To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A 40-year-old nulligravid woman presents to the office for management of abnormal uterine bleeding. She reports a four-year history of heavy menses, which often lasts for two weeks in length and requires at least 10 sanitary pads per day. She denies abdominal pain or associated dizziness during menses. She reports prior use of multiple hormonal medications, including oral medroxyprogesterone and combined oral contraceptive pills, without improvement in her bleeding patterns. She is not currently taking any medications other than over-the-counter ferrous sulfate. Her past medical history is significant for iron deficiency anemia. She denies any surgical history. She has no plans for future fertility and would like definitive surgical management. When signing the surgical consent, she refuses transfusion of blood products.
Twin pregnancies, especially those in which the twins share one placenta but have separate amnion sacs (referred to monochorionic, diamniotic or Mo-di twins), are at risk for a number of complications. Most notable of these is twin-twin transfusion syndrome. This condition can result in fetal morbidity or intrauterine fetal demise but is also amenable to surgical intervention. Severe discordance in amniotic fluid volumes between each twin is the prenatal finding that highlights this diagnosis. Selective laser photocoagulation has greatly improved the survival of twins with this condition. With a posteriorly located placenta, laser ablation of the abnormal placenta vascular communications can be achieved with local anesthesia and maternal sedation. Anterior placenta location may present a challenge for uterine access that may require modification of the anesthetic technique.
Anemia has created attention worldwide because of its adverse effects on the mother and the fetus during pregnancy. A large body of evidence has shown that pregnant women are the most vulnerable group to anemia.
This study aims to determine the prevalence of anemia, and associated risk factors, among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) at government and private hospitals in Bangladesh.
This cross-sectional study included 424 pregnant women, who visited hospitals for ANC from January to July 2019. We used a simple random sampling technique to select study subjects. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and participant’s current medical record cards. SPSS software was used for analyzing data.
The prevalence of anemia was 62.5% and significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the subjects attending ANC in government hospitals (68.7%) than in private (55.0%) hospitals. The prevalence of the severity of anemia was 28.3% mild, 36.9% moderate, and 3.40% severe in government hospitals while in private hospitals was 14.7% mild, 39.8% moderate, and 0.5% severe anemia. Anemia was significantly associated with maternal age 20–25 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.9] and 26–30 years (AOR = 2.37), monthly family income (300–500) US$ (AOR = 2.76), and ANC in government hospitals (AOR = 2.02), the parity [multiparous (AOR = 1.92)], gravidity [multigravid (AOR = 1.63)], contraception [no contraception (AOR = 2.50), and iron supplement [no iron supplement (AOR = 0.64).
The result suggests that pregnant women should receive routine ANC and recognize iron supplementation during pregnancy. Finally, the results of this study are particularly relevant for pregnant women who are receiving ANC.
The effects of iron deficiency on the prognosis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between serum iron levels and idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss prognosis and its usefulness as an independent prognostic marker for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
The audiological and haematological data, including hearing recovery and serum iron levels, of 103 patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss evaluated between 2015 and 2018 were retrospectively analysed.
The overall complete recovery rate was 16.5 per cent. Initial higher hearing threshold was associated with poor idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss prognosis. Serum iron levels were significantly higher in the complete recovery group than in the non-complete recovery group (p < 0.05).
The possibility of complete recovery from idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss was significantly lower with lower serum iron levels, suggesting that the serum iron level might be a novel prognostic marker for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
The history of Athens was influenced by the health of her citizens; from birth to old age, disease, injury, and warfare threatened the lives of citizens, or made them unable to participate in the life of the city. The study of skeletal remains from burials in Athens reveals the effect of these threats, and offers new information on historical plagues, attacks on the city, and ordinary events in the lives of Athenians.
Bone marrow (BM) hyperplasia, a non-neoplastic expansion of one or more of the haematopoietic cell lineages due to an increased number of cells, can manifest in a range of morphological appearances depending on the underlying cause. Similarly to other tissue types, hyperplasia is often associated with an increase in the number of cells with less mature morphology. It is this reactive atypia/dyshaemopoietic morphology that needs careful assessment and correlation/integration with clinical, biochemical, radiological and often molecular findings to correctly interpret the underlying process and avoid misdiagnosis as a neoplastic proliferation. This chapter will consider erythroid, myeloid and megakaryocytic hyperplasia. Reactive conditions of histiocytes are covered in Chapter 6.
role of global cognition in the association between Anemia and depression.
