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This study aimed to analyse a three-dimensional transcanal transpromontorial approach to the internal auditory canal using three-dimensional computed tomography.
This study was a retrospective investigation of 48 ears of 24 patients using three-dimensional reconstruction data from normal temporal bone computed tomography. The inner structures of the temporal bone were three-dimensionally reconstructed. Eight points were marked in the three-dimensional object with reference to the axial, coronal and sagittal plane images of the computed tomography scans. Distances and angles to each point were measured from the oval and round windows.
The point of the facial nerve from the internal auditory canal to the labyrinthine segment could be traced between the cochlear apex and the geniculate ganglion based on the oval window.
This technique helps with identifying the locations of important surgical landmarks using three-dimensional reconstructions of pre-operative computed tomography scans and to identify the facial nerve from the internal auditory canal during surgery.
Trauma is the leading cause of death in the Western world. Trauma systems have been paramount in opposing this problem. Commonly, Level 1 Trauma Centers are staffed by in-house (IH) attending trauma surgeons available 24/7, whereas other institutions function on an on-call (OC) basis with defined response times. There is on-going debate about the value of an IH attending trauma surgeon compared to OC trauma surgeons regarding clinical outcome.
This study was performed at a tertiary care facility complying with all requirements to be a designated Level 1 Trauma Center as defined by the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACSCOT). Inclusion occurred from January 1, 2012 through December 31, 2013. Patients were assigned an identifier for IH trauma surgeon attendance versus OC attendance. The primary outcome variable studied was overall mortality in relation to IH or OC attending trauma surgeons. Additionally, time to operating theater, hospital length-of-stay (HLOS), and intensive care unit (ICU) admittance were investigated.
A total of 1,287 unique trauma cases in 1,285 patients were presented to the trauma team. Of all cases, 712 (55.3%) occurred between 1700h and 0800h. These 712 cases were treated by an IH attending in 66.3% (n = 472) and an OC attending in 33.7% (n = 240). In the group of patients treated by an IH attending trauma surgeon, the overall mortality rate was 5.5% (n = 26); in the group treated by an OC attending, the overall mortality rate was 4.6% (n = 11; P = .599). Cause of death was traumatic brain injury (TBI) in 57.6%. No significant difference was found in the time between initial presentation at the trauma room and arrival in the operating theater.
In terms of trauma-related mortality during non-office hours, no benefit was demonstrated through IH trauma surgeons compared to OC trauma surgeons.
This study investigated the relationship between physical dimensions of the Eustachian tube and the emergence of primary attic cholesteatoma.
A total of 31 patients with unilateral attic cholesteatoma were selected for radiological comparison. Standard point measurements as well as specific measurements were performed using imaging software. The length, narrowest diameter and bony segment volume, and pharyngeal orifice diameter of both sides of the Eustachian tube (attic cholesteatoma and healthy control ears) were measured and compared.
Comparison of the values did not reveal any statistically significant difference between the attic cholesteatoma ears and the healthy control ears in terms of: Eustachian tube height, narrowest diameter, bony segment volume or pharyngeal orifice diameter.
No statistically significant difference was found between the cholesteatoma ears and the healthy control ears in terms of the osseous Eustachian tube size. The findings indicate that the Eustachian tube bony segment dimensions and pharyngeal orifice diameter are not factors in attic cholesteatoma development.
Malnutrition and sarcopenia are prevalent in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Pre-treatment sarcopenia and adverse oncological outcomes in this population are well described. The impact of myosteatosis and post-treatment sarcopenia is less well known. Patients with HNSCC (n = 125) undergoing chemoradiotherapy, radiotherapy alone and/or surgery were assessed for sarcopenia and myosteatosis, using cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) imaging at the third lumbar (L3) vertebra, at baseline and 3 months post-treatment. Outcomes were overall survival (OS) at 12 months and 5 years post-treatment. One hundred and one participants had a CT scan evaluable at one or two time points, of which sixty-seven (66 %) participants were sarcopenic on at least one time point. Reduced muscle attenuation affected 93 % (n = 92) pre-treatment compared with 97 % (n = 90) post-treatment. Five-year OS favoured those without post-treatment sarcopenia (hazard ratio, HR 0·37, 95 % CI 0·16, 0·88, P = 0·06) and those without both post-treatment myosteatosis and sarcopenia (HR 0·33, 95 % CI 0·13, 0·83, P = 0·06). Overall, rates of myosteatosis were high at both pre- and post-treatment time points. Post-treatment sarcopenia was associated with worse 5-year OS, as was post-treatment sarcopenia in those who had myosteatosis. Post-treatment sarcopenia should be evaluated as an independent risk factor for decreased long-term survival post-treatment containing radiotherapy (RT) for HNSCC.
