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Las enfermedades infecciosas fueron señaladas como la causa principal de muerte en las sociedades pasadas. Sin embargo, hasta el momento son escasos los conocimientos acerca del modo en que afectaron a las poblaciones humanas del sur de Sudamérica. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar el impacto que las enfermedades infecciosas tuvieron sobre las poblaciones de cazadores-recolectores que habitaron Patagonia Austral, a partir de la identificación, descripción e interpretación de lesiones óseas en restos humanos del Holoceno medio y tardío (aproximadamente 5200-100 años aP). Se analizaron macroscópicamente 54 individuos hallados en 50 sitios arqueológicos, sobre los cuales se describieron presencia, localización, lateralidad, tipo de formación de hueso nuevo (woven, lamelar, mixto) y distribución de las lesiones óseas. Se registraron lesiones diagnósticas y altamente compatibles con infecciones óseas en ocho (14,8%) individuos (sin diferencias entre sexos y edades), seis de los cuales (75,0%) provienen del sur de Tierra del Fuego. Cuatro individuos presentaron lesiones compatibles con osteomielitis y dos con tuberculosis (un no-adulto y un adulto). Esto último representa un hallazgo relevante para discutir la presencia de tuberculosis en poblaciones pasadas y su evolución en América. Los resultados presentados sugieren además que las evidencias de procesos infecciosos pueden ser recurrentes en análisis específicos sobre muestras esqueletales de cazadores-recolectores.
We developed a novel method to align two data sources (TB notifications and the Demographic Health Survey, DHS) captured at different geographic scales. We used this method to identify sociodemographic indicators – specifically population density – that were ecologically correlated with elevated TB notification rates across wards (~100 000 people) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We found population density was the variable most closely correlated with ward-level TB notification rates (Spearman's rank correlation 0.45). Our approach can be useful, as publicly available data (e.g. DHS data) could help identify factors that are ecologically associated with disease burden when more granular data (e.g. ward-level TB notifications) are not available. Use of this approach might help in designing spatially targeted interventions for TB and other diseases in settings of weak existing data on disease burden at the subdistrict level.
We investigated whether household to clinic distance was a risk factor for death on tuberculosis (TB) treatment in Malawi. Using enhanced TB surveillance data, we recorded all TB treatment initiations and outcomes between 2015 and 2018. Household locations were geolocated, and distances were measured by a straight line or shortest road network. We constructed Bayesian multi-level logistic regression models to investigate associations between distance and case fatality. A total of 479/4397 (10.9%) TB patients died. Greater distance was associated with higher (odds ratio (OR) 1.07 per kilometre (km) increase, 95% credible interval (CI) 0.99–1.16) odds of death in TB patients registered at the referral hospital, but not among TB patients registered at primary clinics (OR 0.98 per km increase, 95% CI 0.92–1.03). Age (OR 1.02 per year increase, 95% CI 1.01–1.02) and HIV-positive status (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.73–2.85) were also associated with higher odds of death. Model estimates were similar for both distance measures. Distance was a risk factor for death among patients at the main referral hospital, likely due to delayed diagnosis and suboptimal healthcare access. To reduce mortality, targeted community TB screening interventions for TB disease and HIV, and expansion of novel sensitive diagnostic tests are required.
Although the interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) has become a common diagnostic method for tuberculosis, its value in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients remains controversial. Therefore, this systematically reviews the data for exploring the diagnostic value of IGRA in HIV-infected individuals complicated with active tuberculosis, aiming to provide a clinical basis for future clinical diagnosis of the disease.
Relevant studies on IGRA for diagnosing tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients were comprehensively collected from Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Medline, Cochrane Library, Chinese Sci-tech Periodical Full-text Database, Chinese Periodical Full-text Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and China Wanfang Data up to July 2020. Subsequently, Stata 15.0, an integrated statistical software, was used to analyse the sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) to create receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves.
A total of 18 high-quality articles were selected, including 20 studies, 11 of which were related to QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) and nine to T-SPOT.TB. The meta-analysis indicated that the pooled sensitivity = 0.75 (95% CI 0.63–0.85), the pooled specificity = 0.82 (95% CI 0.66–0.92), PLR = 4.25 (95% CI 1.97–9.18), NLR = 0.30 (95% CI 0.18–0.50), DOR = 14.21 (95% CI 4.38–46.09) and the area under summary ROC curve was 0.85 (95% CI 0.81–0.88).
