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Maternal exercise has shown beneficial effects on mother and child. Literature confirm progeny’s cognition improvement, and upregulation in neurotrophins, antioxidant network, and DNA repair system. Considering that there is a lack of information demonstrating the impact of maternal exercise on offspring’s skeletal muscle, we aimed to investigate the mitochondrial and redox effects elicited by maternal swimming. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control sedentary, free swimming, and swimming with overload (2% of the body weight). Exercised groups were submitted weekly to five swimming sessions (30 min/day), starting 1 week prior to the mating and lasting to the delivery. Gastrocnemius and soleus muscle from 60-day-old offspring were analyzed. Our results clearly showed a sex-dependent effect. Male soleus showed increased mitochondrial functionality in the overload group. Female muscle from the overload group adapted deeply. Considering the redox status, the female offspring delivered to overload exercised dams presented reduced oxidants levels and protein damage, allied to downregulated antioxidant defenses. We also observed an increase in the mitochondrial function in the gastrocnemius muscle of the female offspring born from overload exercised dams. Soleus from female delivered to the overload exercise group presented reduced mitochondrial activity, as well as reduced reactive species, protein carbonyls, and antioxidant network, when compared to the male. In conclusion, maternal exercise altered the redox status and mitochondrial function in the offspring’s skeletal muscle in a sex-dependent way. The clinical implication was not investigated; however, the sexual dimorphism in response to maternal exercise might impact exercise resilience in adulthood.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of eugenol on growth, viability, antrum formation and mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) in bovine secondary follicles cultured in vitro. To this end, bovine ovaries were collected from a local slaughterhouse and in the laboratory the follicles were isolated from the ovarian cortex. The follicles were then cultured in TCM-199+ alone or supplemented with different concentrations of eugenol (0.5, 5.0 and 50.0 μM). Follicular diameters and antrum formation were evaluated on days 0, 6, 12 and 18. Viability analysis was performed using calcein and ethidium homodimer. Real-time PCR was used to quantify mRNA levels for SOD, CAT, GPX1 and PRDX6 in cultured follicles. Follicular diameters and mRNA levels in follicles cultured in vitro were compared using analysis of variance and Kruskal–Wallis tests, while follicular survival and antrum formation were compared using the chi-squared test (P < 0.05). The results showed that secondary follicles cultured with eugenol maintained similar morphology and viability to follicles cultured in the control group. A progressive increase in follicular diameter was observed between days 0 and 12 for all treatments, except for follicles cultured with 50 µM eugenol. Eugenol (5.0 and 50.0 μM) increased mRNA levels for GPX1 in cultured follicles, but 0.5 μM eugenol reduced mRNA levels for SOD. The addition of eugenol did not influence mRNA expression for CAT and PRDX6. In conclusion, eugenol supplementation reduces mRNA levels for SOD and increases mRNA levels of GPX1 in bovine secondary follicles cultured in vitro.
Dietary intake modification is important for the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, little is known about the association between dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins and kidney function based on gender difference. We examined the relationship of dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins with decreased kidney function according to gender in Japanese subjects. This population-based, cross-sectional study included 936 Japanese participants with the age of 40 years or older. A validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire was used to measure dietary intakes of vitamin E and its four isoforms, vitamin A and vitamin C. Decreased kidney function was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1·73 m2. A total of 498 (53·2 %) of the study participants were women. Mean age was 62·4 ± 11·3 years. Overall, 157 subjects met the criteria of decreased kidney function. In the fully adjusted model, a high vitamin E intake is inversely associated with decreased kidney function in women (odds ratio, 0·886; 95 % confidence interval, 0·786–0·998), whereas vitamin E intake was not associated with decreased kidney function (odds ratio, 0·931; 95 % confidence interval, 0·811–1·069) in men. No significant association between dietary intake of vitamins A and C and decreased kidney function was observed in women and men. Higher dietary intake of vitamin E was inversely associated with decreased kidney function in middle-aged and older women, and the result may provide insight into the more tailored dietary approaches to prevent CKD.