We examined the longitudinal relationships between hemoglobin concentrations or Anemia and depression and whether baseline cognitive function modifies these longitudinal relationships over 4 years of follow-up.
A total of 1608 community-dwelling older adults from the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS) aged 65 to 74 years were recruited in Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia), Kingston (Ontario, Canada), and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec, Canada). The study outcome was depression, defined by a score of 16 or over in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Longitudinal associations over four years follow-up were examined using generalized estimating equations. Models reported were either unadjusted and adjusted for research sites, alcohol drinking status, body mass index, chronic conditions, activities of daily life disabilities, and polypharmacy.
Longuitinal relationships suggested an evidence of multiplicative interaction by baseline global cognition in which 1g/dL increase in hemoglobin concentrations there was a significant reduction in the risk of depression with a stronger effect among participants with good cognitive function (Odds Ratio (OR)=0.85, 95% CI: 0.78-0.92) compared to those with poor cognition (OR=0.89, 95% CI: 0.80-0.97). Anemia and poor cognition at baseline were associated with an increased risk of depression over four years of follow-up (OR=5.80, 95% CI: 1.84-18.23). Global cognition was also an effect modifier of the longitudinal association between the severity of Anemia and depression.
In international samples of older adults, hemoglobin concentrations, as well as the severity of Anemia, were independent risk factors for depression, and these associations differed by global cognitive function.
Chapter six, “The Struggle Against Hookworm Disease,” examines the early campaigns of the Rockefeller Foundation to reduce transmission of the widespread helminthic infection. Launched in the southern United States and then extended southward in the western hemisphere and into the eastern hemisphere, the anti-hookworm campaigns became the very first global health initiative. Although the campaigns utilized chemical therapies to reduce the intestinal worm load, their primary focus was on changing defecation habits, to encourage better sanitation. The campaigns failed to meet their goals, underscoring the limitations of mass drug treatment and the difficulties of changing entrenched defecation practices and the use of human waste as fertilizer.
This study investigated the health effects of Lake Urmia’s drought on adjacent urban and rural areas and people.
The data for sociodemographic status, physical activity, dietary pattern, smoking, and angina of the subjects living in areas adjacent to and far from Lake Urmia were collected through validated questionnaires. Physical examinations, including blood pressure, anthropometrics, and biochemical measurements, were performed.
There were no significant differences between 2 areas in the case of age, sex, educational, and physical activity and smoking status (P > 0.05). The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the prevalence of hypertension, prehypertension, and anemia in cases living in the adjacent areas were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between 2 districts in the prevalence of hyperlipidemia, overweight/obesity, asthma, angina, infraction, diabetes, and vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency.
Our data showed that Lake Urmia’s drought has serious effects on hypertension and anemia. More longitudinal and well-designed studies are needed to confirm these results.
Objectives: Although pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is estimated to affect 2–3% of the general population, its prevalence in sickle cell disease (SCD) is much higher, with research suggesting a prevalence rate of upwards of 40%. Despite the similar underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of neurocognitive effects in pediatric OSA and SCD, there is a scarcity of information on how these two conditions interact. The aim of this study was to better understand the contribution of sleep apnea to neurocognitive deficits in children diagnosed with SCD. Method: This study assessed cognitive function in 26 children with comorbid SCD and OSA, 39 matched comparisons with SCD only, and 59 matched comparisons in children without a chronic health condition. Results: There were significant differences on measures of processing speed and reading decoding, with children without a chronic health condition scoring better than both chronic health condition groups. Additionally, the no chronic health condition group performed better on a test of quantitative knowledge and reasoning and a test of visual–spatial construction than the SCD-only group. Contrary to our hypotheses, there were no between-group differences suggesting an additive impact of OSA on cognition. Exploratory analyses revealed associations within the group that had OSA showing that more severe OSA correlated with lower performance on measures of processing speed and quantitative knowledge/reasoning. Conclusions: Children with comorbid OSA and SCD do not present with greater deficits in cognitive functioning than children with SCD alone. However, severe OSA may confer additional risk for neurocognitive impairments.
To study the frequency of laboratory test abnormalities, and electrophysiological correlations, we performed a retrospective chart review of 226 patients with polyneuropathy. The frequency of laboratory test abnormalities, and correlations with electrophysiological findings were explored. Abnormal glucose handling tests were the most common findings (54%), followed by paraproteinemia (21%) and anemia (21%). The frequencies of paraproteinemia and anemia in our cohort were significantly higher than previously reported. In addition, several laboratory abnormalities correlated with electrophysiological findings of median neuropathy at the wrist, expanding current knowledge about the deleterious effects of various metabolic and hematologic derangements at this site.
