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Worldwide type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence is increasing dramatically. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between dietary habits and T2D in an Iranian adult population using a cross-sectional analysis of the Shahedieh cohort study. Participants were adults aged 35–70 years (n 9261) from Zarch and Shahedieh, Yazd, Iran, who attended the baseline phase of the Shahedieh cohort study. Dietary habits including meal frequency, fried-food consumption, adding salt to prepared meals and grilled-food consumption were assessed by a standard questionnaire. T2D was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥126 mg/dl according to the American Diabetes Association. Multiple logistic regression assessed the association between dietary habits and T2D. Individuals who consumed a meal more than six times per day compared to three times per day had greater odds for T2D (OR 2⋅503, 95 % CI 1⋅651, 3⋅793). These associations remained significant in a fully adjusted model. There was a significant association between greater intakes of fried foods and prevalence of T2D (OR 1⋅294, 95 % CI 1⋅004, 1⋅668) in the adjusted model. No significant associations were observed between other dietary habits (adding salt to prepared meals and grilled-food consumption) and odds of T2D in all crude and adjusted models. In conclusion, we have highlighted the association between meal and fried-food consumption frequencies with risk of T2D. Large longitudinal studies in different ethnicities are needed to confirm these associations.
Diabetes has been associated to affective disorders and mental health problems which complicate the management of the disease. Emotional intelligence (EI), or the ability to perceive, facilitate, understand and regulate emotions has shown to be a protective factor of emotional disorders in general population.
To evaluate the role of EI and EI training in the biological and psychological variables related to people with Type 1 and 2 diabetes.
A systematic review was conducted in PubMed and Scopus database without time limitations, for studies examining the link between diabetes and EI. A total of 11 eligible studies were selected according to the inclusion criteria.
We divided the results into four sections: 1) EI and HbA1c, 2) EI training effects, 3) Differences in EI between persons with diabetes and without diabetes, and 4) EI and psychological adjustment and well-being. The results showed negative correlations between EI and HbA1C, positive effects of EI training on quality of life, anxiety and glycaemic control, no differences in EI between people with diabetes and healthy individuals and, finally, negative correlations between EI and different psychological variables such as diabetes-related anxiety and distress, and positive correlations with quality of life, well-being and marital satisfaction.
EI appear to be a promising protective factor for biological and psychological variables in individuals with diabetes. This systematic review offers a starting point for a theoretical and practical understanding of the role played by EI in the management of diabetes. Limitation and future lines of investigations will be discussed.
Patients with schizophrenia usually demonstrate low compliance to medication. This could be a component of the disorder or a fact that they are not being properly cared.
To prevent this in, we tried to treat these patients with long term action antidiabetic agents, in order to achieve better compliance.
HbA1C measurements of patients suffering from schizophrenia and at the same time receiving oral antidiabetic treatment were conducted. 62 patients were found that fell under the criteria of non regulated type 2 diabetes and at the same time presented less than 70% complied with their antidiabetic pharmaceutical treatment. We modified the antidiabetic treatment of these patients, with the introduction of dulaglutide.
Without intervening with their nutritional habits there was a decline in HbA1C measurements from the average rate of 9,4% to the average rate of 7,6%, as well as an average 6,31% reduction of their body weight.
Due to the improvement of the general medical condition of these patients, the answer to the question whether these patients should be treated with a long term antidiabetic medicines, is positive. The arrival of new long term action antidiabetic medicines in the near future, promises to improve the life quality of schizophrenic patients furthermor.
The corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2 (CRHR2) gene encodes CRHR2, which is an important element in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal physiologic response towards stress culminating in hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, mood disorders and depression (MDD). CRHR2-/- mice are hypersensitive to stress, and the CRHR2 locus in humans has been linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and MDD.
Several variants in the CRHR2 gene have been reported in patients with bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and T2D, but variants in the gene have not been investigated in families with T2D and MDD.
We genotyped 212 Italian families with T2D and MDD. We tested 17 SNPs in the CRHR2 gene using two-point parametric-linkage and linkage-disequilibrium (LD) analysis with the following models: dominant with complete-penetrance (D1), dominant with incomplete-penetrance (D2), recessive with complete-penetrance (R1) and recessive with incomplete-penetrance (R2).
