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Two properties – robustness and plasticity – characterize development as the bridge between genotype and phenotype. Developmental robustness is the capacity of a developmental system to produce the same phenotype irrespective of changes in external conditions (and, to some extent, of genetic change). Developmental plasticity is the production of different phenotypes by individuals with the same genotype, as a response to exposure to different external conditions. This outcome is called polyphenism if there is a clear discontinuity between the produced phenotypes, e.g. male vs. female in the alligator, in response to different temperatures in a critical phase of embryonic development. Phenotypic differences are not restricted to morphology, but extend to the temporal dimension, e.g. in the annual, biennial or perennial habit of plants, or in their flowering calendar. Periodization of development is to some extent arbitrary even in organisms where the individual’s life is punctuated by events such as moults in arthropods. The determination of age is also to some extent arbitrary. Senescence is conspicuous (often dramatic) in many organisms, but apparently non-existent in others.
Executive functions (EF) and focal attention have been identified as a weakness in the profile of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). However, due to a high variety of tasks used across previous studies, it remains unclear whether impairments may be more pronounced for specific subdomains of EF and focal attention. Furthermore, age-related changes have only been examined in a few studies, so far only yielding a partial view of the overall developmental profile.
In a broad age range (8–35 years) composed of longitudinal data, 183 participants (103 diagnosed with 22q11DS) completed an extensive assessment of EF and attention. To get a more comprehensive overview of specific versus global impairments, several tasks were assessed within multiple domains.
Results suggest differential impairments and trajectories in specific EF subdomains. Specifically, our findings suggest that individuals with 22q11DS not only showed lower overall inhibition skills, but also that initiation skills developed at a slower pace compared to healthy controls. Results are less clear regarding cognitive flexibility, updating and focal attention, for which performance strongly depended on the tasks that was selected to assess the domain.
Findings confirm and extend knowledge on differential developmental patterns of EF and attention domains in 22q11DS. They further stress the necessity to administer extensive, multifaceted evaluations to gain a more reliable overview of patients’ cognitive profile.
This chapter considers how Alzheimer’s narratives written by and about women are using literary forms to explore the relations among gender, personhood, and care. Feminist theory has developed a powerful arsenal for challenging ageism directed toward the female body and the social devaluation of aging women but has been less adept at reframing narratives about dependency and cognitive change that inevitably come with advanced age, and are amplified by age-related Alzheimer’s. I argue that narratives Gerda Saunders and Elinor Fuchs highlight the limitations to our current ways of imagining the gendering of age-related dependency, and offer ways of thinking otherwise. I am particularly interested in how narrative portrays the temporalities of dementia; how individual narratives manage the formal challenges of representing a self that is in the process of being irrevocably transformed; and how, in the bleakest situations, care givers and receivers find glimpses of unexpected intimacy, compassion, and interconnection.
A question that is of central significance but has been largely ignored in the literature is whether learners of different age groups benefit from corrective feedback in different ways. This chapter seeks to discuss the theory, research, and pedagogy pertaining to the role of age in mediating the incidence and effects of corrective feedback. The chapter begins with a theoretical explanation of the relationship between age and corrective feedback. It then zeroes in on descriptive research investigating feedback provided to children by their parents or caregivers while acquiring their first language. It proceeds to discuss feedback in second language learning, summarizing descriptive research conducted in the language classroom and laboratory contexts. The effects of input-providing and output-prompting feedback from descriptive and experimental research were analyzed through the lens of participants’ ages. One pattern that emerged from the research is that output-prompting feedback leads to greater linguistic gains than input-providing feedback among child learners. The chapter concludes with implications for researchers and teachers, proposing ways to carry out research to examine the various issues surrounding the role of age through research and ways to maximize the effects of feedback for learners of different ages in the second language classroom.
To evaluate age-related differences in the independent/combined association of added sugar intake from soda and body adiposity with hyperuricaemia in gender-stratified US adults.
