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Regular patterns are common in living organisms. Examples are the radial symmetry of many flowers, the bilateral symmetry of most animals, the repetition of vertebrae or the branching of vascular systems. In principle, these regular patterns only require the repetition of one elementary module. There is no separate genetic control for each vertebra or body segment, or for left vs. right eyes. Deviation from symmetry, or from precise repetition of identical parts, may require specific control, as in the right- vs. left-handedness of gastropod shells, but what is controlled is deviation from symmetry, rather than polarity of handedness; therefore, flipping between directions can be easy. Repetition of a pattern at different scale produces fractal shapes of which there are a number in living nature. However, targeted investigation is required to confirm if a given symmetric or fractal pattern is produced in the mathematically simplest way, a prediction sometimes contradicted by facts. Genes are involved in specification of positions along the main body axis of animals, but the genome does not contain any specification of the linear paths along which nerve axons or fungal hyphae grow.
Fruit shape is the result of the interaction between genetic, epigenetic, environmental factors and stochastic processes. As a core biological descriptor both for taxonomy and horticulture, the point at which shape stability is reached becomes paramount in apple cultivar identification, and authentication in commerce. Twelve apple cultivars were sampled at regular intervals from anthesis to harvest over two growing seasons. Linear and geometric morphometrics were analysed to establish if and when shape stabilised and whether fruit asymmetry influenced this. Shape stability was detected in seven cultivars, four asymmetric and three symmetric. The remaining five did not stabilise. Shape stability, as defined here, is cultivar-dependent, and when it occurs, it is late in the growing season. Geometric morphometrics detected stability more readily than linear, especially in symmetric cultivars. Key shape features are important in apple marketing, giving the distinctness and apparent uniformity between cultivars expected at point of sale.
The abnormal animal featured here is the Shar-Pei dog, whose skin is severely rumpled. It turns out that the molecular basis for this abnormality is similar to that which causes the folding of the human brain. We go on to consider other "ripple" patterns (e.g., fingerprints) and why they're always asymmetric.
The abnormal animal featured here is a tadpole with two heads. In order to explain how it got that way, the chapter desccribes how the axes of the body are established in the embryo. This leads to a discussion of axes in conjoined twins and symmetry planes in various parts of the body, plus a three-eyed frog.
Summarizing, I detail the leverage sources for “weak” local COIN proxies. As postcolonial military intervention conceptualizes local partner regime success as a fundamental component of a successful foreign military intervention, local allies have much political influence over wealthy intervening patrons. Local allies that offer political inputs necessary for the COIN effort can capitalize on their indispensable role to extract concessions and assert influence over intervening wealthy patrons. Comparing the nine wars, I find consistency in local ally compliance, with one-third of requests from intervening forces resulting in compliance, one-third partial compliance, and one-third noncompliance. Interestingly, rates of local compliance had little impact on war outcome as intervening forces did not always offer great advice to local partners, and stronger local partners, such as Sri Lanka, that were more capable of combatting insurgents, could simultaneously resist the policy prescriptions of intervening patrons. These findings show the complexity of COIN by proxy, and should temper expectations about how much local reform can (and perhaps should) be coerced by intervening patrons.
This chapter and Chapter 12 apply many of the principles of effective negotiation from earlier chapters to the workplace context. The workplace is where a lot of our negotiating will be done, and Chapter 12 will look at these negotiations from a business perspective. This chapter focuses on negotiations between management and employee representatives – normally a trade union. These negotiations can be very difficult and the consequences of reaching a deadlock can be very costly for both sides of the negotiation.
In this article we distinguish two versions of the non-identity problem: one involving positive well-being and one involving negative well-being. Intuitively, there seems to be a difference between the two versions of the problem. In the negative case it is clear that one ought to cause the better-off person to exist. However, it has recently been suggested that this is not so in the positive case. We argue that such an asymmetrical treatment of the two versions should be rejected and that this is evidence against views according to which it is permissible to cause the less well-off person to exist in the positive non-identity case.
Foetal sex hormones can have powerful and far-reaching effects on later phenotype. However, obtaining accurate measurements is difficult for ethical reasons, and researchers often employ proxy variables to examine their effects. The relative length of the second and fourth fingers (digit ratio or 2D:4D) is frequently used for this purpose, as it is hypothesized to index variance in prenatal androgen and oestrogen exposure. Most studies employing this method examine digit ratio for the right hand (R2D:4D) and/or left hand (L2D:4D), though the mean value (M2D:4D) (i.e., the average of R2D:4D and L2D:4D) and directional asymmetry (D[R–L]) (i.e., R2D:4D minus L2D:4D) are also commonly used. As no published studies have examined M2D:4D or D[R-L] in relation to testosterone measured from amniotic fluid, we conducted a secondary analysis of data published by Ventura et al. The sample comprises 106 mothers from Portugal who underwent amniocentesis during the second trimester and their neonates. Newborn M2D:4D was negatively correlated with amniotic testosterone in females (P<0.05) but not in males; no significant association was observed between amniotic testosterone and D[R–L] in either sex. In addition, we examined testosterone measured from maternal circulation during the second trimester, and found that it was not a significant predictor of M2D:4D or D[R–L] in male or female infants. Further research should aim to measure the ratio of testosterone to oestradiol present in amniotic fluid and maternal plasma, to examine whether either is a predictor of digit ratio variables at different stages of postnatal development.