We detected linkage to and/or LD with: MDD for 3 SNPs/D1, 2 SNPs/D2, 3 SNPs/R1, and 3 SNPs/R2; and, T2D for 3 SNPs/D1, 2 SNPs/D2, 2 SNPs/R1 and 1 SNP/R2. Two independent SNPs were comorbid. Interestingly, the variants linked to or in LD with MDD had in general higher statistical significance level than the variants linked to T2D, despite that the families were primarily ascertained for T2D.
Our study shows for the first time that the CRHR2 gene which encodes CRHR2 is in linkage to and linkage disequilibrium with MDD and T2D, thereby contributing, in families with T2D, to both disorders and underlying the shared genetic pathogenesis of their comorbidity
Dietary patterns (DP) rich in plant foods are associated with improved health and reduced non-communicable disease risk. In October 2021, the Nutrition Society hosted a member-led conference, held online over 2 half days, exploring the latest research findings examining plant-rich DP and health. The aim of the present paper is to summarise the content of the conference and synopses of the individual speaker presentations are included. Topics included epidemiological analysis of plant-rich DP and health outcomes, the effects of dietary interventions which have increased fruit and vegetable (FV) intake on a range of health outcomes, how adherence to plant-rich DP is assessed, the use of biomarkers to assess FV intake and a consideration of how modifying behaviour towards increased FV intake could impact environmental outcomes, planetary health and food systems. In conclusion, although there are still considerable uncertainties which require further research, which were considered as part of the conference and are summarised in this review, adopting a plant-rich DP at a population level could have a considerable impact on diet and health outcomes, as well as planetary health.
Although previous studies suggested the protective effect of Zn for type 2 diabetes (T2D), the unitary causal effect remains inconclusive. We investigated the causal effect of Zn as a single intervention on glycaemic control for T2D, using a systematic review of randomised controlled trials and two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR). Four primary outcomes were identified: fasting blood glucose/fasting glucose, HbA1c, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and serum insulin/fasting insulin level. In the systematic review, four databases were searched until June 2021. Studies, in which participants had T2D and intervention did not comprise another co-supplement, were included. Results were synthesised through the random-effects meta-analysis. In the two-sample MR, we used single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from MR-base, strongly related to Zn supplements, to infer the relationship causally, but not specified T2D. In the systematic review and meta-analysis, fourteen trials were included with overall 897 participants initially. The Zn supplement led to a significant reduction in the post-trial mean of fasting blood glucose (mean difference (MD): −26·52 mg/dl, 95 % CI (−35·13, −17·91)), HbA1c (MD: −0·52 %, 95 % CI: (−0·90, −0·13)) and HOMA-IR (MD: −1·65, 95 % CI (−2·62, −0·68)), compared to the control group. In the two-sample MR, Zn supplement with two SNP reduced the fasting glucose (inverse-variance weighted coefficient: −2·04 mmol/l, 95 % CI (−3·26, −0·83)). From the two methods, Zn supplementation alone may causally improve glycaemic control among T2D patients. The findings are limited by power from the small number of studies and SNP included in the systematic review and two-sample MR analysis, respectively.
Average diet quality is low in the UK and is socioeconomically patterned, contributing to the risk of non-communicable disease and poor health. Achieving meaningful dietary change in the long term is challenging, with intervention required on a number of different levels which reflect the multiple determinants of dietary choice. Dietary patterns have been identified which contribute positively to health outcomes; one of these is the Mediterranean diet (MD) which has been demonstrated to be associated with reduced non-communicable disease risk. Most research exploring the health benefits of the MD has been conducted in Mediterranean regions but, increasingly, research is also being conducted in non-Mediterranean regions. The MD is a dietary pattern that could have positive impacts on both health and environmental outcomes, while being palatable, appetising and acceptable. In this review, we consider the studies that have explored transferability of the MD. To achieve long-term dietary change towards a MD, it is likely that the dietary pattern will have to be culturally adapted, yet preserving the core health-promoting elements and nutritional composition, while considering the food system transition required to support changes at population level. Population-specific barriers need to be identified and ways sought to overcome these barriers, for example, key food availability and cost. This should follow a formal cultural adaptation framework. Such an approach is likely to enhance the extent of adherence in the longer term, thus having an impact on population health.
