To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The notion of collapse and its importance in geotechnical engineering is introduced. The two main approaches are explained: (i) stress fields that fulfil the Mohr–Coulomb limit condition (together with slip line analysis as an application of the method of characteristics) and (ii) analysis of collapse mechanisms consisting of rigid blocks. The harmonisation of codes and the problematic definition of safety on the basis of probability theory are discussed.
Can we regain our humanness? Considering the massive loss of the natural world, the impending effects of climate change, staggering inequality, and the power of the elite, it may be impossible to avoid a dystopian future. Nevertheless, many scenarios for the future are possible, including a prolonged or sudden collapse, a new optimist paradise, or a decentralized golden age of barbarism. I argue that a plausible future is a return to a hunting and gathering way of life as the coming climate instability and the exhaustion of accessible fossil fuels make agriculture impossible. If there is cause for optimism, it lies in our deep evolutionary past. Selfishness and exploitation are no more a part of human nature than cooperation and caring about others and the natural world. If we are to avoid a dystopian future, we need a collective political movement to challenge the ultrasocial status quo and its defenders. Individual action is not enough.
In this book, Catherine E. Pratt explores how oil and wine became increasingly entangled in Greek culture, from the Late Bronze Age to the Archaic period. Using ceramic, architectural, and archaeobotanical data, she argues that Bronze Age exchange practices initiated a strong network of dependency between oil and wine production, and the people who produced, exchanged, and used them. After the palatial collapse, these prehistoric connections intensified during the Iron Age and evolved into the large-scale industries of the Classical period. Pratt argues that oil and wine in pre-Classical Greece should be considered 'cultural commodities', products that become indispensable for proper social and economic exchanges well beyond economic advantage. Offering a detailed diachronic account of the changing roles of surplus oil and wine in the economies of pre-classical Greek societies, her book contributes to a broader understanding of the complex interconnections between agriculture, commerce, and culture in the ancient Mediterranean.
Chapter 6 discusses the effects of disasters. It distinguishes between effects in the immediate aftermath of the disaster – mortality and demographic recovery; land loss and capital destruction; economic crisis; and blame, scapegoating, and social unrest – and longer-term structural consequences – societal collapse; economic reconstruction; long-term demographic change; reconstruction, reform, and social changes; and redistribution of resources. This chapter argues that disasters, even similar ones, did not always produce homogeneous outcomes. Furthermore, rather than being totally damaging or even controversially regarded as a ‘force for good’, the effects of disasters are best assessed by making a basic distinction between the aggregate level and the distributive level: disasters could be instrumentalized to benefit a certain segment of a given population over others.
This contribution argues that the concept of protean power opens a space to think about the limits of control and knowledge about catastrophic possibilities such as nuclear war. To do so, it offers the first distinctive definition of nuclear luck, which has long been acknowledged by policy and military leaders but remains unaccounted for in scholarship. It further shows that the nuclear realm is defined by two key unknowables. However, it argues that protean power perpetuates a survivability bias which has characterized scholarship so far, before suggesting ways to overcome that bias and modify scholarly ethos to acknowledge such catastrophic possibilities.
To bring our examination of primary sources in Part II to a close we come to a special chapter – more of an extended case study – that deals with the demise of Classic Maya society. It is difficult to address such a profoundly complex and still far from comprehended topic in brief, but it is important to appreciate the ways in which the epigraphic record can contribute to our understanding. Indeed, it will be argued here that the texts are a valuable and underestimated resource in this regard.
Several possible “future scenarios” and implementation pathways lead to significant UN and global governance reform. The “rational trajectory” would involve international governments, responding to well-mapped and emerging crises, convening a UN Charter review conference to adopt changes such as those proposed in this book. In a “business as usual” trajectory, governments would do “too little too late,” with insufficient leadership for the reforms necessary to navigate current and emerging crises. Such a “drift” scenario is a recipe for inevitable disaster, with uncertain economic, ecological and human costs. Rebuilding after major global disaster(s) is a third scenario, if, for example, the world stumbles into war, or the Earth shifts into a worst-case “hothouse” scenario due to unchecked climate change. Finally, this chapter explores some immediate steps the international community could take, including; reopening a serious and wide-ranging debate on the need for revision of the UN Charter, with a coalition of like-minded governments not allowing the threat of the use of the veto to stymie debate and action; and effecting priority reforms as soon as possible, including, for example, the establishment of a World Parliamentary Assembly, and enhanced international action to address effectively climate change.
