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This chapter explores the relationship between theatrical music, visual record, and audience memory as mediated by a group of Attic vases, mostly dated from the mid- to late sixth century BCE, that show choruses of animals, animal-riders, and/or men wearing animal costumes. I argue for a new interpretation of these sympotic vessels, whereby they are understood as objects that engage and participate in a viewer’s memory of choral performance. I emphasize the referential flexibility of such images of theatrical music-making, which can evoke one specific performance but also, simultaneously, multiple performances across various genres. The vases thus activate a viewer’s cultural repertoire of choreia, which could include his own bodily experience of singing and dancing in a chorus; in doing so, they draw him in as both spectator and performer within their own choral productions.
This chapter surveys archaic and classical Greek ideas about music and memory. It first asks why song-producers and audiences, while readily acknowledging the effectiveness and value of music’s verbal components as preservers and enhancers of memory, do not seem to recognize the purely musical elements as being especially “memorable.” Second, I turn to Aristotle, seeking to piece together how he thinks music – along with “voice” and sounds in general – functions in relation to memory, primarily through the psychological-somatic workings of the human “imagination,” i.e., his notions of affect (pathos) and phantasia. Even while Aristotle does not address musical memory directly, his work provides a sophisticated account of the material and physiological processes whereby hearing and memory operate in humans and other animals – adumbrating modern accounts based on a more accurate understanding of neurology and cognition. At the same time, since ancient music was experienced live (rather than through recordings or broadcasts) and could never be exactly repeated, there existed a different relationship between present and past in music-listening than most of us are used to today.
The second section foregrounds methodological approaches to twenty-first century fiction, starting with Candice Jenkins’s examination of Afro-Futurism and Afro-Pessimism as conceptual frameworks within which contemporary African American fiction has represented the past and present during “the Black Lives Matter era.” Discerning an inherently speculative quality to the two separate bodies of thought, Jenkins argues they share a “a certain radicalism–one inclined towards both building and destroying worlds.” This speculative radicality infuses the work of a remarkably broad range of writers, including N. K. Jemisin, Jesmyn Ward, Colson Whitehead, with the generatively imagined restructured societies derived not from utopianism, but the negative affects of intractable historical racism.
In its one hundred years of existence, the Communist Party of China has experimented with how to connect its narratives of legitimacy to people's affects. In this essay, I trace the conceptualization of gratitude, from its repudiation in the Mao era as a vestige of feudalism and imperialism to its return in the reform era as a re-verticalization of Party sovereignty. The paper addresses four examples of gratitude work: Politburo Standing Committee member Wang Yang's short-lived critique of gratitude in the name of a different conception of popular sovereignty; the celebration of the tenth anniversary of the Sichuan earthquake as a day of gratitude; the detention of Uyghurs in Xinjiang who are taught to be grateful to the Communist Party in a campaign of religious de-radicalization; and the refusal of gratitude in quarantined Wuhan during the COVID-19 pandemic. In these cases, the Communist Party's sovereignty stands at the threshold between bio- and necro-politics, promising life and salvation in the midst of death and destruction.
Decades of research have shown that affect, emotions and moods, significantly impact all aspects of health behaviors. This research utilized a novel digital analogue technology (Morphii) to assess eight affective domains: stress, anxiety, loneliness, irritability, depression, pain, energy and overall feelings of wellness.
To demonstrate the feasibility of use and strength of relationship/comparison to validated measures.
A U.S. census-based sample of adults ages 18-80 (n=985) completed online assessments including the 8 Morphii’s and additional comparative mental/behavioral health assessments (PSS-4, GAD-7, UCLA Loneliness Scale V3, BITe, PHQ-8 & PHQ-2, P4 Pain Scale, WHO-5, CFQ-11, ESS, and Vitality Subscale SF-36) via the Prolific Academic online platform and were compensated nominally for their participation. The resulting sample was 51.6% female and 74.2% White.
Each Morphii was compared with the common corresponding industry assessment (e.g., Depression Morphii with PHQ) resulting in Pearson correlations ranging from -.519 to .761, with 6 of the 8 showing correlations above .700. Pearson correlations between dysfunction and each of the 8 Morphiis were significant at the p < .000 level, ranging from a low of .421 (Loneliness) to a high of .607 (Depression). Internal reliability was very good (Cronbach’s Alpha = .862). Respondents who expressed an assessment modality preference (55.2%) chose the Morphii type over traditional assessment format at a 2.5:1 ratio.
