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This chapter explores how the idea of “liquid and changeable” fits a new anthropological and psychological theory of body, individual, and relationships, which puts relational complexity in focus. Contemporary theories on relationship are illustrated; these perspectives are particularly helpful for individuals today and for hypermodern families who ask for help.
Companies offer products in different variants to reach more customers. This increases internal variety and cost. However, reducing those cost is difficult due to complexity. Complexity arises from: combinatorics; many design variables interacting with each other; coupling of technical and economical perspectives. This paper presents an approach based on (1) building a complex system model of modular models; (2) identifying the potential for standardization from a technical perspective; (3) cost-optimizing the degree of standardization. A product family of electric vehicles was optimized.
Aircraft vehicle systems enable an aircraft to fly safely throughout a mission. Generating feasible vehicle system architectures at the aircraft concept design phase is complex. Aspects from various complex systems theories are used to provide different insights into this complexity. To address this complexity, a framework based on industrial reality that can used recursively is presented. The framework employs various design theories to harness the complexity of vehicle system design at the concept design phase of an aircraft.
This chapter is an examination of Britten’s engagement with progressive musical and aesthetic thought. As a successful and popular composer, Britten is rarely identified as an ‘avant-garde’ artist, yet his career took note of progressive developments from 1930s neoclassicism to 1970s minimalism. For mid-century critics, Britten was a cosmpolitan figure; more recently, his commitment to tonality argues a ‘reactive modernism’, in dialogue with tradition. Britten’s relations to avant-garde thought involve successive historical contexts. In the 1930s, he sought to study with Berg, wrote experimental film soundtracks, and explored neoclassical parody, without abandoning key tonality. In the 1940s, Britten’s music developed greater metric complexity. Britten’s 1950s catalogue increasingly explores a personal twelve-tone thematic idiom, along with non-European percussion sonorities inspired by renewed encounters with Balinese gamelan. Criticising avant-garde ‘complication’ in the 1960s, Britten tempered public scepticism with personal support for British avant-gardists.
In this section, we discuss fundamental methods, mostly based on gradient information, that yield descent, that is, the function value decreases at each iteration. We start with the most basic method, the steepest-descent method, analyzing its convergence under different convexity/nonconvexity assumptions on the objective function. We then discuss more general descent methods, based on descent directions other than the negative gradient, showing conditions on the search direction and the steplength that allow convergence results to be proved. We also discuss a method that also makes use of Hessian information, showing that it can find a point satisfying approximate second-order optimality conditions and finding an upper bound on the number of iterations required to do so. We then discuss mirror descent, a class of gradient methods based on more general distance metrics that are particularly useful in optimizing over the unit simplex – a problem that arises often in data science. We conclude by discussing the PL condition, a generalization of the strong convexity condition that allows linear convergence rates to be proved.
A complex system is composed of many elements that interact with each other and their environment. The term emergence is used to describe how the large-scale features of the complex system arise from interactions between the components, and these system-level features are called emergent phenomena. This chapter reviews the multidisciplinary study of complex systems in physics, biology, and social sciences. This chapter reviews three topics: first, research on how people learn how to think about complex systems; second, how learning environments themselves can be analyzed as complex systems; and finally, how the analytic methods of complexity science – such as computer modeling – can be applied to the learning sciences. The chapter summarizes challenges and future opportunities for helping students learn about complex systems and for research in the learning sciences that considers educational systems to be complex phenomena.
The complexities of chemical composition and crystal structure are fundamental characteristics of minerals that have high relevance to the understanding of their stability, occurrence and evolution. This review summarises recent developments in the field of mineral complexity and outlines possible directions for its future elaboration. The database of structural and chemical complexity parameters of minerals is updated by H-correction of structures with unknown H positions and the inclusion of new data. The revised average complexity values (arithmetic means) for all minerals are 3.54(2) bits/atom and 345(10) bits/cell (based upon 4443 structure reports). The distributions of atomic information amounts, chemIG and strIG, versus the number of mineral species fit the normal modes, whereas the distributions of total complexities, chemIG,total and strIG,total, along with numbers of atoms per formula and per unit cell are log normal. The three most complex mineral species known today are ewingite, morrisonite and ilmajokite, all either discovered or structurally characterised within the last five years. The most important complexity-generating mechanisms in minerals are: (1) the presence of isolated large clusters; (2) the presence of large clusters linked together to form three-dimensional frameworks; (3) formation of complex three-dimensional modular frameworks; (4) formation of complex modular layers; (5) high hydration state in salts with complex heteropolyhedral units; and (6) formation of ordered superstructures of relatively simple structure types. The relations between symmetry and complexity are considered. The analysis of temporal dynamics of mineralogical discoveries since 1875 with the step of 25 years show the increasing chemical and structural complexities of human knowledge of the mineral kingdom in the history of mineralogy. In the Earth's history, both diversity and complexity of minerals experience dramatic increases associated with the formation of Earth's continental crust, initiation of plate tectonics and the Great Oxidation event.
