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Traditional transect survey methods for forest antelopes often underestimate density for common species and do not provide sufficient data for rarer species. The use of camera trapping as a survey tool for medium and large terrestrial mammals has become increasingly common, especially in forest habitats. Here, we applied the distance sampling method to images generated from camera-trap surveys in Dja Faunal Reserve, Cameroon, and used an estimate of the proportion of time animals are active to correct for negative bias in the density estimates from the 24-hour camera-trap survey datasets. We also used multiple covariate distance sampling with body weight as a covariate to estimate detection probabilities and densities of rarer species. These methods provide an effective tool for monitoring the status of individual species or a community of forest antelope species, information urgently needed for conservation planning and action.
Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) has become a serious menace to sustainable production of tomato in Kenya. A survey was conducted between April 2015 and June 2016 to determine its distribution, abundance, infestation, and damage levels on tomato, and associated natural enemies. Trap counts of T. absoluta moths were recorded in all surveyed 29 counties, which indicated its nationwide distribution irrespective of altitude. Tuta absoluta was present in both open fields and greenhouses. The highest moth/trap/day was 115.38 ± 15.90. Highest leaf infestation was 92.22% and the highest number of mines and larvae per leaf were 3.71 ± 0.28 and 2.16 ± 0.45, respectively. Trap captures in terms of moth/trap/day were linearly and positively related to leaf infestations in open fields (R2 = 0.81) and greenhouses (R2 = 0.61). Highest fruits’ infestation and damage were 60.00 and 59.61%, respectively, while the highest number of mines per fruit was 7.50 ± 0.50. Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) and Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) were identified as predators of T. absoluta larvae. Nine species of larval parasitoids were recovered from infested foliage, with a combined parasitism of 7.26 ± 0.65%. Hockeria species was the most dominant (31.25%) and accounted for 12.88 ± 1.47% parasitism. Two species of larval parasitoids, Hockeria and Necremnus were obtained from sentinel plants with an average parasitism of 1.13 ± 0.25. The overall abundance and parasitism rates of recovered natural enemies were low to effectively control the field populations of T. absoluta. These findings form the basis of researching and developing effective and sustainable management strategies for the pest.
Understanding the role of species traits in mediating ecological interactions and shaping community structure is a key question in ecology. In this sense, parasite population parameters allow us to estimate the functional importance of traits in shaping the strength of interactions among hosts and parasites in a network. The aim of this study was to survey and analyse the small mammal-helminth network in a forest reserve of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in order to understand (i) how functional traits (type of parasite life cycle, site of infection in their host, host and parasite body length, host diet, host locomotor habit and host activity period) and abundance influence host–parasite interactions, (ii) whether these traits explain species roles, and (iii) if this relationship is consistent across different parasite population parameters (presence and absence, mean abundance and prevalence). Networks were modular and their structural patterns did not vary among the population parameters. Functional traits and abundance shaped the interactions observed between parasites and hosts. Host species abundance, host diet and locomotor habit affected their centrality and/or vulnerability to parasites. For helminths, infection niche was the main trait determining their central roles in the networks.
Assessing the impacts of invasive predators on the demography and distribution of native species is critical for understanding mechanisms of species persistence and informing the design of recovery programmes. On the oceanic island of Guam, the introduction of the predatory brown treesnake Boiga irregularis after World War II caused the near-total loss of the native forest avifauna. Localised snake control measures have been implemented since the early 1990s, yet it remains poorly understood how they have impacted Guam’s remaining native bird populations. To address this question, we combined intensive area searches of Andersen Air Force Base (AAFB) with island-wide transect surveys and opportunistic sightings to provide a comprehensive update on the distribution and abundance of Såli (Micronesian Starling, Aplonis opaca) – one of Guam’s last extant native bird species. Area searches of AAFB, where the largest remnant of the Såli population persists, revealed a 15-fold population increase since the last survey in the early 1990s, and transect surveys and opportunistic sightings indicate incipient recolonisation of other urbanised areas of northern and central Guam. We estimate the current island-wide population size at ~1,400 individuals. The population increase can likely be attributed to a combination of snake control measures and the Såli’s ability to exploit urban refugia for nesting and roosting. Although these trends demonstrate some population recovery, a skewed age ratio (>90% adults and subadults) at AAFB and a highly urbanised distribution and low abundance outside AAFB indicate that snake predation continues to strongly impact the population. More intensive snake suppression efforts, particularly in forested areas, may allow for the Såli population to attain its former distribution and abundance on Guam. More broadly, our findings reinforce the importance of urban areas as refugia for some threatened species.
