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Taking such a stance inevitably shifts the analysis towards production or some soteriological notion of knowledge. Instead, I point to the relevant issues of practical choices: situations (which are not just exhausted by known distributions or unreflected habits or routines but which require constant attention to surprises) to the temporality ofchoice in which present, past, and future interact that explode the intentional paradigm of action) and the issues of judgement (Kant’s Urteilskraft), which is a critical ability but does not coincide with algorithms or of testing theoretical propositions but which can be acquired only by acting within the social world, or as Hume had it is acquired by ‘commerce and conversation’ rather than by observation from an ideal standpoint.
Chapter 7 continues our examination of the Discussion stage (Stage 3) of the 4D Framework, aiming to better understand what people actually verbally express in political conversations. We use a series of vignette experiments and a lab experiment to examine the extent to which people express their true opinions to the group, or engage in other expressive behaviors like self-censorship, silencing, or conformity. We find lab experimental evidence of conformity in real conversations and our vignette experiments revealed that individuals were less likely to reveal their real opinions when they were in the political minority and when they were less knowledgeable. We also find that individuals who were less knowledgeable were more likely to have affiliation concerns that explained their expression behavior. Finally, we analyzed the transcripts from the conversations in the Psychophysiological Experience Study to examine variation in what and how individuals discussed politics. We found that weak partisans were most likely to "hedge" their language when revealing their opinions and political identities.
This book brings together the key scholars in the international practice debate to demonstrate its strengths as an innovative research perspective. The contributions show the benefit of practice theories in the study of phenomena in international security, international political economy and international organisation, by directing attention to concrete and observable everyday practices that shape international outcomes. The chapters exemplify the cross-overs and relations to other theoretical approaches, and thereby establish practice theories as a distinct IR perspective. Each chapter investigates a key concept that plays an important role in international relations theory, such as power, norms, knowledge, change or cognition. Taken together, the authors make a strong case that practice theories allow to ask new questions, direct attention to uncommon empirical material, and reach different conclusions about international relations phenomena. The book is a must read for anyone interested in recent international relations theory and the actual practices of doing global politics.
The Lactation at Work Law not only provided more leverage and legitimacy to lactating employees and their allies, but it also created opportunities for critical educational conversations between employees and their managers that shifted how certain managers approached workplace lactation. These managers moralized the law by framing compliance through a morality of child health. This framing shifted to include a morality focus because their lactating employees not only taught them about the health benefits of breastfeeding but also modeled their ideological commitment to workplace lactation. Compliance motivated by morality rather than managerial goals might better establish lactation accommodations within the cultural of the organization over time. Yet, these crucial educational conversations were most likely to happen where lactating employees had enough-but-not-too-much power. Where time and space accommodations were adequate or workers had autonomy and private space so they did not need accommodations, no discussion between worker and manager was needed. And where workers had insufficient power within the organization that they could not approach managers with problems, no discussion could happen. Thus, the lactation accommodations might become best established in those organizations in which lactating workers experienced some problems, but not too many difficulties.
For Borges, English literature was the richest in the world, and he came across the Romantics as a boy. Neither Wordsworth nor Byron appealed much, but Keats impressed him as the greatest lyrical poet in the English language, and he wrote ’Keats’s Nightingale’ (1952), which is a significant essay. Borges had an ambiguous relationship with Coleridge, and he penned ’Coleridge’s Flower’, using it as an occasion to attack authorial individuality. ’Coleridge’s Dream’ echoes ’Tlon, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius’ in its treatment of the idea that idealist objects can invade our world. Finally, with De Quincey Borges shared the view that everything in the world was a mirror of the universe, or a set of symbols; De Quincey also provided him with a style or grammar of writing.