Consumption of added sugar from soda was calculated from 24-h dietary interviews and categorised into none, regular and excessive consumption. Hyperuricaemia was defined as serum uric acid levels >417 mmol/l in men and >357 mmol/l in women. Multiple regression models with interaction terms and logistic models adjusted for covariates were conducted under survey-data modules.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2007–2016.
15 338 adults without gout, failing kidneys, an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30 or diabetes were selected.
The age-stratified prevalence rate of hyperuricaemia was 18·8–20·4 % in males and 6·8–17·3 % in females. Hyperuricaemia prevalence of approximately 50 % was observed in young and middle age males who consumed excessive added sugar from soda. Excessive added sugar intake was observed to be associated with 1·5- to 2·0-fold and 2·0- to 2·3-fold increased risk of the probability of hyperuricaemia in young and middle age males and middle age females, respectively. Study participants, regardless of age or gender, who were obese and consumed excessive added sugar from soda had the highest risk of having hyperuricaemia.
Our study revealed that the association between hyperuricaemia and consumption of excessive added sugar from soda may vary by age and gender. Obese adults who consumed excessive added sugar from soda had the highest risk of hyperuricaemia, a finding that was found across all age-specific groups for both genders.
Iron and/or iodine deficiencies can have multiple serious adverse health outcomes, but examination of incidence rates of these deficiencies have rarely been conducted in any large population. This study examined incidence rates, temporal trends, and demographic factors associated with medically-diagnosed iron and iodine deficiencies/disorders in United States (US) military service members (SMs).
The Defense Medical Epidemiological Database (DMED) was queried for medical visits of active duty SMs to obtain specific International Classification of Diseases, Version 9, codes involving clinically-diagnosed iron and iodine deficiencies/disorders.
Analysis of existing database (DMED).
Entire population of US military service members from 1997 to 2015 (average N per yr=1,382,266, 15% women).
Overall incidence rates for iron and iodine were 104 and 36 cases/100,000 person-years, respectively. Over the 19-year period, rates for iron disorders increased steadily (108% for men, 177% for women). Rates for iodine disorders also increased steadily for men (91%), but for women there was an initial rise followed by a later decline. Overall, women’s rates were 12 and 10 times higher than men’s for iron and iodine, respectively. Compared to whites, blacks and those of other races had higher rates of deficiencies of both minerals. Incidence rates for iodine deficiency increased substantially with age.
The overall incidence of clinically-diagnosed iron and iodine deficiency among SMs was low, but increased over the 19 years examined and certain demographic groups were at significantly greater risk. Given the unexpected increases in incidence of these mineral disorders increased surveillance may be appropriate.
Flexible work practices (FWPs) give employees some control over when and where they work. Using boundary theory and role balance theory, this study proposes and tests a mediation model focusing on how the relationships between FWPs usage and employee outcomes (i.e., wellbeing and turnover intention) are mediated by work−life balance (WLB). It also tests the moderating role of employee age on the relationship between WLB and employee outcomes using socioemotional selectivity theory. The model was tested using survey data from 293 employees of an Australian for-profit organization. The findings indicate that FWPs usage is positively associated with WLB, WLB is positively associated with wellbeing and negatively with turnover intentions, and WLB partially mediates the relationships between FWPs usage and employee outcomes. The results provide partial support that employee age moderates the relationship between WLB and turnover intentions. Theoretical, research and practical contributions are discussed.
Chapter 4 examines motherhood as a metaphor for intimate bonds forged across considerable differences in age and social and economic status. It takes up from the mother-daughter terminology deployed among female football players who consider each other “team mothers” and “team daughters” and praise themselves for having a market woman as their “sugar mama.” This requires a closer look at the world of female football, at the figure of the market woman, and at the materiality of love. The chapter touches on the reciprocities as well as the dynamics of exploitation and inequality within relationships that include a “sugar mum” and a “small girl” or an older “giver” and a younger “receiver.” Through practices such us giving each other to potential lovers, friendships are probed and tested. While these circular practices limit the togetherness of twosomes, they also contain and bind them into informal same-sex bonding collectivities in which love emerges as mode of sociality.