As a pilot study to investigate whether personalized medicine approaches could have value for the reduction of malaria-related mortality in young children, we evaluated questionnaire and biomarker data collected from the Mother Offspring Malaria Study Project birth cohort (Muheza, Tanzania, 2002–2006) at the time of delivery as potential prognostic markers for pediatric severe malarial anemia. Severe malarial anemia, defined here as a Plasmodium falciparum infection accompanied by hemoglobin levels below 50 g/L, is a key manifestation of life-threatening malaria in high transmission regions. For this study sample, a prediction model incorporating cord blood levels of interleukin-1β provided the strongest discrimination of severe malarial anemia risk with a C-index of 0.77 (95% CI 0.70–0.84), whereas a pragmatic model based on sex, gravidity, transmission season at delivery, and bed net possession yielded a more modest C-index of 0.63 (95% CI 0.54–0.71). Although additional studies, ideally incorporating larger sample sizes and higher event per predictor ratios, are needed to externally validate these prediction models, the findings provide proof of concept that risk score-based screening programs could be developed to avert severe malaria cases in early childhood.
Monochorionic twins share a single placenta and are connected with each other through vascular anastomoses. Unbalanced inter-twin blood transfusion may lead to various complications, including twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and twin anemia polycythemia sequence (TAPS). TAPS was first described less than a decade ago, and the pathogenesis of TAPS results from slow blood transfusion from donor to recipient through a few minuscule vascular anastomoses. This gradually leads to anemia in the donor and polycythemia in the recipient, in the absence of twin oligo-polyhydramnios sequence (TOPS). TAPS may occur spontaneously in 3–5% of monochorionic twins or after laser surgery for TTTS. The prevalence of post-laser TAPS varies from 2% to 16% of TTTS cases, depending on the rate of residual anastomoses. Pre-natal diagnosis of TAPS is currently based on discordant measurements of the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV; >1.5 multiples of the median [MoM] in donors and <1.0 in recipients). Post-natal diagnosis is based on large inter-twin hemoglobin (Hb) difference (>8 g/dL), and at least one of the following: reticulocyte count ratio >1.7 or minuscule placental anastomoses. Management includes expectant management, and intra-uterine blood transfusion (IUT) with or without partial exchange transfusion (PET) or fetoscopic laser surgery. Post-laser TAPS can be prevented by using the Solomon laser surgery technique. Short-term neonatal outcome ranges from isolated inter-twin Hb differences to severe neonatal morbidity and neonatal death. Long-term neonatal outcome in post-laser TAPS is comparable with long-term outcome after treated TTTS. This review summarizes the current knowledge after 10 years of research on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, management, and outcome in TAPS.
Decreased hemoglobin levels increase the risk of developing dementia among the elderly. However, the underlying mechanisms that link decreased hemoglobin levels to incident dementia still remain unclear, possibly due to the fact that few studies have reported on the relationship between low hemoglobin levels and neuroimaging markers. We, therefore, investigated the relationships between decreased hemoglobin levels, cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD), and cortical atrophy in cognitively healthy women and men.
Cognitively normal women (n = 1,022) and men (n = 1,018) who underwent medical check-ups and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were enrolled at a health promotion center. We measured hemoglobin levels, white matter hyperintensities (WMH) scales, lacunes, and microbleeds. Cortical thickness was automatically measured using surface based methods. Multivariate regression analyses were performed after controlling for possible confounders.
Decreased hemoglobin levels were not associated with the presence of WMH, lacunes, or microbleeds in women and men. Among women, decreased hemoglobin levels were associated with decreased cortical thickness in the frontal (Estimates, 95% confidence interval, −0.007, (−0.013, −0.001)), temporal (−0.010, (−0.018, −0.002)), parietal (−0.009, (−0.015, −0.003)), and occipital regions (−0.011, (−0.019, −0.003)). Among men, however, no associations were observed between hemoglobin levels and cortical thickness.