Iatrogenic tracheal rupture is an unusual and severe complication that can be caused by tracheal intubation. The frequency, management, and outcome of iatrogenic tracheal rupture due to prehospital emergency intubation in adults by emergency response physicians has not yet been sufficiently explored.
Adult patients with iatrogenic tracheal ruptures due to prehospital emergency intubation admitted to an academic referral center over a 15-year period (2004-2018) with consideration of individual risk factors were analyzed.
Thirteen patients (eight female) with a mean age of 67 years met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Of these, eight tracheal ruptures (62%) were caused during the airway management of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Stylet use and difficult laryngoscopy requiring multiple attempts were documented in eight cases (62%) and four cases (30%), respectively. Seven patients (54%) underwent surgery, while six patients (46%) were treated conservatively. The overall 30-day mortality was 46%; five patients died due to their underlying emergencies and one patient died of tracheal rupture. Three survivors (23%) recovered with severe neurological sequelae and four (30%) were discharged in good neurological condition. Survivors had significantly smaller mean rupture sizes (2.7cm versus 6.3cm; P <.001) and less cutaneous emphysema (n = 2 versus n = 6; P = .021) than nonsurvivors.
Iatrogenic tracheal rupture due to prehospital emergency intubation is a rare complication. Published risk factors are not consistently present and may not be applicable to identify patients at high risk, especially not in rescue situations. Treatment options depend on individual patient condition, whereas outcome largely depends on the underlying disease and rupture extension.
To evaluate comparative dosimetry of brachytherapy treatment planning between a volume-based plan by computed tomography (CT) and a point-based plan by transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) in CT datasets for brachytherapy.
Materials and methods:
From 2019 to 2021, 59 different datasets of CT images were collected from 38 patients treated by intracavitary brachytherapy with tandem ovoid or tandem ring applicators. At that time, TAUS was performed to prevent uterine perforation and to evaluate topography of the cervix during application. In volume-based planning by CT, the target dose was used to keep the dose at 90% of high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV), to give a dose of at least 7Gy, while in the point-based plan by TAUS, the target dose was used to keep the minimum dose to eight cervix reference points (measured by TAUS), to give a dose of at least 7Gy. The doses to targets and organs at risk were evaluated and compared between volume-based planning by CT and the point-based plan by TAUS.
Of 59 fractions, a tandem ovoid applicator was used in 48 fractions (81·3%). In the volume-based plan by CT, the mean doses to HR-CTV(D90), intermediate-risk clinical target volume (IR-CTV)(D90), bladder(D2cc), rectum(D2cc) and sigmoid colon(D2cc) were 7·0, 3·9, 4·9, 2·9 and 3·3 Gy, respectively, while in the point-based plan by TAUS, the mean doses to HR-CTV(D90), IR-CTV(D90), bladder(D2cc), rectum(D2cc) and sigmoid colon(D2cc) were 8·2, 4·6, 5·9, 3·4 and 3·9 Gy, respectively. The percentages of mean dose differences between TAUS and CT of HR-CTV(D90), IR-CTV(D90), bladder(D2cc), rectum(D2cc) and sigmoid colon(D2cc) were 17·7, 19·5, 20·5, 19·5, 21·3 and 19·8%, respectively. With the target dose to the point-based plan by TAUS (7 Gy to the cervix reference points), this was close to D98 of HR-CTV with a mean percentage of difference of 0·6%.
The point-based plan by TAUS showed higher values to targets and organs at risk than the volume-based plan by CT. With the point-based plan by TAUS, it was close to D98 of HR-CTV.
Odontogenic sinusitis is a common cause of rhinosinusitis that is often undiagnosed and overlooked. No single sign or symptom is specific for odontogenic sinusitis, and failure to focus on the specific radiological features can delay diagnosis.
This paper presents four cases of chronic sinusitis that had an odontogenic origin. Each case was referred for a second opinion. Three patients had previously undergone unsuccessful surgical management.
The literature, and the associated contributory clinical, radiological and microbiological features required for correct diagnosis and management, are reviewed.
Each case resulted in a positive patient outcome following the involvement of both otolaryngology and maxillofacial surgery departments.