PM2.5 has more complex sources and formation processes than SO2, creating a greater regulatory challenge. The chapter lays out new policies and standards to curb PM2.5. Shen then uses both satellite-based and officially reported data on PM2.5 concentration to examine its interplay with growth, stability, and regulation. Officially reported data reflect what subordinate leaders wish their superiors to know, while satellite-based data are more objective. The results show that before PM2.5 control entered promotion criteria, local leaders were incentivized to gradually order laxer regulation of polluters during their tenure for social stability and (reported) economic gains, resulting in political pollution waves. However, after certain prefectures’ evaluation criteria incorporated gradually more aggressive PM2.5 reduction, political pollution waves continued based on satellite-based statistics, though officially reported local monitor readings seemed to suggest much-attenuated pollution waves. Thus, changing incentives of local cadres and monitoring was insufficient to dampen PM2.5 pollution waves. The nature and complexity of individual pollutants matter for effective regulation.
In the late Roman Empire, complexity and uncertainty created demand for responsa from the apostolic see. After the eleventh-century papal turn, new legislation and a different society generated new complexities and uncertainties. Decretals were not the only way to resolve them, but given the prominence of the tradition launched by Siricius and Innocent I, they were an obvious way. An unbroken chain of communication links the first and second decretal ages. Late Antiquity and the central Middle Ages need not be kept in separate compartments.
The first and second decretal waves, c. 400 and c. 1200, both responded to unresolved complexities arising from the evolution of separate social systems. In the standard gloss on Gratian, ‘Gloss II’, decretals from the two ages are brought into conjunction. Innocent I’s ruling about pagan marriages was generating thoughtful discussion eight centuries after his death. The standard gloss discusses it together with a decretal of Innocent III. Between Innocent I and Innocent III, the ‘Pauline Privilege’ system emerges clearly into view, taken for granted by Innocent III after an evolution at which for want of evidence we can only guess. How to integrate the earlier Innocent’s ruling with the ‘Pauline Privilege’ system? This is an example of how the horizon of reflection about a text can be enlarged over time, without losing contact with the original meaning, as it is applied in new context and to complex scenarios not originally envisaged.
This article gives an overview of automatic amortized resource analysis (AARA), a technique for inferring symbolic resource bounds for programs at compile time. AARA has been introduced by Hofmann and Jost in 2003 as a type system for deriving linear worst-case bounds on the heap-space consumption of first-order functional programs with eager evaluation strategy. Since then AARA has been the subject of dozens of research articles, which extended the analysis to different resource metrics, other evaluation strategies, non-linear bounds, and additional language features. All these works preserved the defining characteristics of the original paper: local inference rules, which reduce bound inference to numeric (usually linear) optimization; a soundness proof with respect to an operational cost semantics; and the support of amortized analysis with the potential method.
Presents practical tips to help clinicians go from good to great in their approach to older patients. Reviews key skills, knowledge, and attitudes about older people that they probably didn’t learn in their training to add to their approach for better outcomes. Treat the person not the person’s age. Sit down. Talk slowly not loudly. Think broadly not algorithmically. Drugs, drugs, drugs. Go for a walk. Be a team player. Learn about frailty.
An effective, parsimonious way to treat patients who present with comorbid conditions and other complexities is to use process-based, generic CBT employing case conceptualization. This approach allows therapists to assess and target the patient’s maladaptive processes in functioning that may underlie several areas of diagnostic concern, and whose remediation may produce multiple clinical benefits. The case conceptualization serves as a road map to understand the patient’s subjective phenomenology, thus facilitating well-targeted interventions and abetting the therapeutic relationship. The case of Zina demonstrates how the patient’s avoidance strategies and maladaptive schemas played roles in her mood disorder (with suicidality), anxiety, eating disorder, substance use, and purging – and how all of these interfered with her life goals. The therapist prioritized Zina’s safety and attended closely to the therapeutic relationship. The case conceptualization helped illuminate ways to enhance Zina’s participation in treatment (including pharmacotherapy). Eighty sessions produced positive results.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and exposure and response prevention (E/RP) remain the treatments of choice for OCD, but for many clients outcomes are suboptimal. In the first part of this chapter, we present the CBT approach to OCD, alongside four promising areas to inform and refine current interventions, namely, optimizing E/RP with inhibitory learning principles; understanding complexity in OCD, differences in disgust, and harm avoidance; and using imagery rescripting for clients with intrusive images. In the second part, we provide an updated CBT and E/RP approach to OCD that integrates these areas into the standard assessment and treatment protocol. The approach emphasizes the importance of a clear developmental formulation with links of past relevant experiences to current OCD, and understanding the context, function, and unintended consequences of obsessions and compulsions. OCD measures and screening tools are introduced.
