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Stable neutron stars exist with masses approximately between one and two solar masses, and radii of approximately 10 to 11 km. The structure is determined primarily by a balance between gravitation and the repulsion between adjacent neutrons. The configuration depends on the equation of state of the neutron fluid. The rotation of the strong dipolar magnetic field generates a magnetosphere of charged particles, which co-rotates with the star.
Fermi--Dirac statistics lead to specific thermodynamic consequences at low temperatures. A key quantity is the Fermi energy, which is equal to the chemical potential at zero temperature, and can be used to define a temperature scale, the Fermi temperature. At temperatures that are small compared to the Fermi temperature, thermodynamic quantities may be calculated using the Sommerfeld expansion. The properties of metals and the existence of compact stars such as white dwarfs and neutron stars are a direct consequence of Fermi--Dirac statistics.
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