A high index of suspicion is advocated for odontogenic sinusitis in cases not responding to standard management plans. Collaboration with a maxillofacial specialist is important for diagnosis and management. This should be considered where standard management fails, or clinical features and radiological signs of odontogenic sinusitis are present. This paper also highlights the need for otolaryngologists to incorporate, at the very least, a basic dental history and examination as part of their assessment in recalcitrant cases.
To determine the accuracy of 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in identifying the bony defect in superior semi-circular canal dehiscence syndrome.
A retrospective case–control study was conducted in tertiary university settings. The study included 12 patients with a definite diagnosis of superior semi-circular canal dehiscence syndrome and a control group comprising 12 non-superior semi-circular canal dehiscence syndrome patients, all with available magnetic resonance imaging data. The imaging scans were anonymised, and reviewed blindly and independently by three experienced radiologists.
There was low sensitivity and specificity, with average values of 47 per cent (range, 16.7–66.7 per cent) and 69 per cent (range, 66.7–75 per cent) respectively. Cohen's kappa was 0.75, indicating substantial inter-rater reliability.
Given the low accuracy of 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging in identifying the bony defect in superior semi-circular canal dehiscence syndrome, despite its value in inner-ear imaging, computed tomography or equivalent should be used when superior semi-circular canal dehiscence syndrome is suspected.
Heart injuries usually occur due to penetrating or blunt traumas. High mortality rates are seen in heart injuries, owing to firearms and cutting/piercing tools. Factors such as the degree of injury, its localization, and the length of time to reach the hospital influence mortality rates. Despite the increase in imaging facilities and improvements in hospital transportation in today’s conditions, high mortality rates are still observed, owing to causes such as sudden blood loss, cardiac arrest, or cardiac tamponade. The present study aimed to present the successful treatment of a 46-year-old male patient with injuries to the left atrium and posterior wall of the left ventricle due to a gunshot wound using the approach of median sternotomy and peripheral cannulation.
There has been a recent deluge of coronavirus disease 2019 associated mucormycosis in our country. It affects the paranasal sinuses; however, it has a rapid extrasinus progression (the orbit being most common), which can be fatal if not detected early. It may meander into the orbit through various foramina without frank bone destruction.
This paper reviews the various gateways of the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 associated mucormycosis to the orbit, even before advent of bone destruction or ocular symptoms. Plausible pathways of invasion and subtle imaging findings are depicted, to enable an early diagnosis.
Relevant anatomy and imaging examples have been illustrated to familiarise the surgeons with various routes of coronavirus disease 2019 associated mucormycosis spread to the orbit. Emphasis is laid on searching for subtle imaging findings for the detection of early orbital invasion.
Early detection and extension of coronavirus disease 2019 associated mucormycosis is facilitated by knowledge of its gateways of spread, which aids the surgeon in prognostication and planning of the surgical approach.
This study evaluated the effects of the diameter of facial canal segments on the ipsilateral recurrence of idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis.
This study enrolled 20 patients with ipsilateral recurrent idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis. Measurements were made at the meatal foramen and mid-level of the labyrinthine segment and the narrowest and widest diameters of the mastoid and tympanic segments using the curved planar reformation technique with high-resolution computed tomography.
The diameters of the labyrinthine segment measured at the meatal foramen and mid-level segments and the narrowest and widest diameters of the tympanic and mastoid segments on the recurrent paralytic side were significantly smaller than the diameters of the segments on the healthy side.
The narrowness of the facial canal segments may be a risk factor in recurrent idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis.
Pneumothorax remains an important cause of preventable trauma death. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize the recent evidence on the efficacy, patient outcomes, and adverse events of different chest decompression approaches relevant to the out-of-hospital setting.
A comprehensive literature search was performed using five databases (from January 1, 2014 through June 15, 2020). To be considered eligible, studies required to report original data on decompression of suspected or proven traumatic pneumothorax and be considered relevant to the prehospital context. They also required to be conducted mostly on an adult population (expected more than ≥80% of the population ≥16 years old) of patients. Needle chest decompression (NCD), finger thoracostomy (FT), and tube thoracostomy were considered. No meta-analysis was performed. Level of evidence was assigned using the Harbour and Miller system.