IGRA has a good diagnostic value and therefore can aid in the preliminary screening of active tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals. Its diagnostic effectiveness can be improved by modifying and optimizing the assay design.
Tuberculosis (TB) in immigrants is becoming a challenge in eliminating TB in Japan. We investigated the epidemiology of TB in foreign students in Japan in 2015–2019. A total of 2007 foreign students with TB whose median age was 22.5 years (1243 (61.9%) were males) were registered. The notification rates peaked in 2016 at 164.0 per 100 000 population and decreased towards 2019. Of the 2007, 535 were from Vietnam, 444 from China and 395 from Nepal. The notification rates were 596.6 per 100 000 person-years (PYs) for Myanmar, 595.4 for the Philippines and 438.6 for Cambodia. The rates were much higher than those of the general populations in their countries of origin for Myanmar, the Philippines, Cambodia, Indonesia, Nepal, Mongolia, Vietnam and China. In comparison with the years 2010–2014, the notification rates for foreign students decreased for the students from Nepal, Vietnam and China. The TB notification rate of the foreign students in Japan can be a good surrogate indicator for the risk of TB among the immigrant subpopulation in Japan and should continuously be monitored. Those who are at higher risk of TB may be annually screened for TB to prevent TB outbreaks.
When depression is comorbid with tuberculosis, it will lead to decreased quality of life, lack of adherence to anti-Tb drugs, progression to MDRTB and will end in death with mortality from the disease.
We aimed to study the association of Tuberculosis and depressive disorders in children aged 7-18 years compared to non-tuberculosis diseases and their correlation. We hypothesized that depression will be significantly more common in patients with tuberculosis than in non-TB patients, who served as a control.
A prospective observational case-type study for a period of 2 years, 2018-2020. The patients included in the study are patients diagnosed and treated in the Child Pneumology Department of the Pneumoftiziology Hospital “Sfantul Spiridon” Galati and in the TB Dispensaries in Galati County divided into the study group consisting of patients diagnosed with Tuberculosis and the control group of patients without a diagnosis of Tuberculosis or other previous chronic disease. For the diagnosis of depression in the case of the two groups, we used the CDI questionnaire (Depression Inventory for children).
Out of 100 children with TB, 68% had depression compared to the control group, which showed that only 9% had depression.
Depression can affect all parts of a child’s life, including behavior, appetite, energy levels, sleep patterns, relationships, and academic performance. We observe a wide range of symptoms in the group of children with tuberculosis compared to the control group.
Tuberculosis is still a challenging disease, infecting around a third of the world’s population. As comorbidity with mental disorder is common, it is relevant to associate them at a diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic level.
We present a clinical case describing a patient with psychosis, further diagnosed with tuberculosis during psychiatric treatment. Moreover, we present a summarized revision of the state of the art.
Revision of the state of the art, drawing from PubMed and using the keywords “mental health”, “psychosis” and “tuberculosis”, in the last 10 years.
Male, 61 years old, heavy smoker and alcohol drinker. Admitted for allegedly feeling “worms” in his body. After medical examination, a weight loss of 13 kg in five months and symptoms compatible with tenesmus stood out. Following diagnostic tests, the patient was diagnosed with Ekbom Syndrome and Ganglionar Tuberculosis; he was then medicated with the adequate antipsychotic and tuberculostatic agents, which resulted in overall clinical improvement.
This case illustrates the relationship between tuberculosis and mental disorders, in a patient with a low literacy level and a precarious socioeconomic background, known risk factors for mental disorder in patients with tuberculosis and are often associated with poor therapeutic adherence. Although proper treatment of the mental disorder is key to reducing the risk of tuberculostatic dropout, the stigma of mental disorder and tuberculosis decreases the probability of these patients seeking proper treatment. Thus, we alert the medical community for the possibility of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with diagnosed tuberculosis – and vice-versa –, allowing for an early intervention,
Hospitalized patients undergoing evaluation for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) require airborne isolation while testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) to reduce risk of nosocomial transmission. GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is more rapid and accurate than sputum smear microscopy, but it is not routinely used to ‘rule out’ infectious pulmonary TB among hospitalized patients in the United States. We sought to evaluate the diagnostic performance and cost-effectiveness of Xpert-based TB evaluation.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized adults evaluated for pulmonary TB at a large academic medical center in New York from 2010 to 2017. Using propensity score matching, we compared hospital length-of-stay among patients undergoing conventional smear-based TB evaluation to a control group with non-TB pneumonia. We performed a probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis to compare Xpert-based versus conventional TB evaluation.