The chapter explores the collapse of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 in the Contested Region. The overland Underground Railroad networks in the region were quickly being bypassed by the railroad transportation in the 1850s. Nevertheless, the high-profile fugitive rescues in the Free Soil Region convinced slave catchers that their efforts were better focused farther south, and as a result slave catching accelerated in the Contested Region in the middle and late 1850s. This led to a series of confrontations in which the behavior of the slave catchers and accompanying US Marshals was egregiously violent. Attempts by local and state authorities to bring the assailants to justice were frustrated by federal judges who fully sanctioned their recourse to the violence of mastery. These cases rendered the region’s conditional toleration of slave catching untenable. The result was a striking shift in the culture of violence as the region embraced the outright defiance that had long characterized Free Soil communities. As a consequence, in the late 1850s, the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act collapsed outside the narrow strip of territory that comprised the Borderland.
From its emergence in the mid-nineteenth century, decadence has been, fundamentally, a socio-cultural response to urban modernity. Indeed, decadence is all but unthinkable outside the borders of the modern metropolis. Hence this chapter treats literature less as a literary critic would and more as an urbanist thinker might. An urbanist reading of a decadent text must perforce pay attention not only to urban geography, including the plan of the city in which the work is set, its dominant architectural styles, socio-economic differences in neighborhoods, and so on, but also to the cultural, social, and psychological meanings that the urban setting produces in a particular decadent text. In this essay, the urbanist approach is brought to bear on three novels whose urban geography is especially significant to their respective narratives: Gabriele D’Annunzio’s Il Piacere [Pleasure] (1889), Oscar Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891), and Thomas Mann’s Der Tod in Venedig [Death in Venice] (1912). These three works illustrate, respectively, the special relationship of the urban scene to cultural, social, and psychological issues germane to the decadent narrative of each novel.
This chapter focuses on decadence not as a supposed literary revolution culminating in modernism but as a continuity in the adoption of poetic subject-matter of a particular kind, namely, the fates of empires and civilisations, especially their fragility, decline, and disintegration. In works of such non-modernist poets as Rudyard Kipling and W. H. Auden the decadent tradition persists under new twentieth-century conditions, not by echoing Baudelairean moods or manners but by rediscovering and reworking the underlying historical myth of the Decadence—the decline and fall of the Roman Empire, considered explicitly or implicitly as the model for the fates of all later empires. In the half-century considered here, 1897–1947, world events pressed collapsing empires to the attention of writers on an unprecedented scale. At such an epoch Kipling, Auden, and others came forward with boldly ‘prophetic’ visions of a world order that they suggest, by reading the symptoms and auguries of the times, is undergoing general collapse.
A geomorphic investigation of the Salinas de Oro salt diapir in the Pyrenees reveals that the ring fracture pattern related to the karstic collapse of the diapir crest may vary significantly depending on the rates of dissolution and salt flow, and the rheology of the overburden. The salt diapir has well-developed concentric faults related to salt dissolution subsidence throughout the Quaternary. Roof strata accommodate subsidence by a combination of downward sagging and brittle collapse leading to the development of a ring monocline that is broken by 5 to 20 m throw conjugated normal faults and a 40 m throw, 9.5-km-long and 200-m-wide keystone graben. The salt diapir top has >100-m-long sinkholes that coalesce to form hollows >70 m deep. Up to 3-km-long radial grabens with a 70 to 90 m vertical throw overprint concentric-ring faulting and displace Quaternary deposits demonstrating active salt flow and diapir rise. Radial faults are linked with salt-withdrawal faults of the Andia Fault Zone (AFZ). Salt flow from the AFZ into the Salinas de Oro salt diapir causes brittle gravitational extension of limestone strata leading to a sequence of grabens and Quaternary faults >10 km long and several hundred meters deep.