Superovulation protocols have been described for different mouse strains, however the numbers of animals used are still high and still little information is known about hormone administration schedules and estrous cycle phases. In this study, we aimed to optimize a superovulation protocol by injecting 5 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin followed by 5 IU of hCG 48 h later, using three different schedules related to the beginning of the dark cycle (3, 5 and 7 pm) in a light cycle of 7 am to 7 pm, with light on at 7 am. C57BL/6J mice at 3, 4 and 5 weeks of age were used and the estrous cycle phase for times of PMSG and hCG injections was also analyzed. Total oocyte number was counted in the morning after hCG injection. Hormones given at 3 weeks of age at 3 pm (59 ± 15 oocytes) and 7 pm (61 ± 10 oocytes) produced a significantly higher oocyte number compared with oocytes numbers collected from females at the same age at 5 pm (P = 0.0004 and <0.0001 respectively). Females at 4 and 5 weeks of age produced higher numbers of oocytes when superovulated at 7 pm. No statistical differences between females at different phases of the estrous cycle were found. These results showed that in C57BL/6J mice, hormones should be given at 3 or 7 pm for females at 3 weeks of age, however older females should be superovulated closer to the beginning of the dark cycle to reduce female mouse use and increase the numbers of oocytes produced per female.
Despite the high commercial value of the striped seabream Lithognathus mormyrus (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gulf of Tunis, biological data on its age, growth and exploitation rate are lacking. With the aim of estimating growth parameters, 516 individuals, ranging from 6–27.5 cm total length and from 3.5–293.5 g total weight, were collected from the artisanal fishing fleet between February 2014 and July 2016. The somatic growth presented a positive allometry and was described by the equation TW = 6.54 10−3TL3.213. The monthly analysis of the marginal increment of the otoliths revealed that only one annulus was deposited per year. The estimated von Bertalanffy growth parameters were: L∞ = 30.18 cm, k = 0.303 year−1 and t0 = −1.42 years. Total and natural instantaneous rates of mortality were respectively Z = 0.784 year−1 and M = 0.698 year−1. Exploitation rate (E = 0.1) showed that the Gulf of Tunis stock of L. mormyrus is not overexploited. The estimated length class giving highest yield (Lopt) was 17.15 ± 1.71 cm.
This chapter considers key aspects of the context that affect participants’ judgements of other people’s behaviour as well as their own. It starts by drawing an important distinction between context and the focal event and points out that while participants evaluate the focal event, that focal event is embedded in a context that frames interpretation and hence needs to be understood conceptually. The chapter explores it from two main angles: the scene and the participants, unpacking each of these angles in turn and considering how cultural factors may influence participants’ conceptualisation and interpretation of the various components of the context. The discussion not only emphasises that context is particularly important in intercultural encounters, but also that it cannot be limited to linguistic context, or even to aspects of contexts that can be studied with the conventional inventory of politeness research. Individuals bring a complex cluster of pre-existing extralinguistic and extra-contextual knowledge to interactions, and this cluster may underlie a striking variety of miscommunications in contexts where common ground is minimal. This, in turn, implies that any theory of context in intercultural politeness needs to be multidisciplinary in character. There are three main sections to the chapter: scene; participants; focal event.
As a gendered perspective has emerged in wider society over the past 50 or so years, a greater interest in gender- and age-related research in science has similarly occurred, including for the study of the past (archaeology) and the present (ethnology). Here, I focus on the Mal'ta collection – a well-known Ice Age site located in Siberia. In particular, I focus on several mammoth ivory anthropomorphic sculptures which appear to reflect stages of human childhood, including infancy and the teenage years. These sculptures feature realistic elements, including proportions of each phase of childhood consistent with anthropometric data, details of clothing and accessories, and special benchmarks of puberty. Based on these figurines, I propose a developmental framework of the Paleolithic child from this society. Additionally, I discuss the burial of two children also found at Mal'ta, which provides additional insights into childhood within this Ice Age society. Particular attention is given to artefacts such as the ‘hanging birds’ and animal figurines with a flat base for standing. These artefacts could be interpreted as toys, as amulets for a child's cradle or as family heirlooms, with analogies to such objects preserved in the cultures of the aboriginal population of Siberia and the Far North.