We search for possible differences in rotational frequencies, diameters, albedos, and orbital parameters between Trojans belonging to the L4 and L5 swarms using our own observations and literature data. With increasing number of observational data it becomes evident that the L4 and L5 populations have very similar distributions of most parameters with an exception of orbital inclination distribution.
Valley asymmetry reflects differences in landform evolution with aspect; however, few studies assess rates and timing of asymmetric erosion. In south-central Idaho, we combine alluvial fan volume reconstructions with radiocarbon deposit dating to compare the source-catchment normalized fan deposition rates of catchments incised into north (n=5) and south-facing (n=3) valleys, which differ during the late Holocene from 7.7 to 10.1 mm/ka, respectively, but are not significantly different. South-facing catchments produced 1.3× more fan sediment per unit source-area during the late Holocene, whereas over the last 10 Ma they have evolved to be 2.1× larger with 2.8× greater eroded volumes and 7.6° gentler slopes (24.5° versus 32.1°, average). Late Holocene differences in sediment yields with aspect cannot fully explain differences in landforms. Potential bias in sediment deposition and/or remobilization cannot fully explain the similarity of erosion rates during the late Holocene. Valley asymmetry appears to have developed primarily during different conditions. While valley asymmetry development may be quicker during glacial climates, development is likely accelerated early in a valley’s history, such as during initial valley incision, because asymmetric degradation serves as a negative feedback that reduces aspect-related differences in erosion and drives valleys towards steady state.
This paper presents a dialogue about the question of symmetry and asymmetry in human–thing relations, and the links between such asymmetries and those encountered in power relations amongst humans. The conversation discusses various issues, such as whether symmetry is possible in any kind of relation, how one defines asymmetry, whether there are different kinds of asymmetry, and how inequality between humans is related to the asymmetries in human–thing entanglements. The last issue is considered especially important in light of the various critiques that have been levelled at actor networks and other relational materialisms for their weakened political stance insofar as sources of inequality and injustice are so widely distributed that they become, in effect, apolitical.
In this paper, self-focusing of asymmetric cosh-Gaussian laser beams in collisionless magnetized plasma has been studied. The non-linearity in dielectric constant considered herein is mainly due to the ponderomotive force. The non-linear coupled differential equations for the beam width parameters in transverse dimensions of the beam have been obtained by using WKB and paraxial approximations under parabolic equation approach. The numerical computation is completed by using fourth-order Runge–Kutta method. The effect of unlike decentered parameters in both transverse dimensions of the beam on self-focusing of cosh-Gaussian beams has been presented. Further, the effect of the static magnetic field and polarization modes of the laser has been explored.
In this paper is proposed a new theory concerning the formation of the first proteinogenic amino acids and their corresponding polypeptides starting of three syntones: methylene, nitrene and carbon monoxide. First, at low temperature in nitrogen, these three syntones form aziridinone, an asimetric compound in special conditions. Next, by a series of radical chain, izomerization, cyclization, elimination and polymerization reactions, apparently without a well defined transition states are formed a series of precursor syntones. Finally, these more structured syntones at the contract with the components of primary atmosphere, especially with water, ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, even with carbon dioxide and methane offer the first proteinogenic amino acids and their first corresponding polypeptides. As a very important aspect, the aziridinone cycle furnish the backbone of proteinogenic amino acids. The formation of each proteinogenic amino acid moiety also as its participation to construction of polypeptide structures were estimated by two parameters: (1) the complex structural factor, Fe and (2) the participation coefficient, Cp respectively. Dominantly, the quantitative results given in this paper were acquired by structural, thermodynamical and reactivity studies using DGauss with the B88-LYP GGA energy functional with high integral accuracy. Finally, an experimental assembly for obtention of amino acids and polypeptides is proposed. Brief, the three initial syntones: CH2, NH and CO, in nitrogen form aziridinone. That, in reactions with the same three syntones form, the more structured syntone precursors of proteinogenic amino acids and polypeptides. At the contact with primary atmosphere components are formed the first proteinogenic amino acids and polypeptides. The first polypeptides appear from polypeptide precursors and not from proteinogenic amino acids.
According to the Asymmetry, we’ve strong moral reason to prevent miserable lives from coming into existence, but no moral reason to bring happy lives into existence. This procreative asymmetry is often thought to be part of commonsense morality, however theoretically puzzling it might prove to be. I argue that this is a mistake. The Asymmetry is merely prima facie intuitive, and loses its appeal on further reflection. Mature commonsense morality recognizes no fundamental procreative asymmetry. It may recognize some superficially similar theses, but we will see that they derive from more familiar principles, and are compatible with there being moral reason to bring happy lives into existence.