In Chapter 9 we present and defend a causal account of multilevel mechanistic explanation by examining various case studies from biology. We argue that two key consequences of Causal Mechanism are (1) that levels and mechanisms are distinct notions and (2) that levels of multilevel explanations are levels of composition. This view is in stark contrast to Craver’s account, according to which levels in multilevel explanations are levels of mechanisms and multilevel explanations are instances of constitutive explanations. A key claim of the chapter is that whatever contributes to the phenomenon is part of the same pathway; but causal pathways can contain entities from multiple levels of composition. In order to motivate and illustrate our view, we use various examples from biology and medicine. We criticise some common views associated with the picture of a hierarchy of mechanistic levels and argue that our view allows for causation at higher levels.
The study explores whether type 2 diabetes (T2D) diagnosis affects food consumption patterns in line with the dietary recommendations provided to individuals in relation to a diagnosis.
Based on detailed food purchase data, we explore which dietary changes are most common following a T2D diagnosis. Changes are investigated for several energy-adjusted nutrients and food groups and overall adherence to dietary guidelines.
We use data on diagnosis of T2D and hospitalisation in relation to T2D for a sample of adult Danes registered in the official patient register. This is combined with detailed scanner data on food purchases, which are used as a proxy for dietary intake.
We included 274 individuals in Denmark who are diagnosed during their participation in a consumer panel where they report their food purchases and 16 395 individuals who are not diagnosed.
Results suggest some changes in dietary composition following diagnosis, as measured by a Healthy Eating Index and for specific food groups and nutrients, although the long-term effects are limited. Socio-economic characteristics are poor predictors of dietary changes following diagnosis. Change in diet following diagnosis vary with the pre-diagnosis consumption patterns, where individuals with relatively unhealthy overall diets prior to diagnosis improve overall healthiness more compared to individuals with relatively healthy diets prior to diagnosis.
Adherence to dietary advice is low, on average, but there is large variation in behavioural change between the diagnosed individuals. Our results stress the difficulty for diagnosed individuals to shift dietary habits, particularly in the long term.
We explored the acceptability of a personalised proteomic risk intervention for patients at increased risk of type 2 diabetes and their healthcare providers, as well as their experience of participating in the delivery of proteomic-based risk feedback in UK primary care.
Advances in proteomics now allow the provision of personalised proteomic risk reports, with the intention of achieving positive behaviour change. This technology has the potential to encourage behaviour change in people at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
A semi-structured interview study was carried out with patients at risk of type 2 diabetes and their healthcare providers in primary care in the North of England. Participants (n = 17) and healthcare provider (n = 4) were interviewed either face to face or via telephone. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. This qualitative study was nested within a single-arm pilot trial and undertaken in primary care.
The personalised proteomic risk intervention was generally acceptable and the experience was positive. The personalised nature of the report was welcomed, especially the way it provided a holistic approach to risks of organ damage and lifestyle factors. Insights were provided as to how this may change behaviour. Some participants reported difficulties in understanding the format of the presentation of risk and expressed surprise at receiving risk estimates for conditions other than type 2 diabetes. Personalised proteomic risk interventions have the potential to provide holistic and comprehensive assessments of risk factors and lifestyle factors which may lead to positive behaviour change.
This study aimed to examine the impact of different dietary patterns on stroke outcomes among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in China.
Participants were enrolled by a stratified random cluster sampling method in the study. After collecting dietary data using a quantified FFQ, latent class analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, and propensity score matching was used to reduce confounding effects between different dietary patterns. Binary logistic regression and conditional logistic regression were used to analyse the relationship between dietary patterns and stroke in patients with T2DM.
A cross-sectional survey available from December 2013 to January 2014.
A total of 13 731 Chinese residents aged 18 years or over.
Two dietary patterns were identified: 61·2 % of T2DM patients were categorised in the high-fat dietary pattern while 38·8 % of patients were characterised by the balanced dietary pattern. Compared with the high-fat dietary pattern, the balanced dietary pattern was associated with reduced stroke risk (OR = 0·63, 95 %CI 0·52, 0·76, P < 0·001) after adjusting for confounding factors. The protective effect of the balanced model did not differ significantly (interaction P > 0·05).