Table olives, a product of olive tree (Olea europaea L.), is an important fermented product of the Mediterranean Diet. Agronomical factors, particularly the cultivar, the ripening stage and the processing method employed are the main factors influencing the nutritional and non-nutritional composition of table olives and their organoleptic properties. The important nutritional value of this product is due to its richness in monounsaturated fat (MUFA), mainly oleic acid, fibre and vitamin E together with the presence of several phytochemicals. Among these, hydroxytyrosol (HT) is the major phenolic compound present in all types of table olives. There is a scarcity of in vitro, in vivo and human studies of table olives. This review focused comprehensively on the nutrients and bioactive compound content as well as the health benefits assigned to table olives. The possible health benefits associated with their consumption are thought to be primarily related to effects of MUFA on cardiovascular health, the antioxidant (AO) capacity of vitamin E and its role in protecting the body from oxidative damage and the anti-inflammatory and AO activities of HT. The influence of multiple factors on composition of the end product and the potential innovation in the production of table olives through the reduction of its final salt content was also discussed.
There is mounting evidence for the potential for the natural dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory amino acid l-Ergothioneine (ERGO) to prevent or mitigate chronic diseases of aging. This has led to the suggestion that it could be considered a ‘longevity vitamin.’ ERGO is produced in nature only by certain fungi and a few other microbes. Mushrooms are, by far, the leading dietary source of ERGO, but it is found in small amounts throughout the food chain, most likely due to soil-borne fungi passing it on to plants. Because some common agricultural practices can disrupt beneficial fungus–plant root relationships, ERGO levels in foods grown under those conditions could be compromised. Thus, research is needed to further analyse the role agricultural practices play in the availability of ERGO in the human diet and its potential to improve our long-term health.
The aims of this study were to evaluate changes in inflammatory and oxidative stress levels following treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or mitochondrial-enhancing agents (CT), and to assess the how these changes may predict and/or moderate clinical outcomes primarily the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS).
This study involved secondary analysis of a placebo-controlled randomised trial (n = 163). Serum samples were collected at baseline and week 16 of the clinical trial to determine changes in Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) following adjunctive CT and/or NAC treatment, and to explore the predictability of the outcome or moderator effects of these markers.
In the NAC-treated group, no difference was observed in serum IL-6 and TAC levels after 16 weeks of treatment with NAC or CT. However, results from a moderator analysis showed that in the CT group, lower IL-6 levels at baseline was a significant moderator of MADRS χ2 (df) = 4.90, p = 0.027) and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I, χ2 (df) = 6.28 p = 0.012). In addition, IL-6 was a non-specific but significant predictor of functioning (based on the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS)), indicating that individuals with higher IL-6 levels at baseline had a greater improvement on SOFAS regardless of their treatment (p = 0.023).
Participants with lower IL-6 levels at baseline had a better response to the adjunctive treatment with the mitochondrial-enhancing agents in terms of improvements in MADRS and CGI-I outcomes.
Grape skin is a source of polyphenols with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Little information is available regarding its application in animal feeding. The present study investigated the effect of inclusion of fermented (FS) and unfermented (UFS) grape skin at two different doses (30 g/kg, FS30 and UFS30, and 60 g/kg, FS60 and UFS60) and 200 mg/kg vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) in a corn–soybean diet on growth performance, ileal protein digestibility, ileal and excreta total extractable polyphenols content and digestibility, intestinal microbiota and thigh meat oxidation in broiler chickens. Growth performance was depressed in chickens fed UFS and FS diets. A reduction in ileal protein digestibility was also observed in birds fed UFS, being this effect more pronounced in those fed 60 g/kg. The dietary inclusion of grape skin increased both ileal and excreta polyphenols contents, being higher in birds fed UFS than in those fed FS. Excreta moisture content increased in birds fed UFS and FS diets. No effect of dietary inclusion of grape skin was observed on ileal counts of lactic-acid bacteria and Clostridium, but UFS inclusion in the diet reduced ileal count of Escherichia coli as compared with FS dietary inclusion. After 7 days of refrigerated storage, values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were lower in chicken meat when grape skin was added in the diet at 60 g/kg instead of 30 g/kg, and meat from birds fed 60 g/kg of grape skin reached TBARS values similar to those of birds supplemented with vitamin E. In conclusion, high doses of grape skin polyphenols depressed growth performance and protein digestibility, and increased excreta moisture content. Unfermented grape skin contained more polyphenols than FS, and its inclusion in the diet led to higher ileal and excreta polyphenols contents and to a lower ileal count of E. coli. Furthermore, the antioxidant potential of the polyphenols present in grape skin was observed after 7 days of meat storage, with the dose of 60 g/kg of grape skin being as effective as vitamin E supplementation in maintaining oxidative stability of meat.