Morphii provides a reliable and valid assessment option with the ability to obtain a comprehensive (8 domains at once), efficient (less than 60 second administration), assessment with increased patient/client preference and engagement.
Milanak - submitting author - I serve on the advisory board for ADoH Scientific to consult on scientific research of Morphii development. To date, I have not been paid any money for this advisory role.
It is generally accepted that the body plays an important stylistic role, but few scholars embark on multimodal investigations of variation. In this chapter I discuss the results of two studies on the realization of the GOAT vowel to show that bodily practices occur alongside, and indeed can influence, linguistic behavior, both from moment to moment (through expressions of affect like smiling) and duratively (through facial postures like an open jaw). Study 1 reveals that GOAT exhibits a higher F2 when it occurs in the context of smiling, suggesting some sound changes may be advancing during moments when the body is used to express heightened affect. Study 2 illustrates that the more durative embodied practice of maintaining an open-jaw setting has had lowering consequences across the vowel system of California English – even for GOAT, which is typically described as undergoing fronting rather than lowering. The proposal advanced here assumes that linguistic variation is meaningful and that a non-trivial number of a linguistic variant’s social meanings derives from embodied practice. And crucially, meaning – some of it embodied – can initiate or influence the trajectory of change.
Recent network models propose that mutual interaction between symptoms has an important bearing on the onset of schizophrenic disorder. In particular, cross-sectional studies suggest that affective symptoms may influence the emergence of psychotic symptoms. However, longitudinal analysis offers a more compelling test for causation: the European Schizophrenia Cohort (EuroSC) provides data suitable for this purpose. We predicted that the persistence of psychotic symptoms would be driven by the continuing presence of affective disturbance.
EuroSC included 1208 patients randomly sampled from outpatient services in France, Germany and the UK. Initial measures of psychotic and affective symptoms were repeated four times at 6-month intervals, thereby furnishing five time-points. To examine interactions between symptoms both within and between time-slices, we adopted a novel technique for modelling longitudinal data in psychiatry. This was a form of Bayesian network analysis that involved learning dynamic directed acyclic graphs (DAGs).
Our DAG analysis suggests that the main drivers of symptoms in this long-term sample were delusions and paranoid thinking. These led to affective disturbance, not vice versa as we initially predicted. The enduring relationship between symptoms was unaffected by whether patients were receiving first- or second-generation antipsychotic medication.
In this cohort of people with chronic schizophrenia treated with medication, symptoms were essentially stable over long periods. However, affective symptoms appeared driven by the persistence of delusions and persecutory thinking, a finding not previously reported. Although our findings as ever remain hostage to unmeasured confounders, these enduring psychotic symptoms might nevertheless be appropriate candidates for directly targeted psychological interventions.
This chapter aims to describe the psychology of nonbelonging through co-constructed accounts by informal settlement residents who belong – yet also struggle to not belong – to ‘non-places’ such as the informal settlement. It illustrates how (non)belonging is performed as unspoken affective senses of place that are resonant in narratives. Using Lacanian psychoanalytic insights, the chapter contributes to an expanded conceptualisation of ‘senses of place’ by showing that we also perform place belonging in an ‘unconscious’ sense – beyond our discursive performances (place identity) or expressed feeling states (place attachment). This epistemological stance highlights senses of place belonging as coordinated via an unspoken social contract with the hovering interlocutor (Other), who offers the navigational cues to situate where we are (place) and to define who we are (identity).
An 1809 pen and ink caricature sketch by Scrope Berdmore Davies depicts ‘Ld B. as an Amatory Writer’. It is one of a group of four head-and-shoulders sketches, in profile, that includes their mutual Cambridge friends John Cam Hobhouse and Charles Skinner Matthews, depicted as ‘Two Authors of the Satirical Miscellany’, and a fourth figure, ‘The Satirist’ – possibly Davies himself, but more likely Hewson Clarke, a Cambridge enemy who had criticized Byron’s first published volume Hours of Idleness (1807) in The Satirist.2 But the ‘Satirist’ could also be Byron, for the poetic identity of ‘satirist’ had replaced that of ‘amatory writer’ with the publication of English Bards and Scotch Reviewers in March 1809. Coinciding with Byron’s first trip to Greece, which took place after the publication of English Bards, Davies made the sketch on the back of a letter he sent to Byron in June 1809, when Byron and Hobhouse were in Falmouth, waiting to sail for the Eastern Mediterranean. In its counterpointing of Byron as an amatory poet against the satirist, Davies’ sketch commemorates Byron’s turn from the amatory to the ‘Satirist’ style.