This study provides sufficient evidence to support the dietary intervention strategies to prevent stroke effectively. Maintaining a balanced dietary pattern, especially with moderate consumption of foods rich in quality protein and fresh vegetables in T2DM patients, might decrease the risk of stroke in China.
In epidemiological studies, dairy food consumption has been associated with minimal effect or decreased risk of some cardiometabolic diseases (CMD). However, current methods of dietary assessment do not provide objective and accurate measures of food intakes. Thus, the identification of valid and reliable biomarkers of dairy product intake is an important challenge to best determine the relationship between dairy consumption and health status. This review investigated potential biomarkers of dairy fat consumption, such as odd-chain, trans- and branched-chain fatty acids (FA), which may improve the assessment of full-fat dairy product consumption. Overall, the current use of serum/plasma FA as biomarkers of dairy fat consumption is mostly based on observational evidence, with a lack of well-controlled, dose–response intervention studies to accurately assess the strength of the relationship. Circulating odd-chain SFA and trans-palmitoleic acid are increasingly studied in relation to CMD risk and seem to be consistently associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in prospective cohort studies. However, associations with CVD are less clear. Overall, adding less studied FA such as vaccenic and phytanic acids to the current available evidence may provide a more complete assessment of dairy fat intake and minimise potential confounding from endogenous synthesis. Finally, the current evidence base on the direct effect of dairy fatty acids on established biomarkers of CMD risk (e.g. fasting lipid profiles and markers of glycaemic control) mostly derives from cross-sectional, animal and in vitro studies and should be strengthened by well-controlled human intervention studies.
The current systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate the effects of oral Mg supplementation on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Related articles were found by searching the PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase and Web of Science databases (from inception to 30 February 2020). A one-stage robust error meta-regression model based on inverse variance weighted least squares regression and cluster robust error variances was used for the dose–response analysis between Mg supplementation and duration of intervention and glycaemic control factors. Eighteen eligible randomised clinical trials were included in our final analysis. The dose–response testing indicated that the estimated mean difference in HbA1c at 500 mg/d was −0·73 % (95 % CI: −1·25, −0·22) suggesting modest improvement in HbA1c with strong evidence (P value: 0·004). And in fasting blood sugar (FBS) at 360 mg/d was −7·11 mg/dl (95 % CI: −14·03, −0·19) suggesting minimal amelioration in FBS with weak evidence (P value: 0·092) against the model hypothesis at this sample size. The estimated mean difference in FBS and HbA1c at 24 weeks was −15·58 mg/dl (95 % CI: −24·67, −6·49) and −0·48 (95 % CI: −0·77, −0·19), respectively, suggesting modest improvement in FBS (P value: 0·034) and HbA1c (P value: 0·001) with strong evidence against the model hypothesis at this sample size. Oral Mg supplementation could have an effect on glycaemic control in T2DM patients. However, the clinical trials so far are not sufficient to make guidelines for clinical practice.
We investigated the impact of dried chicory root in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial with 55 subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes on bowel function, gut microbiota and its products, and glucose homeostasis. The treatment increased stool softness (+1.1 ± 0.3 units; p = 0.034) and frequency (+0.6 ± 0.2 defecations/day; p < 0.001), strongly modulated gut microbiota composition (7 % variation; p = 0.001), and dramatically increased relative levels (3-4-fold) of Anaerostipes and Bifidobacterium spp., in a dose-dependent, reversible manner. A synthetic community, including selected members of these genera and a Bacteroides strain, generated a butyrogenic trophic chain from the product. Faecal acetate, propionate and butyrate increased by 25.8 % (+13.0 ± 6.3 mmol/kg; p = 0.023) as did their fasting circulating levels by 15.7 % (+7.7 ± 3.9 μM; p = 0.057). In the treatment group the glycaemic coefficient of variation decreased from 21.3 ± 0.94 to 18.3 ± 0.84 % (p = 0.004), whereas fasting glucose and HOMA-ir decreased in subjects with low baseline Blautia levels (−0.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L fasting glucose; p = 0.0187; −0.14 ± 0.1 HOMA-ir; p = 0.045). Dried chicory root intake rapidly and reversibly affects bowel function, benefits butyrogenic trophic chains, and promotes glycaemic control.