Asymmetry in brain structure and function is implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. Although right hemisphere abnormality has been documented in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), cerebral asymmetry is rarely examined. Therefore, in this study, we examined anomalous cerebral asymmetry in OCD patients using the line bisection task.
A total of 30 patients with OCD and 30 matched healthy controls were examined using a reliable and valid two-hand line bisection (LBS) task. The comparative profiles of LBS scores were analysed using analysis of covariance.
Patients with OCD bisected significantly less number of lines to the left and had significant rightward deviation than controls, indicating right hemisphere dysfunction. The correlations observed in this study suggest that those with impaired laterality had more severe illness at baseline.
The findings of this study indicate abnormal cerebral lateralisation and right hemisphere dysfunction in OCD patients.
Recent results from the neurosciences demonstrate that pleasure and pain are not two symmetrical poles of a single scale of experience but in fact two different types of experiences altogether, with dramatically different contributions to well-being. These differences between pleasure and pain and the general finding that “the bad is stronger than the good” have important implications for our treatment of nonhuman animals. In particular, whereas animal experimentation that causes suffering might be justified if it leads to the prevention of more suffering, it can never by justified merely by leading to increased levels of happiness.
What explains Korea's success in surviving as an independent state for over 2,000 years, not annexed to China, when it shares a border with this powerful imperial neighbor? I argue that diplomatic ritual can be conducive to managing asymmetric power relations and that the Korean state and the Chinese state prior to the nineteenth century used the diplomatic ritual of investiture in a strategic manner as a signaling mechanism to manage the expectations of each side. Drawing insights from ritual studies, I offer three specific mechanisms: (1) regularity and precision, (2) strategic ambiguity, and (3) the manipulation of symbols, through which the ritualization of power relations reduces the tension arising from the disparity in power. The empirical evidence comes from an investigation of a total of sixteen investiture cases between Chosòn Korea and Ming China between 1392 and 1644. It shows that the granting and seeking of investiture on both sides was not only a way of signaling their commitment to the status quo, but also a medium of negative soft power through which the stronger side could change the status quo relations to its favor using the symbolic power embedded in the investiture ritual.
This paper investigates the potential sources of the mixed evidence found in the empirical literature studying asymmetries in the response of output to monetary policy shocks of different magnitudes. Further, it argues that such mixed evidence is a consequence of the exogenous imposition of the threshold that classifies monetary shocks as small or large. To address this issue, I propose an unobserved-components model of output, augmented by a monetary policy variable, which allows the threshold to be endogenously estimated. The results show strong statistical evidence that the effect of monetary policy on output varies disproportionately with the size of the monetary shock once the threshold is estimated. Meanwhile, the estimates of the model are consistent with a key implication of menu-cost models: smaller monetary shocks trigger a larger response on output.
Asymmetries are found in every living being. A non-symmetrical structure is not necessarily pathological. Why then, is the diagnosis of asymmetry relevant for us as practitioners? In orthodontics, we can anticipate difficulties with treatment if we are well informed about the principles of symmetry and thoroughly familiar with craniofacial growth.
Severe mandibular asymmetry is relatively rare, appears early and becomes apparent at first sight to the practitioner. We find it associated with syndromes in patients for whom early multidisciplinary treatment is indicated.
Dyssymetry is a defect rather than an absence of symmetry. It is a mild form of asymmetry where the line between pathological and nonpathological is still unclear. The face can present different types of dyssymmetries including the whole gamut ranging from dental imbalance to imbalances of the jaws to cranial imbalances, each with its own signature that leaves its characteristic mark on the face. When dealing with mandibular laterodymorphias, the diagnosis must be made early in order to initiate an individualized treatment plan. We are providing some summary fact sheets that make it possible for the practitioner to clearly distinguish between the principal mandibular anomalies.
Describing an anatomical shape with a landmark points diagram allows the practitioner to use all the tools of geometric morphometry. Using a 14 point trigeminal for maxillofacial morphology, 10 points for basicranial morphology and 6 points for the orbital area, we have been able to identify the specific maxillofacial shapes associated with the major dysplasias (Class II or Class III ‘‘surgical limit’’) or simple malocclusions and to research the possible relationships between basicranial morphologies and maxillofacial morphologies. The asymmetries have thus been linked to other pathologies.
We have compared these results with those obtained by using a three-dimensional cephalometric analysis and with results obtained from the literature.
The conclusions on the epidemiology of the asymmetries are in agreement. Basically, the mandible with dominance of the right hemi-face was confirmed as the causative factor. The stability of the basicranial shape makes a solid case that it is not responsible for maxillofacial or occlusal pathologies.