The 1937 manifesto “Blueprint for Negro Writing” is typically regarded as a programmatic articulation of the literary and aesthetic principles for the kind of socially engaged literature Richard Wright believed a modern Black writer ought to produce. This reading of the text assumes, however, an internally coherent argument that it does not entirely warrant. Indeed, I argue that the “Blueprint” is substantially haunted by a fear of alienation and isolation that tends to undermine its purportedly communalist politics. When read in the context of the vexed coterie politics of Dorothy West’s New Challenge magazine where it first appeared, as well as the edits and alternative draft notes in the archive, Wright’s attitude assumes a far more doubtful, and even vulnerable posture. This revised understanding of a key document in Wright’s oeuvre opens it—and by extension the early fiction as well—to new directions in Wright scholarship, especially those concerned with the intersection of race, affect, and alienation.
In 2015, Spain approved a law that offered citizenship to the descendants of Sephardi Jews expelled in 1492. Drawing on archival, ethnographic, and historical sources, I show that this law belongs to a political genealogy of philosephardism in which the “return” of Sephardi Jews has been imagined as a way to usher in a deferred Spanish modernity. Borrowing from anthropological theories of “racial fusion,” philosephardic thinkers at the turn of the twentieth century saw Sephardi Jews as inheritors of a racial mixture that made them living repositories of an earlier moment of national greatness. The senator Ángel Pulido, trained as an anthropologist, channeled these intellectual currents into an international campaign advocating the repatriation of Sephardi Jews. Linking this racial logic to an affective one, Pulido asserted that Sephardi Jews did not “harbor rancor” for the Expulsion, but instead felt love and nostalgia toward Spain, and could thus be trusted as loyal subjects who would help resurrect its empire. Today, affective criteria continue to be enmeshed in debates about who qualifies for inclusion and are inextricable from the histories of racial thought that made earlier exclusions possible. Like its precursors, the 2015 Sephardic citizenship law rhetorically fashioned Sephardi Jews as fundamentally Spanish, not only making claims about Sephardi Jews, but also making claims on them. Reckoning with how rancor and other sentiments have helped buttress such claims exposes the recalcitrant hold that philosephardic thought has on Spain's present, even those “progressive” political projects that promise to “return” what has been lost.
This chapter contextualizes contemporary Asian American literature in its innovative development of generic traditions, a ubiquitous screen culture and transmedia landscape, and the persistence of feminized cultural forms in the neoliberal global economy. It summarizes the constraints and possibilities that Asian American authors encounter when they write in the contemporary idiom of popular genres that target readers as women. Authors deploy forms aware of limitations and with the aim of engaging in dialogue about the belonging that popular literature addresses, both by design in a literary culture that neoliberal governance calls upon to offer templates for citizenship, and through authors’ and readers’ disidentification with exploitative mandates for entrepreneurial labor and instrumentalized intimacy. Drawing on affect theory to highlight romantic consumerism, emotional management, and individual investment in contemporary literary culture, the chapter considers how popular forms may challenge these features and analyzes the South Asian American example of Shilpa Somaya Gowda’s international bestselling novel Secret Daughter. The chapter argues that, rather than naturalize feminized and racialized affective labor as fundamental to neoliberal capitalism, Asian American women’s literature in many cases critically stages it, presenting affective labor that gestures toward a post-work imaginary and a different future.
Natural history and moral-sense philosophy bound American independence to domestic affections in Jefferson’s Notes on the State of Virginia. By surfacing the racial and spatial architecture of family feeling as the text’s cut-off locus of attachment and traumatic loss, we can locate the centrality of gender and sexuality to the book’s racial project and to the lonely pose of mourning performed by its author. This affective architecture then reveals the relationship among very different forms of collective trauma – plantation slavery, frontier warfare, sexual violence – registered in Jefferson’s text as a failure to recognize or remember.
This chapter demonstrates how Deleuze and Guattari’s notion of ‘microfascism’ is of crucial importance to an understanding of the complexities of contemporary pedagogical efforts to combat populism, right-wing extremism, and fascism. In particular, I discuss how ‘affect’ and ‘biopower’ are entangled in everyday processes of discipline and control, and argue that these concepts are pivotal for appreciating the affective relations and capacities of microfascism. To illustrate how affect and biopower are intimately linked to microfascist practices in schools and classrooms, I analyze two examples—one in health education and another in citizenship education. Finally, I suggest pedagogical strategies that could unmake microfascist subjectivities, emphasizing that it is important to understand the complexities involved since fascism is easily disguised in many forms that are often aligned with (neo)liberal values.