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most common cause of chronic liver disease, worldwide. The molecular pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex, involving numerous signalling molecules, including microRNAs (miRNAs). Dysregulation of miRNA expression is associated with hepatic inflammation, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although miRNAs are also critical to the cellular response to vitamin D, mediating regulation of the vitamin D receptor and vitamin D’s anti-cancer effects, the role of vitamin-D-regulated miRNAs in NAFLD pathogenesis has been relatively unexplored. Therefore, this review aims to critically assess the evidence for a potential subset of miRNAs that are both dysregulated in NAFLD and modulated by vitamin D. Comprehensive review of eighty-nine human studies identified twenty-five miRNAs found dysregulated in more than one NAFLD study. In contrast, only seventeen studies, including a protocol for a trial in NAFLD, had examined miRNAs in relation to vitamin D status, response to supplementation, or vitamin D in the context of the liver. This paper summarises these data and reviews the biological roles of six miRNAs (miR-21, miR-30, miR-34, miR-122, miR-146, miR-200) found dysregulated in multiple independent NAFLD studies. While modulation of miRNAs by vitamin D has been understudied, integration of the data suggests seven vitamin-D-modulated miRNAs (miR-27, miR-125, miR-155, miR-192, miR-223, miR-375, miR-378) potentially relevant to NAFLD pathogenesis. Our summary tables provide a significant resource to underpin future hypothesis-driven research, and we conclude that the measurement of serum and hepatic miRNAs in response to vitamin D supplementation in larger trials is warranted.
A Mediterranean-style eating pattern (MED-EP) may include moderate red meat intake. However, it is unknown if the pro-atherogenic metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is affected by the amount of red meat consumed with a MED-EP. The results presented are from a secondary, retrospective objective of an investigator-blinded, randomised, crossover, controlled feeding trial (two 5-week interventions separated by a 4-week washout) to determine if a MED-EP with 200 g unprocessed lean red meat/week (MED-CONTROL) reduces circulating TMAO concentrations compared to a MED-EP with 500 g unprocessed lean red meat/week (MED-RED). Participants were seventy-seven women and twelve men (n 39 total) who were either overweight or obese (BMI: mean (30·5) (sem 0·3) kg/m2). Serum samples were obtained following an overnight fast both before (pre) and after (post) each intervention. Fasting serum TMAO, choline, carnitine and betaine concentrations were measured using a targeted liquid chromatography-MS. Data were analysed to assess if (a) TMAO and related metabolites differed by intervention and (b) if changes in TMAO were associated with changes in Framingham 10-year risk score. Serum TMAO was lower post-intervention following MED-CONTROL compared with MED-RED intervention (post-MED-CONTROL 3·1 (sem 0·2) µmv. post-MED-RED 5·0 (sem 0·5) µm, P < 0·001), and decreased following MED-CONTROL (pre- v. post-MED-CONTROL, P = 0·025). Exploratory analysis using mixed model ANCOVA identified a positive association between changes in TMAO and changes in homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (P = 0·036). These results suggest that lower amounts of red meat intake lead to lower TMAO concentrations in the context of a MED-EP.
Physical activity (PA) is a known benefit to older adults with diabetes; however, the determinants of PA are less well studied in this population. Applying the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), a well-established biopsychosocial framework, we explored PA participation among older adult with type 2 diabetes.
Using data from the Health and Retirement Study and the RAND Center for the Study of Aging (N = 2,016; mean age = 73.19; SD = 6.16), we conducted hierarchical stepwise regression analysis to evaluate the relative contribution of different biopsychosocial predictors to PA – namely, body functions and structure, activity and participation, personal, and environmental factors.
Altogether, biopsychosocial factors accounted for 20% of the variance in PA participation. Of the personal factors, high extraversion and low neuroticism explained approximately 54% of the variance in PA among the older adults – beyond sociodemographics. Low body mass index, reduced pain, reduced depression, and higher cognitive functioning also had good explanatory power (25% of explained variance), whereas activity participation and environment did not (10% each).
Aligning care with components of the ICF will help to ensure a focus on person-centric practices and, in turn, optimize participation outcomes such as PA.