In total 1,421 patients were evaluated for TB with airborne isolation and sputum testing; mycobacterial culture was positive for MTB in 49 (3.4%). Conventional TB evaluation was associated with an increase of 4.4 hospital days compared to propensity-matched controls. Xpert-based testing strategies dominated conventional TB evaluation with a cost savings of $5,947 (95% CI, $1,156–$12,540) and $4,445 (95% CI, $696–$9,526) per patient depending on the number of Xpert tests performed (1 vs 2, respectively) and assumptions about the reduction of length of stay achieved.
In the evaluation of hospitalized patients for pulmonary TB, Xpert-based testing has superior diagnostic performance and is likely cost-effective compared to smear microscopy due to reduced hospital length-of-stay associated with more rapid test results.
In rapidly growing and high-burden urban centres, identifying tuberculosis (TB) transmission hotspots and understanding the potential impact of interventions can inform future control and prevention strategies. Using data on local demography, TB reports and patient reporting patterns in Dhaka South City Corporation (DSCC) and Dhaka North City Corporation (DNCC), Bangladesh, between 2010 and 2017, we developed maps of TB reporting rates across wards in DSCC and DNCC and identified wards with high rates of reported TB (i.e. ‘hotspots’) in DSCC and DNCC. We developed ward-level transmission models and estimated the potential epidemiological impact of three TB interventions: active case finding (ACF), mass preventive therapy (PT) and a combination of ACF and PT, implemented either citywide or targeted to high-incidence hotspots. There was substantial geographic heterogeneity in the estimated TB incidence in both DSCC and DNCC: incidence in the highest-incidence wards was over ten times higher than in the lowest-incidence wards in each city corporation. ACF, PT and combined ACF plus PT delivered to 10% of the population reduced TB incidence by a projected 7%–9%, 13%–15% and 19%–23% over five years, respectively. Targeting TB hotspots increased the projected reduction in TB incidence achieved by each intervention 1.4- to 1.8-fold. The geographical pattern of TB notifications suggests high levels of ongoing TB transmission in DSCC and DNCC, with substantial heterogeneity at the ward level. Interventions that reduce transmission are likely to be highly effective and incorporating notification data at the local level can further improve intervention efficiency.
Non-resolving inflammation is characteristic of tuberculosis (TB). Given their inflammation-resolving properties, omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) may support TB treatment. This research aimed to investigate the effects of n-3 LCPUFA on clinical and inflammatory outcomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-infected C3HeB/FeJ mice with either normal or low n-3 PUFA status before infection. Using a two-by-two design, uninfected mice were conditioned on either an n-3 PUFA-sufficient (n-3FAS) or -deficient (n3FAD) diet for six weeks. One week post-infection, mice were randomised to either n-3 LCPUFA supplemented (n-3FAS/n-3+ and n3FAD/n3+) or continued on n-3FAS or n3FAD diets for three weeks. Mice were euthanised and fatty acid status, lung bacterial load and pathology, cytokine, lipid mediator, and immune cell phenotype analysed. n-3 LCPUFA supplementation in n-3FAS mice lowered lung bacterial loads (P=0·003), T cells (P=0·019), CD4+ T cells (P=0·014), IFN-γ (P<0·001) and promoted a pro-resolving lung lipid mediator profile. Compared with n-3FAS mice, the n-3FAD group had lower bacterial loads (P=0·037), significantly higher immune cell recruitment and a more pro-inflammatory lipid mediator profile, however, significantly lower lung IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-17, and supplementation in the n-3FAD group provided no beneficial effect on lung bacterial load or inflammation. Our study provides the first evidence that n-3 LCPUFA supplementation has antibacterial and inflammation-resolving benefits in TB when provided one week after infection in the context of a sufficient n-3 PUFA status. Whilst a low n-3 PUFA status may promote better bacterial control and lower lung inflammation not benefiting from n-3 LCPUFA supplementation.
Since 1993, reports on tuberculosis (TB) outbreaks have been collected in Japan; however, there has never been an overall analysis of these TB outbreaks. We aim to provide one here. The TB outbreak data were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and are described in terms of time, place and transmission site. The average number of TB cases and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) were compared by the transmission site. Some 605 TB outbreaks with 3491 TB cases were reported in 1993–2015 with an increasing trend (r = 0.45), during which time 728 777 TB cases were reported nationwide. On an average, TB outbreaks occurred more often in April to May (5.5 outbreaks per 2 months) than in December to January (3.4). The most common transmission sites were workplaces (n = 255), followed by health facilities (n = 144), schools (n = 60) and welfare facilities (n = 48). Psychiatric hospitals and nursing homes had the highest average number of TB cases per outbreak (8.5 each), whereas schools and prisons had the highest numbers of LTBI cases (29.1 and 38.9, respectively). Countries, particularly those that have resources to investigate TB outbreaks, should collect and analyse findings of TB outbreaks, as it informs surveillance systems and eventually strengthens general health systems.