Transforming towards global sustainability requires a dramatic acceleration of social change. Hence, there is growing interest in finding ‘positive tipping points’ at which small interventions can trigger self-reinforcing feedbacks that accelerate systemic change. Examples have recently been seen in power generation and personal transport, but how can we identify positive tipping points that have yet to occur? We synthesise theory and examples to provide initial guidelines for creating enabling conditions, sensing when a system can be positively tipped, who can trigger it, and how they can trigger it. All of us can play a part in triggering positive tipping points.
Recent work on positive tipping points towards sustainability has focused on social-technological systems and the agency of policymakers to tip change, whilst earlier work identified social-ecological positive feedbacks triggered by diverse actors. We bring these together to consider positive tipping points across social-technological-ecological systems and the potential for multiple actors and interventions to trigger them. Established theory and examples provide several generic mechanisms for triggering tipping points. From these we identify specific enabling conditions, reinforcing feedbacks, actors and interventions that can contribute to triggering positive tipping points in the adoption of sustainable behaviours and technologies. Actions that can create enabling conditions for positive tipping include targeting smaller populations, altering social network structure, providing relevant information, reducing price, improving performance, desirability and accessibility, and coordinating complementary technologies. Actions that can trigger positive tipping include social, technological and ecological innovations, policy interventions, public investment, private investment, broadcasting public information, and behavioural nudges. Positive tipping points can help counter widespread feelings of disempowerment in the face of global challenges and help unlock ‘paralysis by complexity’. A key research agenda is to consider how different agents and interventions can most effectively work together to create system-wide positive tipping points whilst ensuring a just transformation.
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We identify key actors and actions that can enable and trigger positive tipping points towards global sustainability.
It is important to be able to name the plants and animals in one’s environment, but knowing the names does not in and of itself advance the study of ecology. Frank Rigler argued that the species-oriented approach to studying ecology is intractable simply because of the time it would take to obtain enough information on each species to generalize to the community scale. Life on Earth can be named (or classified) in two complementary ways, using phylogeny and functional traits. Trait matrices provide the raw material for trait-based ecology. Compilations and screening are two distinct sources of data for trait matrices. Compilation of traits across studies is an important way of generating data for global-scale synthesis. Screening traits of local communities in the field or under standard conditions is the most effective way of generating quality data for local communities.
How do actors construct complexity? This chapter looks at the ways and extent of influence by epistemic communities and communities of practice in shaping the global agenda on environmental governance, in the shadow of concerns about complexity. Employing Emanuel Adler’s new theoretical framework it argues that environmental governance has emerged through a process of cognitive evolution heavily shaped by epistemic communities.
Research on complementizer selection has shown that the presence of a negative particle in a subordinate complement clause influences complement choice, leading to a relatively higher proportion of finite complementation patterns by increasing the complexity of the syntactic environment. Studies have also shown that different types of negation, namely not- and no-negation, increase the tendency towards more explicit complementation options (Rohdenburg 2015). The current study focuses on the effect of not- and no-negation on the complementation profile of the verb regret, which allows variation between finite that/zero-complement clauses and nonfinite (S) -ing clauses. The GloWbE corpus was used to create a data set of more than 4,000 examples from 16 varieties of English. The results of the analysis support previous findings that the presence of a negative marker in the complement clause increases the preference for finite patterns, especially in L2 varieties of English. However, contrary to the expectations of this study, no-negation was found to have a stronger effect on complement choice than not-negation.
Chapter 7 introduces the subject matter of artificial complexity. First, it presents examples of artificial complexity by means of cellular automata. It presents one-dimensional cellular automata following Wolfram’s rules, and a two-dimensional cellular automaton in the form of a spatial evolutionary game. Then it introduces the concepts of complexity and emergence, as used in the science of complexity, and discusses some issues related to their definition and measurement. Finally, it discusses the scope and controversies around the application of the concepts and models of the science of complexity in economics.