In May 2021, the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) published a risk assessment on lower carbohydrate diets for adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D)(1). The purpose of the report was to review the evidence on ‘low’-carbohydrate diets compared with the current UK government advice on carbohydrate intake for adults with T2D. However, since there is no agreed and widely utilised definition of a ‘low’-carbohydrate diet, comparisons in the report were between lower and higher carbohydrate diets. SACN’s remit is to assess the risks and benefits of nutrients, dietary patterns, food or food components for health by evaluating scientific evidence and to make dietary recommendations for the UK based on its assessment(2). SACN has a public health focus and only considers evidence in healthy populations unless specifically requested to do otherwise. Since the Committee does not usually make recommendations relating to clinical conditions, a joint working group (WG) was established in 2017 to consider this issue. The WG comprised members of SACN and members nominated by Diabetes UK, the British Dietetic Association, Royal College of Physicians and Royal College of General Practitioners. Representatives from NHS England and NHS Health Improvement, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and devolved health departments were also invited to observe the WG. The WG was jointly chaired by SACN and Diabetes UK.
Dietary interventions to delay carbohydrate digestion or absorption can effectively prevent hyperglycaemia in the early postprandial phase. L-arabinose can specifically inhibit sucrase. It remains to be assessed whether co-ingestion of L-arabinose with sucrose delays sucrose digestion, attenuates subsequent glucose absorption and impacts hepatic glucose output. In this double-blind, randomised crossover study, we assessed blood glucose kinetics following ingestion of a 200-ml drink containing 50 g of sucrose with 7·5 g of L-arabinose (L-ARA) or without L-arabinose (CONT) in twelve young, healthy participants (24 ± 1 years; BMI: 22·2 ± 0·5 kg/m2). Plasma glucose kinetics were determined by a dual stable isotope methodology involving ingestion of (U-13C6)-glucose-enriched sucrose, and continuous intravenous infusion of (6,6–2H2)-glucose. Peak glucose concentrations reached 8·18 ± 0·29 mmol/l for CONT 30 min after ingestion. In contrast, the postprandial rise in plasma glucose was attenuated for L-ARA, because peak glucose concentrations reached 6·62 ± 0·18 mmol/l only 60 min after ingestion. The rate of exogenous glucose appearance for L-ARA was 67 and 57 % lower compared with CONT at t = 15 min and 30 min, respectively, whereas it was 214 % higher at t = 150 min, indicating a more stable absorption of exogenous glucose for L-ARA compared with CONT. Total glucose disappearance during the first hour was lower for L-ARA compared with CONT (11 ± 1 v. 17 ± 1 g, P < 0·0001). Endogenous glucose production was not differentially affected at any time point (P = 0·27). Co-ingestion of L-arabinose with sucrose delays sucrose digestion, resulting in a slower absorption of sucrose-derived glucose without causing adverse effects in young, healthy adults.
Metabolic impairments associated with type 2 diabetes, including insulin resistance and loss of glycaemic control, disproportionately impact the elderly. Lifestyle interventions, such as manipulation of dietary fat quality (i.e. fatty acid (FA) composition), have been shown to favourably modulate metabolic health. Yet, whether or not chronic consumption of beneficial FAs can protect against metabolic derangements and disease risk during ageing is not well defined. We sought to evaluate whether long-term dietary supplementation of fish-, dairy- or echium-derived FAs to the average FA profile in a U.S. American diet may offset metabolic impairments in males and females during ageing. One-month-old CD-1® mice were fed isoenergetic, high-fat (40 %) diets with the fat content composed of either 100 % control fat blend (CO) or 70 % CO with 30 % fish oil, dairy fat or echium oil for 13 months. Every 3 months, parameters of glucose homoeostasis were evaluated via glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Glucose tolerance improved in males consuming a diet supplemented with fish oil or echium oil as ageing progressed, but not in females. Yet, females were more metabolically protected than males regardless of age. Additionally, Spearman correlations were performed between indices of glucose homoeostasis and previously reported measurements of diet-derived FA content in tissues and colonic bacterial composition, which also revealed sex-specific associations. This study provides evidence that long-term dietary fat quality influences risk factors of metabolic diseases during ageing in a sex-dependent manner; thus, sex is a critical factor to be considered in future dietary strategies to mitigate type 2 diabetes risk.