Kaempferol (KAE) is one of the most common dietary flavonols possessing biological activities such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Although previous studies have reported the biological activity of KAE on a variety of cells, it is not clear whether KAE plays a similar role in oocyte and embryo in vitro culture systems. This study investigated the effect of KAE addition to in vitro maturation on the antioxidant capacity of embryos in porcine oocytes after parthenogenetic activation. The effects of kaempferol on oocyte quality in porcine oocytes were studied based on the expression of related genes, reactive oxygen species, glutathione and mitochondrial membrane potential as criteria. The rate of blastocyst formation was significantly higher in oocytes treated with 0.1 µm KAE than in control oocytes. The mRNA level of the apoptosis-related gene Caspase-3 was significantly lower in the blastocysts derived from KAE-treated oocytes than in the control group and the mRNA expression of the embryo development-related genes COX2 and SOX2 was significantly increased in the KAE-treated group compared with that in the control group. Furthermore, the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species was significantly decreased and that of glutathione was significantly increased after KAE treatment. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was increased and the activity of Caspase-3 was significantly decreased in the KAE-treated group compared with that in the control group. Taken together, these results suggested that KAE is beneficial for the improvement of embryo development by inhibiting oxidative stress in porcine oocytes.
In this work, 10 processing type Hungarian tomato gene bank accessions were investigated in a 3-year open-field experiment together with three commercial varieties for quantifying the genotype × environment interaction for their total soluble solids, total acid, dry matter, lycopene, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. Results showed remarkable differences of accessions in phytonutrient content over the 3 years (environments). Genotype main effect plus genotype × environment interaction biplots were created for the visualization of the best performing samples and of their relation to a theoretical best variety. Obovate fruit-shaped accessions (especially RCAT031257 and RCAT060349) reached outstanding nutritional results in every environment. According to extremities in weather conditions, two landraces (RCAT060348 and RCAT060349) with higher drought tolerance, and two (RCAT031257 and RCAT029837) less prone to excessive rainfalls were identified. The results can contribute to the enrichment of tomato nutritional phenotypic data banks, facilitating the utilization of gene bank accessions in genomic studies.
This research communication addresses the hypothesis that the association of dietary vitamin E and Yerba Mate could help to prevent or decrease oxidation of milk enriched in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). Four multiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square. Treatments were: (1) control diet with no Yerba Mate or vitamin E; (2) diet containing 375 IU/kg vitamin E; (3) diet containing 30 g/kg Yerba Mate; and (4) diet containing 375 IU/kg vitamin E and 30 g/kg Yerba Mate. To increase unsaturated fatty acids in milk, cows were fed 172 g/kg soybean seeds (on a dry matter basis). There was no interaction between vitamin E and Yerba Mate supplementation for milk antioxidant-related (polyphenols, reducing power, conjugated dienes, and TBARS) analyses. Milk reducing power was increased when cows were supplemented with Yerba Mate. Our results suggest that the association of dietary vitamin E and Yerba Mate does not help to prevent or decrease oxidation of milk in UFA.