Faced with the situation of COVID-19, teachers are dealing with new measures, insecurity and a lack of clear guidelines. The aim of this study is to analyse the levels of stress, anxiety and depression of teachers in the north of Spain.
This study was conducted with 1633 teachers from the Department of Education of the Basque Autonomous Community (BAC) and Navarre, all of whom are professionals working in various educational centres, from nursery education to university studies, with an average age of 42 years (M = 42.02; s.d. = 10.40). The Spanish version of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 was used.
The results show that a high percentage of teachers have symptoms of stress, anxiety and depression. Women show significantly more symptoms of stress and anxiety than men, those who have children have more depressive symptoms than those who do not, and people with chronic pathology or those who live with others with chronic pathology have more stress, anxiety and depression.
This study indicates the importance of attending to the mental health of teachers, particularly women, those who have children, and those who have a chronic pathology or a family member with a chronic pathology.
The aim of this study was to analyze life satisfaction in a sample of 70 children and adolescents (M = 12.21, SD = 2.85) with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), according to parents’ and children’s/adolescents’ reports. In addition, we examined the influence of a series of child/adolescent variables (ADHD presentation, and Conduct Disorder (CD) symptoms, age, gender, and pharmacological support status) on their levels of life satisfaction. Results indicated moderate correlations between children’s/adolescents’ and parents’ perceptions of life satisfaction (r = .40; p < .01), with school being the area with the lowest levels of satisfaction. Also, 44.3% of the sample of parents reported that ADHD drastically interferes negatively in this context. Examining the effects of child/adolescent variables, only the variables age and CD symptoms generated statistically significant differences, showing that as children/adolescents grow up and/or present associate symptoms of CD, perceptions of life satisfaction tend to be more negative. These variables explained 34.5% of the variance of a composite score of life satisfaction, demonstrating a negative effect over the dependent variable. These results might have important implications for diagnosis and intervention in ADHD, as they highlight the relevance of considering life satisfaction as an important aspect to consider in both processes. Further studies must look more deeply into the mechanisms that explain these findings.
Fear of crime among older people has been a frequent topic in ageing research, criminology and urban studies. The ‘environmental docility hypothesis’ assumes that older people are more vulnerable to adverse neighbourhood conditions than younger age groups. Yet, few studies have tested this influential hypothesis using samples of respondents covering the complete adult lifespan. Looking at fear of crime, we investigated the person–environment interaction of age and neighbourhood disadvantage, using two independent surveys comprising 12,620 respondents aged 25–90 years residing in 435 neighbourhoods in four cities in Germany and Australia. We used multi-level analysis and cross-level interactions to model age-differential effects of neighbourhood disadvantage on fear. Contrary to the hypothesis, we found a weakening of neighbourhood effects on fear with age. The strong effect of neighbourhood disadvantage on fear of crime dropped by around half from the youngest (25 years) to the oldest age (90 years) in both countries. Younger people were almost as fearful as older people in the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods, but older people were considerably more fearful than younger ages in better-off neighbourhoods. We found limited empirical support for the assumption that this diminished association between neighbourhood disadvantage and fear can be explained by the stronger neighbourhood attachment of older people. The limitations of the analysis and potential future directions of research are discussed.
Helminth infections in wood mice (n = 483), trapped over a period of 26 years in the woods surrounding Malham Tarn in North Yorkshire, were analysed. Although 10 species of helminths were identified, the overall mean species richness was 1.01 species/mouse indicating that the helminth community was relatively depauperate in this wood mouse population. The dominant species was Heligmosomoides polygyrus, the prevalence (64.6%) and abundance (10.4 worms/mouse) of which declined significantly over the study period. Because of the dominance of this species, analyses of higher taxa (combined helminths and combined nematodes) also revealed significantly declining values for prevalence, although not abundance. Helminth species richness (HSR) and Brillouin's index of diversity (BID) did not show covariance with year, neither did those remaining species whose overall prevalence exceeded 5% (Syphacia stroma, Aonchotheca murissylvatici and Plagiorchis muris). Significant age effects were detected for the prevalence and abundance of all higher taxa, H. polygyrus and P. muris, and for HSR and BID, reflecting the accumulation of helminths with increasing host age. Only two cases of sex bias were found; male bias in abundance of P. muris and combined Digenea. We discuss the significance of these results and hypothesize about the underlying causes.