Our findings suggested that decreased hemoglobin levels affected cortical atrophy, but not increased CSVD, among women, although the association is modest. Given the paucity of modifiable risk factors for age-related cognitive decline, our results have important public health implications.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is blood disorder with a high risk for cerebral vascular morbidities that impact neurocognitive functioning. Specific cognitive abilities are known to be more sensitive to neurologic effects of SCD than IQ scores, yet there is little consensus about which measures to use to assess neurocognitive functioning. We evaluated the ability of the Executive Abilities: Methods and Instruments for Neurobehavioral Evaluation and Research (EXAMINER) Battery to detect neurologic effects in SCD. Thirty-two youth with SCD and sixty demographically-matched comparison youth completed the EXAMINER Battery and selected tests from the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability, 3rd edition (WJ-III). Neurologic severity was examined via clinical history for morbidities and midsagittal corpus callosum (CC) area. Results indicated cognitive performance decreased with increasing neurologic morbidity across all cognitive measures; two of four EXAMINER factors were related to CC area. The association with clinical history and midsagittal CC area appeared at least as large for the Examiner Battery scores as for the WJ-III measures. The Examiner Battery showed sensitivity to neurologic history and white matter effects in SCD; this new measure compares favorably to established measures of disease-related neurocognitive effects, but would benefit from further development. (JINS, 2014, 1, 1–12)
Twin–twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is an antenatal complication of monochorionic multiple gestations. There have been few studies exploring the role of laser photocoagulation or outcomes following treatment in monochorionic triplet pregnancies with TTTS. We present a case where TTTS and twin anemia–polycythemia sequence (TAPS) complicated a monochorionic triplet pregnancy. Following the laser photocoagulation to treat the TTTS between the triplets, an intra-uterine death occurred in one triplet and TAPS developed in the remaining two triplets. Intervention in this case resulted in a 2-week prolongation of pregnancy and a positive outcome for the remaining fetuses. This case and other published data reviewed in this article suggest that laser photocoagulation has a potential role for TTTS in monochorionic triplet pregnancies.
Previous research has identified cognitive impairment in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA, Hemoglobin SS) compared with controls, partly accounted for by overt neuropathology after clinical stroke, “covert” (“silent”) infarction, and severity of anemia. However, cognitive deficits have also been identified in children with SCA with no history of stroke and a normal T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Our aim was to investigate whether nocturnal hemoglobin oxygen desaturation and sleep fragmentation could be associated with cognitive impairment in children with SCA. We assessed 10 children with SCA (9 with normal MRI) using neuropsychological measures of executive function. Cognitive assessment was immediately followed by overnight polysomnography to record nocturnal hemoglobin oxygen saturation and sleep arousals. Decreases in hemoglobin oxygen saturation and/or increased sleep arousals were associated with reduced performance on cognitive assessment. Nocturnal hemoglobin oxygen desaturation and sleep fragmentation may be a contributing factor to executive dysfunction in SCA. (JINS, 2012, 18, 168–173)
Iron, folate, and vitamin B12 deficiency are the most common hematinic deficiencies. Maternal iron deficiency anemia affects both mother and fetus. Iron-dependent enzymes in every cell are affected and there are neuromuscular, gastrointestinal, and epithelial consequences that can influence fetal mortality, growth, and programing. Anemia screening is primarily done by measuring the hemoglobin. Further investigation is usually a ferritin level or a trial of iron. Periconceptual folic acid is advised to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. Folate prophylaxis should be considered in at risk groups such as those on anticonvulsants and with chronic hereditary or acquired red cell disorders. Folate stores can be depleted within months and women need education on diet to ensure recommended folate consumption. B12 deficiency is rare in pregnancy and vitamin B12 levels should be interpreted with caution. B12 levels fall in pregnancy by up to 50% in the third trimester.
We investigated the association of increased cerebral blood flow velocity with specific language abilities in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Thirty-nine children ages 5 to 8 years old with high-risk genotypes of SCD underwent cognitive testing, which included tests of language skills, visual motor skills, and attention/working memory as part of a routine hematology health-maintenance visit. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) velocities were obtained from review of medical records, with the velocities that were in closest temporal proximity to the cognitive assessment used in the analysis. TCD velocities predicted scores on tests of syntactical skills, even when controlling for anemia severity. Semantic and phonological ability and other cognitive skills were not strongly related to TCD velocities. Elevated blood flow velocities in children with high-risk SCD may contribute to a specific language impairment or to a broader dysfunction of short-term and/or working memory. This study underscores the need for clinicians to monitor language skills of children with SCD who have elevated TCD velocities, as these cognitive abilities might be particularly sensitive to cerebrovascular disruption related to their disease. (JINS, 2010, 16, 326–334.)