A total of 1,420 citations were obtained by the search strategy, of which 20 studies were included. Overall, the level of evidence was low. Eleven studies reported on the efficacy and patient outcomes following chest decompression. The most studied technique was NCD (n = 7), followed by FT (n = 5). Definitions of a successful chest decompression were heterogeneous. Subjective improvement following NCD ranged between 18% and 86% (n = 6). Successful FT was reported for between 9.7% and 32.0% of interventions following a traumatic cardiac arrest. Adverse events were infrequently reported. Nine studies presented only on anatomical measures with predicted failure and success. The mean anterior chest wall thickness (CWT) was larger than the lateral CWT in all studies except one. The predicted success rate of NCD ranged between 90% and 100% when using needle >7cm (n = 7) both for the lateral and anterior approaches. The reported risk of iatrogenic injuries was higher for the lateral approach, mostly on the left side because of the proximity with the heart.
Based on observational studies with a low level of evidence, prehospital NCD should be performed using a needle >7cm length with either a lateral or anterior approach. While FT is an interesting diagnostic and therapeutic approach, evidence on the success rates and complications is limited. High-quality studies are required to determine the optimal chest decompression approach applicable in the out-of-hospital setting.
San Francisco (California USA) is a relatively compact city with a population of 884,000 and nine stroke centers within a 47 square mile area. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) transport distances and times are short and there are currently no Mobile Stroke Units (MSUs).
This study evaluated EMS activation to computed tomography (CT [EMS-CT]) and EMS activation to thrombolysis (EMS-TPA) times for acute stroke in the first two years after implementation of an emergency department (ED) focused, direct EMS-to-CT protocol entitled “Mission Protocol” (MP) at a safety net hospital in San Francisco and compared performance to published reports from MSUs. The EMS times were abstracted from ambulance records. Geometric means were calculated for MP data and pooled means were similarly calculated from published MSU data.
From July 2017 through June 2019, a total of 423 patients with suspected stroke were evaluated under the MP, and 166 of these patients were either ultimately diagnosed with ischemic stroke or were treated as a stroke but later diagnosed as a stroke mimic. The EMS and treatment time data were available for 134 of these patients with 61 patients (45.5%) receiving thrombolysis, with mean EMS-CT and EMS-TPA times of 41 minutes (95% CI, 39-43) and 63 minutes (95% CI, 57-70), respectively. The pooled estimates for MSUs suggested a mean EMS-CT time of 35 minutes (95% CI, 27-45) and a mean EMS-TPA time of 48 minutes (95% CI, 39-60). The MSUs achieved faster EMS-CT and EMS-TPA times (P <.0001 for each).
In a moderate-sized, urban setting with high population density, MP was able to achieve EMS activation to treatment times for stroke thrombolysis that were approximately 15 minutes slower than the published performance of MSUs.
Shock is the leading cause of death in multi-trauma patients and must be detected at an early stage to improve prognosis. Many parameters are used to predict clinical condition and outcome in trauma. Computed tomography (CT) signs of hypovolemic shock in trauma patients are not clear yet, requiring further research. The flatness index of inferior vena cava (IVC) is a helpful method for this purpose.
This is a prospective, cross-sectional study which included adult multi-trauma patients (>18 years) who were admitted to the emergency department (ED) and underwent a thoraco-abdominal CT from 2017 through 2018. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether the flatness index of IVC can be used to determine the hypovolemic shock at an early stage in multi-trauma patients, and to establish its relations with shock parameters. The patients’ demographic features, trauma mechanisms, vitals, laboratory values, shock parameters, and clinical outcome within 24 hours of admission were recorded.
Total of 327 (229 males with an average age of 40.9 [SD = 7.93]) patients were included in the study. There was no significant difference in the flatness index of IVC within genders (P = .134) and trauma mechanisms (P = .701); however, the flatness index of IVC was significantly higher in hypotensive (systolic blood pressure [SBP] ≤90 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure [DBP] ≤60 mmHg; P = .015 and P = .019), tachycardic (P = .049), and hypoxic (SpO2 ≤%94; P <.001) patients. The flatness index of IVC was also higher in patients with lactate ≥ 2mmol/l (P = .043) and patients with Class III hemorrhage (P = .003). A positive correlation was determined between lactate level and the flatness index of IVC; a negative correlation was found between Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Revised Trauma Score (RTS) with the flatness index of IVC (for each of them, P <.05).
The flatness index of IVC may be a useful method to determine the hypovolemic shock at an early stage in multi-trauma patients.
For materials characterization, obtaining insight through 3D imaging has been extremely helpful in improving our understanding of complex systems. X-ray computed tomography (CT) has proven to be an extremely useful technique in this field, allowing for non-destructive interrogation of samples of all types across many length scales. In this article we look at how micro-CT is moving from static 3D imaging into the realm of 4D data collection through dynamic CT, where CT data are collected on samples undergoing change in an uninterrupted matter.