Estuaries and saltmarshes play a fundamental role in the life cycle of many crab species. Diverse studies show that temperature and salinity modulate abundance, size frequency distribution (SFD), sex ratio and growth in crustaceans. These population parameters are usually challenging to estimate due to the high environmental variability of estuaries. Monthly samples of the estuarine crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus were taken from October 2003 to October 2004 (except July 2004) in the Tubul estuary, central Chile. We quantified temporal changes in abundance, size distribution, sex ratio and monthly growth through the annual cycle. A total of 1025 individuals were collected. Sizes ranged from 7.72–33.51 mm carapace length (CL) with a growth rate ranging between 2.13–30.5% mm CL mo−1. Size and growth rates were greater in spring-summer, suggesting a faster growth of younger crabs correlated with increasing sea temperatures in the austral summer. Overall, sex ratio was 1.75:1 in favour of males. Modal analysis identified at least seven cohorts cohabiting throughout the annual cycle. Growth parameters for males and females were the following, respectively: L∞ = 33.6 and 29.6, k = 0.69 and 0.91, t0 = –0.39 and −0.28. Changes in size distribution suggested a recruitment period during autumn and winter seasons when there are lower salinities and temperature fluctuations stresses. Generalized linear models indicated that sea temperature, salinity and chlorophyll were the environmental variables that better predicted the annual patterns in the population structure.
The changes in abundance and biodiversity of deep-sea fish fauna are described based on an annual deep-water longline survey with data collected during the period 2015–2019 in the Basque Country continental Slope (ICES Division 8c). The sampling scheme included hauls in four 400 m strata, from 650–2250 m deep. The DST sensors installed in the main line have allowed us to set an accurate soak time for each haul, and they were used to calculate fishing effort and CPUE by haul. The catchability of the fishing gear indicated that 15% of the total hooks deployed in the five-year period were able to fish, and that the bottom longline was very effective in fishing a wide number of different species in all depth ranges. The fishing gear caught 14 different species of sharks (13 deepwater and one pelagic), two chimaeras and nine teleosts. The abundance and biomass registered on the hooks attached to the bottom were between three and four times higher than in the floating sections, and the highest CPUE and biomass were recorded between 1051–1450 m, from 2015 to 2017, and in the 1451–1850 m strata, but they do not show any clear trend throughout the five years of the series.
Due to the remote location of colonies of Antarctic shags (Phalacrocorax (atriceps) bransfieldensis) in Antarctica, there is only sparse data on the abundance of this species. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) survey for known and unknown Antarctic shag colonies along the coasts of Nelson Island and western King George Island, Antarctica, was conducted in December 2016. Four colonies, one of them previously unknown, were detected. For the first time since the 1980s, the total population size of the colonies in that area was determined. A comparison with previous estimates revealed evidence of a population increase by a factor of 2.86. To support future survey campaigns, several characteristic features of Antarctic shag colonies, nests and individuals in aerial imagery were identified. This makes possible more reliable detection and determination of population size in Antarctic shag colonies. These characteristic features were compared with those of chinstrap penguin colonies (Pygoscelis antarcticus) because these species often overlap spatially and are difficult to distinguish. In addition, the optimal weather conditions and flight parameters for an aerial survey were specified.
The chapter argues that degrowth offers a promising alternative to the more mainstream sustainable development approach embraced by most national governments and international institutions. It first traces the development of the degrowth movement in both activist and academic networks; and moves on to outline its core ideas, namely the critique of growth, the emphasis on social justice and democracy, and the repoliticisation of the economy. The practical measures and institutional arrangements that could facilitate a transition towards degrowth are then explored. Finally, it is suggested that the reorganisation of society away from growth calls for a radical re-articulation of values and a re-imagination of economic relations, for example in terms of abundance, sharing, caring, amateur work. Thus the economy needs to be re-embedded in the social and political rather than seen as autonomous.