This chapter argues that it is important for educators in democratic education to understand how the rise of right-wing populism in Europe, the United States and around the world can never be viewed apart from the affective investments of populist leaders and their supporters to essentialist ideological visions of nationalism, racism, sexism and xenophobia. Democratic education can provide the space for educators and students to think critically and productively about people’s affects, in order to identify the implications of different affective modes through which right-wing populism is articulated. Furthermore, this chapter points out that ‘negative’ critique of the affective ideology of right-wing populism is not sufficient for developing a productive counterpolitics. An affirmative critique is also needed to set alternative frames and agendas which endorse and disseminate alternative concepts and affective practices such as equality, love and solidarity. These ideas provide critical resources to democratic education for developing a culture and process of democracy that transcends the negativity of mere critique of either right-wing populisms or inadequate forms of democracy.
This chapter revisits the important role of affect in pedagogical efforts to engage students with complicity in democratic education. Recent theoretical shifts on affect and complicity enable education scholars and practitioners to move the focus away from what we do not want (i.e. more complicity) toward anti-complicity. The new openings emerging from these theoretical shifts create pedagogical spaces to inspire anti-complicity praxes— that is, actions that actively resist social harm in everyday life. It is argued that for this to happen, it is necessary that educators navigate students through the affective and political dynamics of complicity in both critical and strategic ways. The chapter concludes by discussing how an anti-complicity pedagogy may be ‘translated’ into strategic moves in democratic education.
Chapter 6 draws on the concept of agonistic emotions and affects to think with some of the arguments of Chantal Mouffe’s political theory and discusses what this means pedagogically in handling far right rhetoric in the classroom. To show the possibilities of the concept of agonistic emotions and affects, the chapter puts in conversation Mouffe’s work on agonistic pluralism with affect theory. The analysis makes the argument that affect theory enables the theorization of agonistic emotions and affects as an intersection of language, desire, power, bodies, and politics that can be engaged with and channeled democratically in classroom debates. The chapter makes a political and pedagogical intervention into the terrain of countering extremism in education by offering ways of addressing productively the tensions emerging from the affective dimension of far right rhetoric in classroom spaces.
This is the first study of Renaissance architecture as an immersive, multisensory experience that combines historical analysis with the evidence of first-hand accounts. Questioning the universalizing claims of contemporary architectural phenomenologists, David Karmon emphasizes the infinite variety of meanings produced through human interactions with the built environment. His book draws upon the close study of literary and visual sources to prove that early modern audiences paid sustained attention to the multisensory experience of the buildings and cities in which they lived. Through reconstructing the Renaissance understanding of the senses, we can better gauge how constant interaction with the built environment shaped daily practices and contributed to new forms of understanding. Architecture and the Senses in the Italian Renaissance offers a stimulating new approach to the study of Renaissance architecture and urbanism as a kind of 'experiential trigger' that shaped ways of both thinking and being in the world.
What is the catalytic element that brings about widespread participation in a mass campaign? Is it ideology? Self-interest? Emotional states of fear, hatred, or love? Taking into account the recent proliferation of sound studies approaches to the history of the People's Republic of China, this article explores this question through the sonic experience of the campaign. Previous studies of the soundscapes of the Mao era have focused upon state initiatives of sound-borne propaganda and their role in the transmission of revolutionary ideas. Using a case study of the Hundred Flowers and Anti-Rightist campaigns of 1956–58, I examine the reception of such propaganda with a focus on silence, sound, and voice and their affective qualities. Through the use of diaries, memoirs, contemporary newspapers, and interviews, I explore the extra-linguistic aspects of the campaign to ask what, outside of revolutionary words and emotions, brought the subjects of a campaign from silence to vocal participation.
“Everyday Micro-utopias” recapitulates themes from Climate Change, Literature, and Environmental Justice through an examination of pedagogy as a form of what Rebecca Solnit terms “building paradise” in the classroom. I draw on my experience teaching a class on climate change over the past several years, where my students and I remain in the presence of the unbearable grief of climate change, displacements, relocations, and extinctions. The course is a space to imaginine collective responses to climate change that carve what Nicolas Bourriad calls “micro-utopias” within the status quo. I offer a notated syllabus with readings, assignment notes, and the narrative that binds the course together. In the final pages of the epilogue, I turn to N. K. Jemisin’s Broken Earth speculative trilogy, which imagines revolutions of the enslaved that end the world and make possible a new beginning anchored in the archeology of past insurrection.