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Holotomographic microscopy (HTM) measures the refractive index (RI) tomograms of living cells and tissues in three dimensions. The ability to observe biological processes at high spatial and temporal resolution opens uncharted territories for cell biologists, however, current HTM devices have a limited throughput. We show here the first automated multi-well plate-compatible HTM device, the CX-A. Thanks to state-of-the-art environment control and a new type of autofocus, the CX-A can record multiple conditions in parallel over large fields of view, while its software EVE supports automated single-cell segmentation and quantification. This opens the door to new applications for HTM, from drug screening to systems biology.
Tramadol is used worldwide and is listed in many medical guidelines to treat both acute and chronic pains. There is a growing evidence of abuse of tramadol in some African and West Asian countries. Tramadol has some side effects. The present study designed to follow up the treatment of the cellular responses which might be induced in the kidney of tramadol mice. Treated mice received daily injection of tramadol dose (125 μg/100 g b.wt) for 20 and 40 days. Other mice received tramadol for 40 days and then were divided into three groups: the first received distilled water, the second received Lagenaria siceraria, and the third received melatonin daily for 40 days. Both the daily injection of tramadol for 20 and 40 days resulted in radical, extensive, and severe alterations in the normal histological architecture of the kidney. Treatment with Lagenaria siceraria or melatonin after tramadol administration for a long-term, markedly changed the collagen content and other chemical components, that may reach nearly normal levels. Such findings propose that although tramadol has many cytological and histopathological side effects on the kidneys of male mice, the treatments via Lagenaria siceraria and melatonin have effective therapeutic impacts on the tramadol side effects.
Apicomplexans, including species of Eimeria, pose a real threat to the health and wellbeing of animals and humans. Eimeria parasites do not infect humans but cause an important economic impact on livestock, in particular on the poultry industry. Despite its high prevalence and financial costs, little is known about the cell biology of these ‘cosmopolitan’ parasites found all over the world. In this review, we discuss different aspects of the life cycle and stages of Eimeria species, focusing on cellular structures and organelles typical of the coccidian family as well as genus-specific features, complementing some ‘unknowns’ with what is described in the closely related coccidian Toxoplasma gondii.
In the late stage of the mitotic cycle of eukaryotic cells, cytokinesis ensues during which a parent cell replicates its nucleus with the necessary genetical substances (i.e., DNAs and chromosomes) and splits into two similar offspring cells. This mitotic process involves complex chemical, biophysical andmechanical processes whose details are just beginning to be unfolded experimentally. In this paper, we propose a full 3-D hydrodynamical model using a phase field approach to study the cellular morphological change during cytokinesis. In this model, the force along the contracting ring induced by remodeling of actin-myosin filament on cell cortex layer at the division plane of the parent cell during cytokinesis, is approximated using a proxy force anchored on the newly formed nuclei. The symmetric or asymmetric cell division is simulated numerically with the model. Our numerical results show that the location of the division plane and the contracting force along the cytokinetic ring on the division plane are essential for the cell division. In addition, our numerical study also shows that, during cytokinesis, surface tension of the cell membrane also contributes to this process by retaining the morphological integrity of the offspring cells. This model and the accompanying numerical simulation tool provide a solid framework to build upon with more sophisticated whole cell models to probe the cell mitotic process.
This chapter reviews how functions of genetic susceptibility factors can be validated, specifically using disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) as an example. Studies at multiple levels, from protein chemistry, cell biology, animal study, to clinical work provide comprehensive understanding of the functions of susceptibility factors. Once genetic studies identify candidate susceptibility factors for the diseases, functions of such proteins can be tested in cells by modulating expression of the target molecules or by expressing their genetic variants. The chapter describes rodent models with manipulations for genetic susceptibility factors of mental illnesses in greater detail. A series of studies by Weinberger and associates has pioneered the possible correlation of brain dysfunction with genetic variations in susceptibility factors associated with mental illnesses. To identify mechanistic links from genetic factors to the phenotypes, especially those observed during brain development and maturation, a combination of human studies with animal experiments is expected.
To evaluate symptom scores and nasal smear cytology findings in seasonal allergic rhinitis patients, before and after treatment.