Helminth infections in wood mice (n = 483), trapped over a period of 26 years in the woods surrounding Malham Tarn in North Yorkshire, were analysed. Although 10 species of helminths were identified, the overall mean species richness was 1.01 species/mouse indicating that the helminth community was relatively depauperate in this wood mouse population. The dominant species was Heligmosomoides polygyrus, the prevalence (64.6%) and abundance (10.4 worms/mouse) of which declined significantly over the study period. Because of the dominance of this species, analyses of higher taxa (combined helminths and combined nematodes) also revealed significantly declining values for prevalence, although not abundance. Helminth species richness (HSR) and Brillouin's index of diversity (BID) did not show covariance with year, neither did those remaining species whose overall prevalence exceeded 5% (Syphacia stroma, Aonchotheca murissylvatici and Plagiorchis muris). Significant age effects were detected for the prevalence and abundance of all higher taxa, H. polygyrus and P. muris, and for HSR and BID, reflecting the accumulation of helminths with increasing host age. Only two cases of sex bias were found; male bias in abundance of P. muris and combined Digenea. We discuss the significance of these results and hypothesize about the underlying causes.
This chapter is devoted to one of the commodity groups, energy, and there are at least four reasons for affording a special prominence to this commodity group. The first is the heavy dominance of energy raw materials in the commodities universe. This is true both for trade and for the contribution they make to GDP. The second reason is that supply scarcities led to an extraordinary price increase for oil in the past 40 years, and its causes warrant an explanation. The third reason is that fundamental changes are occurring in oil and gas production technologies that promise to replace historical scarcity of supply and high prices with abundance. The fourth reason is the general perception that the energy system is going through a transition toward low carbon sources, due to technical advances in non-fossil energy alternatives as well as policy efforts to hinder climate change. The four reasons that make energy special also provide the structure of the chapter.
Trematode prevalence and abundance in hosts are known to be affected by biotic drivers as well as by abiotic drivers. In this study, we used the unique salinity gradient found in the south-western Baltic Sea to: (i) investigate patterns of trematode infections in the first intermediate host, the periwinkle Littorina littorea and in the downstream host, the mussel Mytilus edulis, along a regional salinity gradient (from 13 to 22) and (ii) evaluate the effects of first intermediate host (periwinkle) density, host size and salinity on trematode infections in mussels. Two species dominated the trematode community, Renicola roscovita and Himasthla elongata. Salinity, mussel size and density of infected periwinkles were significantly correlated with R. roscovita, and salinity and density correlated with H. elongata abundance. These results suggest that salinity, first intermediate host density and host size play an important role in determining infection levels in mussels, with salinity being the main major driver. Under expected global change scenarios, the predicted freshening of the Baltic Sea might lead to reduced trematode transmission, which may be further enhanced by a potential decrease in periwinkle density and mussel size.
Over the last 25 years, the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) has made a significant return to the Southern Bight of the North Sea and the English Channel due to a shift in distribution from northerly regions. Although the ecological drivers of this return are unclear, this species faces multiple threats in the region, including by-catch and habitat degradation. Ferry-based surveys were conducted year-round between November 2011 and June 2014 to assess the influence of environmental parameters upon the spatiotemporal distribution and relative abundance of harbour porpoises in the Southern Bight of the North Sea. A total of 1450 sightings of harbour porpoises were recorded during the 100 round-trip surveys carried out between Dunkirk (France) and Dover (England). Inter-annual and monthly variations in group size were observed, with largest groups recorded in 2014 (mean = 2.02) and in January (mean = 2.32). The relative abundance showed significant seasonal variation, with peaks recorded during winter months. An inter-annual increasing relative abundance was recorded during the study period. There was a seasonally dependent association with environmental variables, particularly depth, seabed roughness and current speed. Finally, predictions suggest large increases of the relative abundance in offshore habitats during winter months and over the study period.
