a claim best tested by comparing places that are most different. These qualities intertwine, creating built environments that endure. To fully comprehend such path dependency, we need to develop a synthetic vision that is historically and geographically informed.
This chapter analyses progressive property theory in more detail, assessing the membership of that school of thought, the range of perspectives on the mediation of property rights and social justice that it captures, and its core themes and traits. It also addresses the property values that are captured in progressive property's pluralistic approach. These include efficiency, autonomy, and personhood. In doing so, the chapter signposts ideas about the relationship between property rights and social justice that influence Irish constitutional property law, in order to assist the reader in understanding the immanent, evolving, and often partial influence of property theory in the doctrine and outcomes of Irish constitutional property doctrine that are analysed in subsequent chapters. These values can help to explain the intuitive approach that is identifiable in much judicial reasoning in constitutional property law.
Many proponents of the Harm Principle seem to implicitly assume that the principle is compatible with permitting the free exchange of goods and services, even if such exchanges generate so-called market harms. I argue that, as a result, proponents of the Harm Principle face a dilemma: either the Harm Principle’s domain cannot include a large number of non-market harm cases or market harms must be treated on par with non-market harms. I then go on to discuss three alternative arguments defending the status of market harms as exceptions to the Harm Principle and discuss why these arguments also fail.
Property and markets are not fully intertwined. Although one cannot think about the idea of a market without thinking about property – property, after all, is one of the market’s foundational building blocks – it is possible to think about property without thinking about markets. Still, liberal property and markets are so deeply connected that a liberal theory of property cannot ignore the market. A liberal theory of property must explain how property can remain loyal to its liberal commitments in the context of large-scale economies heavily reliant on the operation of markets.
Marshall’s contribution to welfare economics is often summarized in the analytical tools developed in his Principles of Economics. This paper places Marshall’s views on welfare or rather ‘wellbeing’ in more broad perspective including his notes on ‘Economic Progress’; how Marshall thought of ‘economic, as well as the moral, wellbeing’, in his ‘high theme of economic progress’ or ‘organic life-growth’. It shows how he thought of the progress and ‘wellbeing’, economic as well as ‘physical, mental and moral’, in relation to ‘standards of life’ and to ‘quality of life’, ‘fullness of life’; and it aims to shed a fresh light to reconsider the welfare economic thought of Marshall.
The chapter describes what climate finance is, how it over the past ten years has increased in importance both within climate negotiations and in the implementation of climate policies, and the key issues of contestation in this regard. The chapter includes an outline of the cognitive debate regarding what kinds of financial flows can be defined as climate finance, followed by a discussion of the key normative issues of contestation in climate finance discussions. The following section focuses on equity versus efficiency regarding the generation and allocation of climate finance. Finally, the most important groups of actors (beyond the G20, the OECD and the IMF) and their roles in climate finance are discussed.
Though economists typically eschewed non-welfarist arguments in the post-WWII period, there is at least one prominent instance in which such arguments were very much in play, both directly and as underpinnings for welfare-related arguments: The debate over the Coase theorem. This debate saw the Coase theorem regularly challenged on both welfarist (efficiency) and non-welfarist grounds. This then raises the question of what it was about the Coase theorem that led economists into this non-welfarist territory. This essay revisits the early debates over the Coase theorem, where non-welfarist arguments featured prominently, in order to bring out the nature of those arguments and attempt to understand the rationale(s) for their deployment. As we shall see, this move was a function of forces internal and external to economics, including the environmental turn in society and the profession, a concern with issues of fairness and equity in the evaluation of how to resolve externality problems, and a view, prominent in certain quarters, that the environment and environmental preservation is an end in itself.
Although efficiency is a core concept in health economics, its impact on health care practice still is modest. Despite an increased pressure on resource allocation, a widespread use of low-value care is identified. Nonetheless, disinvestments are rare. Why is this so? This is the key question of this paper: why are disinvestments not more prevalent and improving the efficiency of the health care system, given their sound foundation in health economics, their morally important rationale, the significant evidence for a long list of low-value care and available alternatives? Although several external barriers to disinvestments have been identified, this paper looks inside us for mental mechanisms that hamper rational assessment, implementation, use and disinvestment of health technologies. Critically identifying and assessing internal inclinations, such as cognitive biases, affective biases and imperatives, is the first step toward a more rational handling of health technologies. In order to provide accountable and efficient care we must engage in the quest against the figments of our minds; to disinvest in low-value care in order to provide high-value health care.
The implementation of the electronic prescribing system follows certain objectives, and users’ perspectives can contribute to understanding the efficiency and effectiveness of this system. This study aimed to evaluate physicians’ perspectives on the efficiency and effectiveness of the electronic prescribing system.
This study was conducted on all physicians using the electronic prescribing system in clinics and hospitals affiliated with the treatment deputy of the Social Security Organization (SSO) in Sistan and Baluchistan Province in Iran. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire containing three sections: (i) Six items related to demographic data and clinical experience, (ii) Specific questions based on a five-point Likert scale-related physicians’ perspectives about efficiency (19 questions) and effectiveness (13 questions), and (iii) Open-ended questions about the positive and negative aspects of using the electronic prescribing system.
The mean and standard deviation of the efficiency and effectiveness of the electronic prescribing system were 3.68 ± 0.67 and 3.84 ± 0.65, respectively. Patient safety had the highest mean score among all dimensions (4.0 ± 0.64). Most participants (n = 55, 79%) considered the efficiency and effectiveness of this system high. More than 90 percent of the physicians (n = 63) believed that the electronic prescribing system enables a better medication prescription by providing alerts and access to patients’ medication history.
The findings showed that most physicians believed that the electronic prescribing system of Iran's SSO has high efficiency and effectiveness. In particular, physicians believed that using this system improves patient safety and reduces costs.
The assessment of inter-group disparities in the distribution of human development is an important component of the Capability Approach to understanding aspects of social justice. In situations where an adverse social outcome affects disadvantaged and advantaged groups in society differently, the rates at which those groups experience favourable or adverse outcomes tend to be systematically related to the overall prevalence of the outcome. Specifically, as the overall prevalence of that outcome reduces (e.g. as a result of a policy measure or social improvement), the adverse outcome may be found to reduce proportionately less among the group with the higher baseline rate (call it the ‘disadvantaged’ group), while concomitantly, the rate of avoiding the unfavourable outcome rises proportionately less in the other (‘advantaged’) group. The propensity for this to happen was first noticed by James P. Scanlan, and is sometimes referred to as Scanlan's Rule. The Rule might be seen as calling into question standard measurement devices for characterizing groups as being relatively disadvantaged or advantaged, and as suggesting that a concern for group inequality could stymie the possibility of social progress. This chapter undertakes a critical examination of how convincing these interpretations of Scanlan’s Rule are.
This chapter addresses the moral justifiability of some of the international legal rules that govern cross-border trade. The primary focus is on the moral standards that ought to be used to critically evaluate those rules or proposals for their reform. Thus the chapter investigates several moral arguments for free trade, such as the claim that it provides an especially effective mechanism for alleviating poverty, and several arguments in defense of restrictions or conditions on trade, including the moral permissible of partiality to compatriots and the right of those who cooperate to make international trade possible to a fair share of the benefits it yields. The chapter concludes with an examination of the argument that the import and consumption of oil and other natural resources from countries ruled by tyrants constitutes trade in stolen goods, a violation of existing international law.