Body composition measurement using diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans has emerged as a method to assess sarcopenia (low muscle mass) in oncology patients. Assessment of skeletal muscle mass (SMM) using the cross-sectional area of a single vertebral slice (at lumbar L3) in a CT scan is correlated with whole-body skeletal muscle volume. This method is used to assess CT-defined sarcopenia in patients with cancer, with low SMM effecting outcomes. However, as diagnostic scans are based on tumour location, not all include L3. We evaluated the evidence for the use of alternate vertebral CT slices for SMM evaluation when L3 is not available. Five electronic databases were searched from January 1996 to April 2020 for studies using CT scan vertebral slices above L3 for SM measurement in adults with cancer (solid tumours). Validation with whole-body SMM, rationale for the chosen slice and sarcopenia cut-off values were investigated. Thirty-two studies were included, all retrospective and cross-sectional in design. Cervical, thoracic and lumbar slices were used (from C3 to L1), with no validation of whole-body SMM using CT scans. Alternate slices were used in lung, and head and neck cancer patients. Sarcopenia cut-off values were reported in 75 % of studies, with differing methods, with or without sex-specific values, and a lack of consensus. Current evidence is inadequate to provide definitive recommendations for alternate vertebral slice use for SMM evaluation in cancer patients. Variation in sarcopenia cut-offs warrants more robust investigation, in order for risk stratification to be applied to all patients with cancer.
To determine the incidence of nasolacrimal duct injury after functional endoscopic sinus surgery radiologically, using computed tomography.
Fifty patients of either sex who underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery were evaluated for nasolacrimal duct injury by computed tomography. Computed tomography was conducted pre-operatively, and post-operatively at the end of four weeks, and nasolacrimal duct injury was analysed.
The prevalence of nasolacrimal duct injury dehiscence was 1.16 per cent, with a similar incidence of 1.16 per cent for nasolacrimal duct injury post-operatively. However, no cases of symptomatic nasolacrimal duct injury were recorded.
Computed tomography scan is an effective, non-invasive method to evaluate nasolacrimal duct injury following functional endoscopic sinus surgery, in accordance with evidence-based medicine.
South Asians, who are at a disproportionately greater risk of atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD), represent a rapidly growing population in the USA. The relationship between dairy products, a major component of South Asian diets, and body composition – an established risk factor for ASCVD, is unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine associations between dairy intake and multiple measures of body composition (BMI, waist and hip circumference, waist:hip ratio, abdominal lean mass, subcutaneous, visceral, and intermuscular fat areas) among South Asian adults in the USA. A baseline analysis was conducted using existing data from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America cohort. In women, the highest (>1·9 servings/d) v. lowest (<1 serving/d) tertile of dairy intake was associated with 53 % lower odds of a waist circumference >80 cm (95 % CI 0·25, 0·89, Pfor trend<0·05). No associations were observed between dairy intake and measures of body composition. However, >3 servings of low-fat yogurt/week was associated with a 9·9 cm2 lower visceral fat area (95 % CI –19·07, –0·72, P<0·05) and 2·3 cm2 lower intermuscular fat area (95 % CI –3·76, –0·79, P<0·05) as compared with those with three servings/week. Milk and cheese were not associated with body composition measures. These analyses suggest that higher consumption of low-fat yogurt is associated with lower visceral and intermuscular fat in the whole sample, and women with higher dairy intake have lower waist circumference. Our study supports dietary incorporation of dairy products, and recognises the utility of multidimensional measures of central adiposity.
Although increased weight, and particularly obesity, has been associated with a more severe clinical course of COVID-19 and risk of fatality, the course of the illness can lead to prolonged length of stay. Changes in nutritional status and weight loss during hospitalisation are largely reported in some populations, but still not explored in COVID-19 patients. Considering that patients with COVID-19 show an increased inflammatory response, other signs and symptoms, which can lead to weight and muscle loss, should be monitored. The aim of this article was to establish possible connections between COVID-19, prolonged hospitalisation and muscle wasting, as well as to propose nutritional recommendations for the prevention and treatment of cachexia, through a narrative review. Identification of risk and presence of malnutrition should be an early step in general assessment of all patients, with regard to more at-risk categories including older adults and individuals suffering from chronic and acute disease conditions, such as COVID-19. The deterioration of nutritional status, and consequently cachexia, increases the risk of mortality and needs to be treated with attention as other complications. There is, however, little hard evidence of nutritional approaches in assisting COVID-19 treatment or its management including cachexia.