What is realism in film? Focusing on a test case of High Frame Rate (HFR) high-definition movies, I discuss in this article various types of realism as well as their inter-relations. Precision, recessiveness of the medium, transparency, and ‘Collapse’ are discussed and compared. At the end of the day, I defend the claim that ‘less is more’ in the sense that more image precision can actually have a negative impact on storytelling.
We examine the “tropical storm” hypothesis that precipitation variability in the Yucatan Peninsula (YP) was linked to the frequency of tropical cyclones during the demise of the Classic Maya civilization, in the Terminal Classic Period (TCP, AD 750—950). Evidence that supports the hypothesis includes: (1) a positive relationship between tropical storm frequency and precipitation amount over the YP today (proof of feasibility), (2) a statistically significant correlation between a stalagmite (Chaac) quantitative precipitation record from the YP and the number of named tropical cyclones affecting this region today (1852—2004) (calibration sensu lato), and, (3) correlations between the stalagmite Chaac precipitation record and an Atlantic basin tropical cyclone count record and two proxy records of shifts in macroscale climate and ocean states that influence Atlantic tropical cyclongenesis. At face value, regional paleotempestology proxy records suggest that tropical storm activity in the YP was either similar or significantly lower than today during the TCP. The “tropical storm” hypothesis has implications for our understanding of the role the hydrological cycle played in the collapse of Classic Maya polities and the role of tropical storms in possibly ameliorating future drought in the YP and other tropical regions.
We propose efficient and accurate numerical methods for computing the ground state and dynamics of the dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates utilising a newly developed dipole-dipole interaction (DDI) solver that is implemented with the non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) algorithm. We begin with the three-dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) with a DDI term and present the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) model under a strongly anisotropic confining potential. Different from existing methods, the NUFFT based DDI solver removes the singularity by adopting the spherical/polar coordinates in the Fourier space in 3D/2D, respectively, thus it can achieve spectral accuracy in space and simultaneously maintain high efficiency by making full use of FFT and NUFFT whenever it is necessary and/or needed. Then, we incorporate this solver into existing successful methods for computing the ground state and dynamics of GPE with a DDI for dipolar BEC. Extensive numerical comparisons with existing methods are carried out for computing the DDI, ground states and dynamics of the dipolar BEC. Numerical results show that our new methods outperform existing methods in terms of both accuracy and efficiency.
This paper discusses an experimental investigation of the behavior of sharp-notched circular tubes subjected to cyclic bending. The sharp-notched circular tubes of 304 stainless steel with three different diameter-to-thickness ratios (Do / t) were tested under symmetric curvature-controlled cyclic bending. It has been shown that the moment-curvature curves exhibited the loops with cyclic hardening and gradually becoming steady after a few cycles for all tested tubes. The ovalization-curvature curves revealed unsymmetric, ratcheting and increasing behavior with the number of cycles. In addition, five almost parallel lines corresponding to five different notch depths for each Do / t ratio were found from the experimental relationship between the cyclic controlled curvature and the number of cycles necessary to produce buckling on a log-log scale. Finally, an empirical relationship was proposed so it could be used for simulating the aforementioned relationship. By comparing with the experimental finding, the derived empirical relationship was in good agreement with the experimental data.
The study analyzed whether the dissolution of Yugoslavia and the establishment of succeeding mono-national states was the expression of “longing” of mass proportions on the part of the nationalities within respective federal units. Using the data from two pan-Yugoslav surveys from the period preceding the dissolution, results were obtained that indicated a very limited support for this hypothesis. More specifically, results indicated that support for emancipation was rather weak, among youth in 1986 and even among the adult population in 1990, although some significant mean differences between the federal units and between major nationalities within them were evident. Specifically, opinions favoring independence were detected among Kosovo Albanians and later among Slovenians in Slovenia. In addition, findings also indicated that those with higher socioeconomic status were not more inclined toward independence. Results thus pointed more towards the idea that the dissolution was indeed instigated by a small group of “political entrepreneurs” not captured by the survey data.