Chapter 10 reviews the history of colonial medicine in the Belgian Congo. In this huge colony, Belgium established arguably the best healthcare system in tropical Africa, with more than 2,500 institutions of all kinds. As in the French colonies, there were large-scale disease control interventions using injectable drugs. A network of public health laboratories, including those in Léopoldville and Stanleyville, are ruled out as being instrumental in the early propagation of HIV. The brilliant career of Lucien Van Hoof, the colony’s chief medical officer for twelve years who also did cutting-edge research on the control of sleeping sickness, is highlighted. The rather debatable medical practices in Léopoldville’s STD clinics are examined; ‘free women’ were forced to undergo a long series of intravenous injections if they were thought, often wrongly, to have had syphilis previously. An outbreak among these women of ‘inoculation hepatitis’ was recognised in the early 1950s. An analysis of changes in the incidence of tuberculosis in various parts of the Belgian Congo in the 1950s suggests that HIV was already driving this increasing incidence in Léopoldville. A recent study identified several routes for the iatrogenic transmission of blood-borne viruses during the colonial and early post-colonial era.
The aim of this study was to explore the impact of polymorphism of PD-1 gene and its interaction with tea drinking on susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). A total of 503 patients with TB and 494 controls were enrolled in this case–control study. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms of PD-1 (rs7568402, rs2227982 and rs36084323) were genotyped and unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between PD-1 polymorphism and TB, while marginal structural linear odds models were used to estimate the interactions. Genotypes GA (OR 1.434), AA (OR 1.891) and GA + AA (OR 1.493) at rs7568402 were more prevalent in the TB patients than in the controls (P < 0.05). The relative excess risk of interaction (RERI) between rs7568402 of PD-1 genes and tea drinking was −0.3856 (95% confidence interval −0.7920 to −0.0209, P < 0.05), which showed a negative interaction. However, the RERIs between tea drinking and both rs2227982 and rs36084323 of PD-1 genes were not statistically significant. Our data demonstrate that rs7568402 of PD-1 genes was associated with susceptibility to TB, and there was a significant negative interaction between rs7568402 and tea drinking. Therefore, preventive measures through promoting the consumption of tea should be emphasised in the high-risk populations.
The prognostic factor for in-hospital mortality in tuberculosis (TB) patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) care remains unclear. Therefore, a retrospective study was conducted aiming to estimate the in-hospital mortality rate and the risk factors for mortality in a high-burden setting. All patients with culture-confirmed TB that were admitted to the ICU of the hospital between March 2012 and April 2019 were identified retrospectively. Data, such as demographic characteristics, comorbidities, laboratory measures and mortality, were obtained from medical records. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify prognostic factors that influence in-hospital mortality. A total of 82 ICU patients with confirmed TB were included in the analysis, and 22 deaths were observed during the hospital stay, 21 patients died in the ICU. In the multivariable model adjusted for sex and age, the levels of serum albumin and white blood cell (WBC) count were significantly associated with mortality in TB patients requiring ICU care (all P < 0.01), the hazard ratios were 0.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7–0.9) per 1 g/l and 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0–1.2) per 1 × 109/l, respectively. In conclusion, in-hospital mortality remains high in TB patients requiring ICU care. Low serum albumin level and high WBC count significantly impact the risk of mortality in these TB patients in China.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global public health threat. Misdiagnosis and delayed therapy of sputum smear-negative TB can affect the treatment outcomes and promote pathogen transmission. The application of Xpert MTB/RIF assay in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) has been recommended but needs clinical evidence. We carried out a prospective study in the Nanjing Public Health Medical Center from September 2018 to August 2019. Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients were enrolled in the study if they had negative results of sputum smear. We compared the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay in sputum and BALF using sputum culture as the reference. In addition to this, we applied parallel tests using sputum culture, sputum-based Xpert MTB/RIF assay and BALF-based Xpert MTB/RIF assay to jointly detect smear-negative PTB using clinical diagnosis as the reference. With mycobacterial culture as the reference standard, Xpert MTB/RIF of BALF showed a higher sensitivity (14/16, 87.5%), but a relatively lower specificity (57/92, 62.0%). Xpert MTB/RIF of sputum showed relatively lower sensitivity (6/10, 60.0%) and higher specificity (63/88, 71.6%). Compared with sputum culture, Xpert MTB /RIF assay reduced the median detection time of MTB from 30 to 0 days, which significantly shortened the diagnosis time of the smear-negative TB patients. Among the combined detections, the positive detection proportion was improved with significant differences comparing with sputum culture only, from 11.1% (10/90) to 46.7% (42/90) (P < 0.05). Our study showed Xpert MTB/RIF in BALF had a better performance in detecting MTB of smear-negative patients.