The enrichment of meat with selenium is important to improve the intake of selenium by humans. The effects of supranutritional doses of sodium selenite or selenium-enriched yeast on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality were evaluated using 63 Nellore cattle in a completely randomized design with two sources (sodium selenite and selenium-enriched yeast), three levels (0.3, 0.9 and 2.7 mg Se/kg DM) and control treatment (without addition of selenium). Final body weight (BW), average daily gain, dry matter intake and gain to feed ratio (G : F) at the end of 84 days of supplementation were not influenced by treatments (P>0.05). Values of pH, ribeye area, back fat thickness and marbling score were also not influenced by treatments (
P>0.05). Dressing percentage was greater (P=0.02) in Nellore cattle supplemented with organic Se (58.70%) compared to animals supplemented with inorganic Se (57.94%). Hot carcass weight increased (
P=0.05) with the increasing of Se levels in the diet. Colour, shear force (SF), cooking and drip loss remained unchanged (
P>0.05); however thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was 15.51% higher with inorganic Se compared with organic Se. The selenium concentration in the meat of animals receiving organic selenium was higher (
P<0.001) than that of animals receiving sodium selenite, at all levels (0.3; 0.9 and 2.7 mg/kg DM). The meat of animals receiving 2.7 mg of organic Se/kg of DM presented concentration of 372.7 μg Se/kg in the L.dorsi muscle, and the intake of 150 g of this meat by humans provides approximately 100% of the recommended Se intake (55 μg Se/day for adults). Therefore, the use of supranutritional doses of 2.7 mg Se/kg of DM, regardless of source, is a way of naturally producing selenium-enriched meat without compromising performance, carcass characteristics and quality of Nellore bovine meat.
When supplementing lamb diets with vitamin E, an equivalence factor of 1.36 is used to discriminate between RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate and all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate. However, more recent studies suggest a need for new equivalence factors for livestock animals. The current study aimed to determine the effect of RRR- and all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on α-tocopherol deposition in lamb tissues. A total of 108 Rasa Aragonesa breed lambs were fed increasing amounts of all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg compound feed) or RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate (0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg compound feed) by adding them to a basal diet that contained 0.025 g/kg feed of all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate as part of the standard vitamin and mineral mixture. The diets were fed for the last 14 days before slaughtering at 25.8±1.67 kg BW. Within 20 min after slaughter samples of muscle, heart, liver, brain and spleen were frozen at −20°C until α-tocopherol analysis. Increased supplementation of either vitamin E sources led to a significant increase (P < 0.001) in α-tocopherol concentration in all tissues studied. The tissue with the highest α-tocopherol concentration was the liver followed by spleen, heart and muscle. At similar supplementation levels (0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 g/kg compound feed), α-tocopherol content in the selected tissues was not affected by α-tocopherol source. However, the ratios between RRR- and all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate increased with the increasing α-tocopherol supplementation (at 0.25 and 1.0 g/kg compound feed), from 1.06 to 1.16 in muscle, 1.07 to 1.15 in heart, 0.91 to 0.94 in liver and 0.98 to 1.10 in spleen. The highest relative proportion of Ʃ2S (sum of SSS-, SSR-, SRS- and SRR-α-tocopherol)-configured stereoisomers was found in the liver of lambs supplemented with all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate accounting for up to 35 to 39% of the total α-tocopherol retained, whereas the proportion of Ʃ2S-configured stereoisomers in the other tissues accounted for <14%. Increasing all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation was also found to affect the 2R-configured stereoisomer profile in muscle, heart and spleen with increasing proportions of RRS-, RSR- and RSS- at the cost of RRR-α-tocopherol. In all tissues, the relative proportion of all non-RRR-stereoisomers in lambs receiving RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate was lower than RRR-α-tocopherol. These results confirm that the relative bioavailability of RRR- and all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate is dose- and tissue-dependent and that a single ratio to discriminate the two sources cannot be used.