In order to construct a counterexample to Zilber's conjecture—that a strongly minimal set has a degenerate, affine or field-like geometry—Ehud Hrushovski invented an amalgamation technique which has yielded all the exotic geometries so far. We shall present a framework for this construction in the language of standard geometric stability and show how some of the recent constructions fit into this setting. We also ask some fundamental questions concerning this method.
What is now known as the “Versailles Disaster” began as a wedding celebration in Jerusalem on 24 May 2001. The reception was held in the third floor banqueting hall of a hotel, the floor of which subsequently collapsed, crashing through the second and first floors of the building. Four hundred people fell with the floor, and 310 injured people were evacuated using the scoop-and-run principle. The total number of dead was 23, which was less than mighthave been expected. Israel's on-site disaster management system of giving control to the first paramedic on the scene appeared to work well; however, the other emergency services did not act in coordination with the paramedics. The hospitals managed patients efficiently and social workers were mobilized quickly to assist people experiencing psychological trauma.
Massive earthquakes often cause structures to collapse, trapping victims under dense rubble for long periods of time. Commonly, this spurs resource intensive, dangerous, and frustrating attempts to find and extricate live victims. The search and rescue phase usually is maintained for many days beyond the last “save,” potentially diverting critical attention and resources away from the pressing needs of non-trapped survivors and the devastated community. This recurring phenomenon is driven by the often-unanswered question “Can anyone still be alive under there?” The maximum survival time in entrapment is an important issue for responders, yet little formal research has been conducted on this issue. Knowing the maximum survival time in entrapment helps responders: (1) decide whether or not they should continue to assign limited resources to search and rescue activities; (2) assess the safety risks versus the benefits; (3) determine when search and rescue activities no longer are indicated; and (4) time and pace the important transition to community recovery efforts.
The time period of 1985–2004 was selected for investigation. Medline and Lexis-Nexis databases were searched for earthquake events that occurred within this timeframe. Medical literature articles providing time-torescue data for victims of earthquakes were identified. Lexis-Nexis reports were scanned to select those with time-to-rescue data for victims of earthquakes. Reports from both databases were examined for information that might contribute to prolonged survival of entrapped individuals.
A total of 34 different earthquake events met study criteria. Fortyeight medical articles containing time-to-rescue data were identified. Of these, the longest time to rescue was “13–19 days” post-event (secondhand data and the author is not specific). The second longest time to rescue in the medical articles was 8.7 days (209 hours). Twenty-five medical articles report multiple rescues that occurred after two days (48 hours). Media reports describe rescues occurring beyond Day 2 in 18 of 34 earthquakes. Of these, the longest reliably reported survival is 14 days after impact, with the next closest having survived 13 days. The average maximum times reported from these 18 earthquakes was 6.8 days (median = 5.75 days). The event with the most media reports of distinct rescue events was the 1999 Marmara, Turkey earthquake (43 victims). Times range from 0.5 days (12 hours) to 6.2 days (146 hours) for this event. Both databases provide little formal data to develop detailed insight into factors affecting survivability during entrapment.
A thorough search of the English-language medical literature and media accounts provides a provocative picture of numerous survivors beyond 48 hours of entrapment under rubble, with a few successfully enduring entrapment of 13–14 days. These data are not necessarily applicable to non-earthquake collapsed-structure events. For incident managers and their medical advisors, the study findings and discussion may be useful for postimpact decision-making and in establishing and/or revising incident priorities as the response evolves.
The authors demonstrate that a temple examined at the Classic Maya site of Aguateca, Guatemala, was still in the process of construction when it was attacked and abandoned at the beginning of the ninth century AD. Study of the ruin has provided valuable information on Maya building methods and processes, as well as guidance on how unfinished buildings may be identified.