Although the progression of invasive aspergillosis (IA) shares some risk factors in the development of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), however, the prevalence of IA in suspected PTB remains unclear. During a period of 1 year (from January 2016 to December 2016), consecutive patients with suspected PTB were included in a referral TB hospital. Data, including demographic information and underlying diseases, were collected from medical records. PTB were all confirmed by mycobacterial culture (Lowenstein–Jensen medium). IA were diagnosed as proven or probable according to the criteria of the 2008 EORTC/MSG definitions. A descriptive analysis was performed to estimate the corresponding prevalence. During the study year, 1507 patients have a positive mycobacterial culture, with a mean age of 45.6 (s.d. 19.9) years old and a female:male ratio of 1:4. Among the 82 patients with non-tuberculous mycobacterial diseases, two patients (2.44%, 95% CI 0.67–8.46%) were diagnosed as IA (one proven and one probable); two probable IA patients (0.15%, 95% CI 0.04–0.55%) were diagnosed in PTB patients (n = 1315), and all were retreatment cases. In addition, all four IA patients (100%) exhibited cavities in both lobes on radiograph. In China, the prevalence of IA is low in active PTB patients. However, when high-risk factors for IA are encountered in PTB patients, further investigations are required and empirically treatment for IA might be warranted.
Multiple studies suggest that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a potential risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) development and treatment, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The study aimed to test concomitancy between DM and TB among adults in India. Data were from the 2015–16 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4). The study sample comprised 107,575 men aged 15–54 and 677,292 women aged 15–49 for which data on DM status were available in the survey. The association between state-level prevalence of TB and DM was examined and robust Poisson regression analysis applied to examine the effect of DM on TB. A high prevalence of TB was observed among individuals with diabetes in India in 2015–16. A total of 866 per 100,000 men and 405 per 100,000 women who self-reported having diabetes also had TB; among those who self-reported not having diabetes the ratios were 407 per 100,000 men and 241 per 100,000 women. The risk of having TB among those who self-reported having DM was higher for both men (2.03, 95% CI: 1.26, 3.28) and women (1.79, 95% CI: 1.48, 2.49) than for those who did not self-report having DM. Adults who were diagnosed with diabetes (including pre-diabetes) also had a higher rate of TB (477 per 100,000 men and 331 per 100,000 women) than those who were not diagnosed (410 per 100,000 men and 239 per 100,000 women). Adults from poor families, with lower BMIs, lower levels of literacy and who were not working had a higher risk of TB–DM co-morbidity. The state-level pattern of co-morbidity, the under-reporting of DM (undiagnosed) and TB stigmatization are discussed. The study confirms that diabetes is an important co-morbid feature with TB in India, and reinforces the need to raise awareness on screening for the co-existence of DM and TB with integrated health programmes for the two conditions.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a globally widespread disease, with approximately a quarter of the world’s population currently infected (WHO, 2018). Some risk factors, such as HIV status, nutrition and body mass index, have already been thoroughly investigated. However, little attention has been given to behavioural and/or psychological risk factors such as stress and education level. This study investigated the risk factors for TB diagnosis by statistical analyses of publicly available data from the most recent wave of the Indonesian Family Life survey (IFLS-5) conducted in 2015. Out of 34,249 respondents there were 328 who reported having TB. For comparison and completeness, variables were divided into levels: individual-, household- and community-level variables. The most prominent and interesting variables found to influence TB diagnosis status (on each level) were investigated, and a logistic regression was subsequently developed to understand the extent to which each risk factor acts as a predictor for being diagnosed with TB. Age, health benefit or insurance, stress at work and living in a rural area all showed significant association with TB diagnosis status. This study’s findings suggest that suitable control measures, such as schemes for improving mental health/stress reduction and improved access to health care in rural areas should be implemented in Indonesia to address each of the key factors identified.