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of quercetin as an alternative antioxidant to cysteamine on in vitro maturation. Oocytes were collected from goat ovaries, destined for in vitro maturation and distributed into three groups: CIS group, oocytes were immersed in MIV base medium; in Groups Q4 and Q8, oocytes were immersed in the medium of the CIS group, adding 4 μM or 8 μM of quercetin, respectively, and cultured for 24 h at 38.5°C with 5% CO2. The CIS and Q4 groups presented the same percentage of expanded cumulus cells, but the per cent in the Q8 group was significantly lower than that of the other groups (P<0.05). The oocyte retraction rate in the Q8 group was higher (P<0.05) than in the CIS and Q4 groups. Treatment with 8 μM of quercetin presented a lower proportion of expanded oocytes than the CIS group and 4 μM of quercetin (P<0.05). The percentage of MII oocytes was higher in the Q4 group than in the CIS group (P<0.05), but the percentages in the CIS and Q8 groups were similar. The rate of apoptosis was higher in the CIS group than in the other groups (P<0.05). In addition, oocytes matured with 4 μM quercetin showed higher mitochondrial activity than matured oocytes in the CIS and Q8 groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, 4 μM of quercetin can be used as an alternative to cysteamine in the in vitro maturation of goat oocytes.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incubating semen for different periods (90, 270 or 450 min) with or without Trolox® (100 or 150 µM) on the quality of sperm from Saimiri collinsi. Sperm motility, vigour, and plasma membrane integrity (PMI) were evaluated in both fresh semen and semen incubated for different time periods, i.e. 90, 270 or 450 min of incubation. Supplementation of semen extender with Trolox® 100 µM improved sperm motility, vigour and PMI for up to 270 min of incubation.
Origanum vulgare is a natural, less toxic, residue free feed supplement for poultry when compared to other synthetic ingredients. It contains key bioactive components, including as thymol and carvacrol. O. vulgare as a poultry feed supplement has had an antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, immunomodulatory and antiparasitic effect. The potential advantages of utilising oregano extracts, in poultry diets include improved feed intake and feed conversion, enhanced digestion, expanded productive performance, down-regulated disease incidence and economic losses. From the available literature, average inclusions of oregano essential oil up to 600 mg/kg in broiler diets increased body weight gain. Using 1% oregano oil in broiler diets improved feed conversion ratio and feed utilisation. Moreover, oregano can induce a marked improvement on the intestinal microbiota and ileal villus height of broilers when combine with attapulgite by ratio 15 mg/kg of oregano. Broilers fed 300 ppm oregano oil in their diet display higher IgG titres relative to those reared on control (without supplementation) diet. Including 240 mg oregano supplementation per kg diet appears to give an optimum level for protecting broiler chickens from C. perfringens infections. Bioactive components extracted from O. vulgare parts could be used in poultry diets levels of 10 to 30 g/kg. This review includes information on the use of O. vulgare and its derivatives in poultry nutrition. To maximise the overall productivity of poultry, oregano may be used as a natural alternative to antibiotics and drugs due to the absence of side effects and residues.
Researchers have been evaluating several approaches to assess acute radiation injury/toxicity markers owing to radiation exposure. Keeping in mind this background, we assumed that whole-body irradiation in single fraction in graded doses can affect the antioxidant profile in skin that could be used as an acute radiation injury/toxicity marker.
Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with CO-60 gamma radiation (dose: 1-5 Gy; dose rate: 0.85 Gy/minute). Skin samples were collected (before and after radiation up to 72 hours) and analyzed for glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation (LPx).
Intra-group comparison showed significant differences in GSH, GPx, SOD, and CAT, and they declined in a dose-dependent manner from 1 to 5 Gy (P value<0.01, r value: 0.3-0.5). LPx value increased (P value<0.01, r value: 0.3-0.5) as the dose increased, except in 1 Gy (P value>0.05).
This study suggests that skin antioxidants were sensitive toward radiation even at a low radiation dose, which can be used as a predictor of radiation injury and altered in a dose-dependent manner. These biochemical parameters may have wider application in the evaluation of radiation-induced skin injury and dose assessment. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:197–202).