Selective motor inhibition is known to decline with age. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of failures at inhibitory control of adjacent finger movements while performing a repetitive finger tapping task in young, middle-aged and older adults. Potential education and sex effects were also evaluated.
Kinematic recordings of adjacent finger movements were obtained on 107 healthy adults (ages 20–80) while they performed a modified version of the Halstead Finger Tapping Test (HTFF). Study participants were instructed to inhibit all finger movements while tapping with the index finger.
Inability to inhibit adjacent finger movements while performing the task was infrequent in young adults (2.9% of individuals between 20 and 39 years of age) but increased with age (23.3% between the ages of 40 and 59; 31.0% between ages 60 and 80). Females and males did not differ in their inability to inhibit adjacent finger movements, but individuals with a college education showed a lower frequency of failure to inhibit adjacent finger movements (10.3%) compared to those with a high school education (28.6%). These findings were statistically significant only for the dominant hand.
Selective motor inhibition failures are most common in the dominant hand and occur primarily in older healthy adults while performing the modified version of the HFTT. Monitoring selective motor inhibition failures may have diagnostic significance.
Age has become an increasingly contested form of division within contemporary society, with some writers suggesting age has become ‘the new class’ while others point to increasing ‘ageism’ in society. In exploring such competing claims, this paper examines the basis for considering age as a social class, category or group. Drawing upon Bourdieu's writings on classification and the criteria for what constitutes a social class or category and the ‘objective’ and ‘symbolic’ criteria defining it, the paper argues that the material criteria for distinguishing between ‘retired’ and ‘working-age’ households have almost disappeared. At the same time, the symbolic representation of age is no longer confined to the parameters of poverty. Shorn of its objective distinction, the symbolic representation of old age seems to have bifurcated, between a generational identity where older people are represented as an advantaged group and an aged identity still essentialised as old and weak. The dissolution of an objective material basis for framing age has taken away much of the underlying basis for a coherent symbolic categorisation of age. Later life might better be seen as a contested symbolic space, framed by the dual axes of socio-historical generation and corporeal, chronological agedness.
Retirement timing can have important health implications. Little is known, however, about older adults’ views on this issue and whether they consider it better to retire later, earlier, on time or anytime. This knowledge gap about older adults’ views is particularly true outside North America and Europe. This qualitative study aims to examine older Chileans’ ideas about the relationship between retirement timing and health and to explore gender and class patterns in qualitative themes identified, knowledge which may strengthen quantitative population-based approaches. Framework analysis was conducted on qualitative accounts from a purposive, non-random sample of 40 older Chileans in six focus groups, stratified by gender and class as marked by lifetime occupation. Transcriptions were coded by two independent reviewers (inter-coder reliability = 81%) according to four deductive categories of retirement timing as well as inductive coding of emergent themes. The content and sequence of codes were visually represented in MAXQDA's document portraits and illustrated with descriptive quotes. Results indicate that participants’ views about when to retire in order to maximise health did not highlight retirement age or timing (later, earlier, on time, anytime). Instead, these older Chileans emphasised that the optimal retirement age depends on other conditions, such as employment quality, retirement income and gender. These views were patterned: lower occupational-class participants emphasised income and job hazards, higher-class males emphasised job satisfaction and higher-class females emphasised gendered patterns. Women and lower-class participants were relatively more favourable to earlier retirements than men and higher-class participants. Overall, qualitative analyses of lay perspectives from understudied country contexts complement and extend population-based models focused on timing or retirement age, suggest specific characteristics of retirement transitions that may moderate health consequences, and highlight class and gender differences in views of retirement timing. More research is needed using mixed-methods approaches and leveraging both purposive and random samples.