Twenty-nine consecutive adult patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis were evaluated prospectively. They received mometasone furoate nasal spray and cetirizine for 21 days. Nasal and ocular symptom scores were recorded before and after treatment. Nasal cytology was also assessed as a means of determining treatment.
The combined use of an intranasal corticosteroid and an oral antihistamine caused a significant improvement in nasal and ocular symptom scores. Cytological evaluation revealed significant reduction in nasal eosinophil, neutrophil and goblet cell counts after three weeks' treatment.
Symptom scoring systems are widely used for the evaluation of drug efficacy in allergic rhinitis treatment. When investigating the disease and evaluating treatment efficacy, objective as well as subjective methods are needed. Nasal cytological assessment is a simple, objective method which provides valuable information about the nasal mucosa.
The pathogenic Theileria species Theileria parva and T. annulata infect bovine leukocytes and erythrocytes causing acute, often fatal lymphoproliferative diseases in cattle. The parasites are of interest not only because of their economic importance as pathogens, but also because of their unique ability to transform the leukocytes they infect. The latter property allows parasitized leukocytes to be cultured as continuously growing cell lines in vitro, thus providing an amenable in vitro system to study the parasite/host cell relationship and parasite-specific cellular immune responses. This paper summarizes important advances in knowledge of the immunobiology of these parasites over the last 40 years, focusing particularly on areas of relevance to vaccination.
The invasive blood stage of malaria parasites, merozoites, are complex entities specialized for the capture and entry of red blood cells. Their potential for vaccination and other anti-malaria strategies have attracted much research attention over the last 40 years, and there is now a considerable body of data relating to their biology. In this article some of the major advances over this period and remaining challenges are reviewed.
The development of dynamic substrates that can modulate the behavior of adherent cells is important for fundamental studies in cell biology, applications in biomaterials, and engineering microsystems that combine cellular and material components. This review outlines several strategies based on physical transduction schemes (including electrical, photochemical, thermal, and mechanical forces) for designing interfaces that are active and can signal changes in the behavior of attached cells.
Viruses replicate inside host cells, where they use host biochemical and structural components to facilitate the production of new virus particles. As a consequence of co-evolution with their hosts, viruses have acquired host genes and genetic mutations that confer dominance over normal cell function. Research on virus–cell interactions has focused on the identification of mechanisms of virus dominance in order to develop therapeutic strategies for preventing productive infection. Although such research remains an essential part of molecular virology, viruses are also important genetic tools that can be used to analyse cell function. Because virus genomes contain genetic information, some of which was derived from host cells, it is possible that the analyses of virus–host interactions might lead to the identification of functionally dominant virus genes and novel eukaryotic counterparts. In this article, we have described how transforming and non-transforming viruses can control cell motility (cell migration or membrane projection), and explained how the analysis of virus cytopathic effects (CPEs) led to the identification of a novel family of cellular genes that regulate diverse aspects of cell motility.
The basic properties of living systems are remarkably consistent and involve energy interactions between intracellular and extracellular environments. These interactions predispose living systems to deposit minerals from many solutions. The evolution of biomineralisation was not a single cellular invention but rather the association and perfection of a few of these fundamental properties of cell biology. The components of biomineralisation systems involve some mechanism for modifying the activity of at least one ion, an interface for initiating and possibly controlling crystal growth, a diffusion limited size and a mechanism for manipulating the growth of the crystal lattice. The evolution of these components of biomineralisation in the context of geological time inevitably concentrates on the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary. Over a time scale of less than 50 × 106 years there was a proliferation of metazoan phyla, the mineralisation in a large number of taxa and the exploitation of a diverse set of processes involving agglutinated sediments, silica, phosphates and carbonates. A large number of theories have been proposed to explain why biomineralisation occurred at this particular time. Such theories should recognise the importance of the incorporation of the citric acid cycle into the cellular metabolism of many organisms and its exploitation in an aerobic environment, the development of multicellularity which enormously increased the opportunities for modifying ion activities in diffusion-limited sites, and the exploitation of browsing and carnivorous feeding habits. These influences had major effects on ecosystems and population structures and put considerable selective pressure on the advantages that could be gained from a skeleton.
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