Heat stress is one of the most important physiological factors challenging poultry production throughout the world especially in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Oxidative stress induced by heat stress not only compromises productivity and performance but also results in morbidity and mortality losses leading to the economic burden for poultry producers. It reduces the shelf life of poultry product in addition to poor meat and egg quality. Recently, a trend towards using phytochemicals derived from natural sources with potential antioxidant activities has increased. Lycopene is a predominant carotenoid pigment which is universally found in fruits and vegetables, with tomatoes and their products being key sources. Several in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that lycopene is a powerful antioxidant compared to other carotenoids. Supplementation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) derived lycopene revealed numerous health promoting activities in poultry birds, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulation, improved performance and better meat as well as egg quality. Lycopene maintains oxidative balance in birds through various ways including serving as a free radical scavenger, inhibiting signalling pathways and activating host antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT). The aims of this current review are to summarise mechanisms of action through which lycopene quench reactive species and maintain oxidative balance, highlight the potential role of lycopene as a natural antioxidant agent for poultry industry and examine the benefits to poultry producers when using this natural antioxidant on commercial basis in poultry diets to alleviate the adverse effects of heat stress.
Colonic effects of extruded whole-grain sorghum diets were evaluated using a model of growing rats. In all, twenty-four male Wistar rats were fed control (C), extruded white sorghum (EWS) or red sorghum (ERS). Consumption of sorghum diets showed satiety properties, with reduction of caecal pH, and lower activity of β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase enzymes. Decreased copper zinc superoxide dismutase and manganese superoxide dismutase and increased catalase and glutathione peroxidase levels were observed in colonic mucosa. The induction of antioxidant enzymes occurred through the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 protein and its subsequent translocation into the nucleus. ERS was able to decrease the proliferation of proximal mucosa of colon, demonstrating a possible effect against colorectal tumourigenesis. EWS increased proliferation and also apoptosis, ensuring the re-establishment of homoeostasis of the colonic mucosa. No antioxidant systemic effect (serum or hepatic level) was observed. It is likely that despite the extrusion the low bioavailability of the phenolic compounds of sorghum diets caused them to exert mainly acute effects at the colon level. Extruded whole-grain sorghum is a good functional ingredient that might be promising in dietary prevention of intestinal diseases.
We evaluated the effects of heat stress (HS) and methionine supplementation on biological markers of stress and expression of the genes for superoxide dismutase (SOD), thioredoxin (TRx), thioredoxin reductase 1 (TRxR1) and methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) in broilers aged 1 to 21 or 22 to 42 days. The broilers were divided into two treatments, one with the recommended level of methionine supplementation (MS, supplementation of dl-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid (dl-HMTBA)) and one without methionine supplementation (MD). The animals were maintained at a temperature of thermal comfort or one of HS (38°C for 24 h). Mortality was only observed in 42-day-old broilers exposed to HS and fed the MD diet, and the rate was 5%. Starter period: we observed an interaction effect between diet and temperature on the gene expression of TRxR1 and MsrA, and expression of these genes was higher in the HS animals that received the MS diet than that in birds with the MD diet. Grower period: the expression of SOD, TRxR1 and MsrA genes, activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine kinase (CK) and content of creatinine were influenced by both study variables. In the HS animals, the expression of these genes, AST activity and creatinine content increased and CK activity decreased. In the animals on the MD diet, the expression of these genes and AST and creatinine values were higher and the CK activity was lower than those for the birds on the MS diet. Our results indicated that under HS conditions, the supplementation with dl-HMTBA could mitigate major damage caused by stress through the action on some genes related to TRx complex activity.
We aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation of ACP-118® extender with the antioxidant catalase (10 and 50 µg/ml) on Sapajus apella sperm motility, vigour, and plasma membrane integrity during the processes of seminal liquefaction, cooling, and freezing. Catalase did not affect any of the evaluated parameters after semen dilution or cooling. Cryopreserved sperm in the presence of 50 µg/ml catalase presented a plasma membrane integrity similar to that fresh sperm, however.