Specimens of Stylops advarians were sampled by collecting foraging bees of Andrena milwaukeensis along the South Saskatchewan River within Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. As the foraging season progressed from early May till late June over three consecutive years (2016–2018), most stylopized bees possessed endoparasitic adult (neotenic) females of S. advarians protruding from the bee gaster's dorsum. In contrast, very few adult bees stylopized by male puparia, and no free-living males, were encountered. Over the sampling period, prevalence remained around 22% each year; mean intensity was 1.2 (range of 1–3 female parasites per bee); and parasite abundance was 0.27. Also newly reported for Stylops is the occurrence of one bee bearing four Stylops (two neotenic females and two males with puparia), plus another bee with a male puparium extruded from its gaster's sternites. Around 2 May each year, a high proportion of the earliest captured female bees were stylopized. However, non-stylopized female bees typically were not encountered until about 10 days later, suggesting the parasites manipulate female bee hosts to emerge earlier, in close synchrony to male bee emergence. First-instar larvae of S. advarians appeared from 22–25 May, indicating that adults of S. advarians matured and mated at similar times each season.
The present study is the first attempt to describe beta-diversity patterns in polychaetes of the Caribbean Sea, analysing depth changes in species composition of the Eunicida and Amphinomida inhabiting dead coral in Chinchorro Bank, southern Mexican Caribbean. In April 2008, dead coral fragments were collected by scuba diving in eight stations along two bathymetric gradients (4–9 m and 7–16.2 m depth); 755 individuals from 53 species of the families Amphinomidae, Dorvilleidae, Eunicidae, Lumbrineridae, Oenonidae and Onuphidae were identified. The highest number of species (32) and individuals (514) were found in the family Eunicidae. The Northern transect harboured 36 species, on average 18.75 ind. L−1, which decreased linearly with depth; the Central transect had 43 species, on average 19.01 ind. L−1, which increased at middle depths. The species inhabiting both these zones were moderately different (βsor = 0.603): 49.06% of the fauna occurred on both transects, but the components of beta-diversity, turnover and nestedness, displayed distinct patterns: in the Northern one replacement was the dominant factor (βsim = 0.3–1; βnes = 0–0.091), practically representing all faunal differences (βsor = 0.391–1); in the Central, dissimilarity due to nestedness increased (βnes = 0.031–0.829), mainly at the shallowest stations, but from 5 m depth, beta-diversity was almost completely explained by species replacement (βsim = 0.417–0.5; βnes = 0.031–0.318). Faunal differences were mostly related to higher abundances of Lysidice caribensis, Eunice goodei and Lumbrineris floridana in the Northern zone, and Lumbrineris perkinsi, Nicidion obtusa, Lysidice caribensis, Lumbrineris floridana, Lysidice unicornis and Eunice mutilata in the Central zone.
Cerrado sensu stricto (a physiognomy of the Cerrado domain, the Brazilian savanna) is subject to the annual occurrence of fire. Data on the epiphytic community in this physiognomy is scarce, as is evaluation of the influence of fire on its structure and composition. The aim of this study was to describe the structure of the vascular epiphyte community and its relationships with phorophytes in the Cerrado domain, Southeast Region of Brazil, after the passage of fire. We found the greatest abundance of epiphytes in the upper strata (65% of the individuals occurring above 3 m in height) and the dominance of three generalist species (Tillandsia streptocarpa, T. recurvata and Epiphyllum phyllanthus), suggesting that fire has an influence on the structure and composition of the epiphytic community.
The regulatory framework of the red octopus (Octopus maya) fishery includes total allowable catches (TAC), which are based on studies conducted on the population that occurs in shallow waters. In fact, most of the biological studies of this species refer to the fraction of the population that occupies waters less than 30 m deep; however, O. maya can occur up to a 60 m depth. The aim of this study is to assess the stock of O. maya that occupies waters between 30 m and 60 m deep. Four research cruises were carried out during the closed and fishing seasons, from May 2016 to January 2017. An average of 29 sampling sites were surveyed in each cruise (±2 sampling sites) using a commercial vessel with a uniform sampling effort. In each sampling site, the swept area, the total number of octopuses captured, the total weight of the catch, and the individual weight of octopuses were recorded. Biomass was obtained with four methods: stratified random method, swept area method, geostatistical biomass model, and an unpublished method of weighted swept area. The four methods provided consistent results. The distribution pattern of species was in patches, although before the fishing season started it was more homogeneous. The fraction of the population that occurs between 30 m and 60 m deep consisted mostly of adult organisms, so it could be contributing significantly to the recruitment of the entire population, even to the fraction that is exploited.
Stars are mostly found in binary and multiple systems, with at least 50% of all solar-like stars having companions; this fraction approaches 100% for the most massive stars. A large proportion of these systems interact and alter the structure and evolution of their components, leading to exotic objects such as Algol variables, blue stragglers and other chemically peculiar stars, but also to phenomena such as non-spherical planetary nebulae, supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. While it is understood that binaries play a critical role in the Initial Mass Function, the interactions among binary systems significantly affect the dynamical evolution of stellar clusters and galaxies. This interdisciplinary volume presents results from state-of-the-art models and observations aimed at studying the impact of binaries on stellar evolution in resolved and unresolved populations. Serving as a bridge between observational and theoretical astronomy, it is a comprehensive review for researchers and advanced students of astrophysics.
Minimizing the negative ecological impacts of exotic plant invasions is one goal of land management. Using selective herbicides is one strategy to achieve this goal; however, the unintended consequences of this strategy are not always fully understood. The recently introduced herbicide indaziflam has a mode of action not previously used in non-crop weed management. Thus, there is limited information about the impacts of this active ingredient when applied alone or in combination with other non-crop herbicides. The objective of this research was to evaluate native species tolerance to indaziflam and imazapic applied alone and with other broadleaf herbicides. Replicated field plots were established at two locations in Colorado with a diverse mix of native forbs and grasses. Species richness and abundance were compared between the nontreated control plots and plots where indaziflam and imazapic were applied alone and in combination with picloram and aminocyclopyrachlor. Species richness and abundance did not decrease when indaziflam or imazapic were applied alone; however, species abundance was reduced by treatments containing picloram and aminocyclopyrachlor. Species richness was only impacted at one site 1 yr after treatment (YAT) by these broadleaf herbicides. Decreases in abundance were mainly due to reductions in forbs that resulted in a corresponding increase in grass cover. Our data suggest that indaziflam will control downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) for multiple years without reduction in perennial species richness or abundance. If B. tectorum is present with perennial broadleaf weeds requiring the addition of herbicides like picloram or aminocyclopyrachlor, forb abundance could be reduced, and in some cases there could be a temporary reduction in perennial species richness.
The present work expands the existing knowledge on M. mola ecology by assessing, for the first time, its abundance (and body size distribution) in the southern waters of Portugal and relating the associated temporal variations with environmental variables. There were significant seasonal differences in abundance, with peaks in spring and autumn and lower values throughout the summer. Ocean sunfish abundance was positively correlated with sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a, indicating that a combination of both temperature and productivity dictates spatial use. Complementarily, the absence of a relationship between abundance and water transparency may reveal a strategy in spatial use favouring a medium-term steady food supply over short-term improved feeding opportunities. Specimens ranged between 31.8 and 230.0 cm (total length), with 98% of all individuals measuring between 31.8 and 59.9 cm. As the vast majority of specimens analysed were immature, seasonal differences in abundance should not be related to spawning.
Megabenthic soft bottom communities of trawlable grounds have been studied since the first few decades of the last century, thanks to trawl fishing technologies. Despite providing an extensive amount of presence data, trawling cannot be considered reliable from a quantitative point of view, frequently giving only weak information about sessile species density, large and small-scale distribution and main habitat features. The recent development of visual technologies on remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) can give a more accurate approach for the study of mega-epibenthic communities. The present study reports the application of both ROV imaging and trawling approaches for the study of a large aggregation (i.e. field) of the red sea pen Pennatula rubra in the Ionian Sea. Density, biomass and population structure were studied in the same population of P. rubra. The density assessed by ROV was significantly higher than that estimated with a three-year series of trawling surveys. Trawling gear efficiency in the removal of P. rubra was low overall. Incidental mortality can be very high due to damage to those specimens that encounter the trawl net but are not directly captured. However, sampling of several colonies by trawling was necessary to establish biometric correlations to estimates of size and biomass from ROV imaging. Trawling catch abundance/biomass data could be useful to identify areas of higher concentration of sea pens, while ROV imaging can be used to monitor these fields in a non-destructive manner that would be consistent with protection measures.