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Many traditional regions are being transformed as industries restructure. Paradoxically, the global economic downturn offers opportunities to innovate on policies to regenerate areas experiencing deindustrialisation, with one emerging focus being the development of ‘green skills’ to facilitate the transition of these places to ‘green economies’. In this article, we explore similar policy objectives (i.e. regeneration activity based (in part) on green economy transitions) across three deindustrialising/deindustrialised regions – Appalachia (United States), Ruhr (Germany) and the Valleys (South Wales) – to provide an account of the ways in which different regions with similar industrial pasts diverge in their approach to moving towards greener futures. Our argument is that the emphasis in such transitions should be the creation of ‘decent’ jobs, with new economic activity and employment initiatives embracing a ‘high road’ (i.e. high skill/high pay/high quality) trajectory. Utilising a ‘varieties of capitalism’ analysis, we contend that an effective, socially inclusive and ‘high road’ transition is more likely to emerge within co-ordinated market economy contexts, for example, Germany, than within the liberal market economy contexts of, for example, the United States and United Kingdom. In identifying the critical success factors leading to ‘high road’ green economy, the implications for any such transition within the liberal market economy context of Australia are highlighted.
Was neoliberal capitalism the only possible development path in Eastern Europe after the collapse of real socialism? How did the restoration of capitalism in the former Eastern bloc affect the economic and political situation in the world? Is the support of workers and lower classes for right-wing populists that has been observed in Eastern Europe for the past 30 years since the fall of the Berlin Wall a permanent phenomenon? By asking these questions, the authors point out that the offensive of the far right began in Europe before the 2015 migration crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, and that it coincided with the weakening of leftist workers’ parties. This process began in the 1990s after the collapse of the Eastern bloc. What can stop this process and change the situation? The solution is to show that another model is still possible: greater egalitarianism, democracy and the rule of law. This sociopolitical alternative, however, must simultaneously oppose two powerful forces: neoliberal capitalism and nationalist populism.
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is essential for transgender people’s reproductive justice and autonomy in relation to fertility preservation and family building, whether using their own bodies (eggs, sperm, or uterus), donor gametes, or a gestational carrier. The ability to form a family using one’s own gametes and/or body is necessary for transgender people to consider before medical transition is initiated (hormones/surgeries) and is part of the Informed Consent process of gender medical transition. Progressive thinking, greater cultural awareness and modern medicine have contributed to an increase in transgender people utilizing ART to create their families. Helping transgender patients navigate medically assisted fertility preservation and reproduction requires diverse knowledge, sensitivity training and cultural inclusivity for fertility counselors. Providing gender-affirmative care in reproductive endocrinology and fertility settings when working with transgender patients involves understanding terminology used in the transgender population, use of a trauma-informed care lens, knowledge of a nonbinary gender system, avoiding heteronormativity, cisnormativity and knowledge of gender dysphoria. The American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), The Endocrine Society, World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) and American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) have published documents addressing fertility and preservation considerations for transgender people.
This chapter discusses a bilingual poem in Quechua and Spanish by the twentieth-century Peruvian writer, Teodoro Meneses Morales (1915-87). It argues that the poem evinces a loss of solidarity between humanity and the wider cosmos and that this loss is the result of social, cultural, and environmental transitions occurring at the time. By synthesizing Cornejo Polar’s concept of heterogeneity with Westphal’s geocritical approach, the chapter develops a theoretical framework that accounts for how transitions in mid-twentieth-century Peruvian society disrupt normal patterns of relating to the natural environment as reflected in the poem. As humanity becomes ever more fragmented, pulled in opposing directions between traditional Andean and Western ways of relating to the land, so the land itself ceases to be the stable environment that it was before. In Meneses Morales’ poem, the emblem of such transformations is a drought. While far from unprecedented in the Andes, in a context of heterogeneity this natural disaster becomes symbolic of a more fundamental dislocation between the human inhabitant and the wider landscape of which humans form a part.
This essay focuses on Nellie Campobello and Juan Rulfo to study how the Mexican Revolution by midcentury produced a singular aesthetic form in the guise of the unique short story or narrative sketch. This process involves a violent segmentation of the common, together with a no less forceful production of the singular. While Campobello and Rulfo tap into the resources of collective storytelling, they subject these oral materials to a process of aestheticization whose fundamental values lay in an image of self-standing beauty, or singularity, rather than community. Literature, even when its topic is the aftermath of the revolution, thus seems to run counter to the latter's ideals of collectivization. The chain of oral storytellers is typically interrupted with the appropriation of orality on behalf of an individual author with a unique signature. Based on the examples of Campobello and Rulfo, we might even ask whether there ever was such a thing as a novel of the Mexican revolution to begin with: not only because their sketches and short stories hardly can be considered novels but also because theirs amounts to a narrative of the counter-revolution.
The collapse of the Weimar Republic and the ensuing rise of the Nazi dictatorship in Germany serve to this day as a “warning from history.” The precise lessons to be drawn from this episode remain controversial. Did the first German republic collapse from a lack of popular support or from institutional weakness? These questions were far from the minds of Republican elites. Arnold Brecht and Hans Staudinger regarded problems of stability as primarily administrative. Territorial reform and the creation of public–private partnerships were their creative attempts creating some much-needed breathing space for the young Republic. These initiatives tell us much about the reasons why elites overestimated the robustness of their own institutions. At the same time this ill-founded confidence was necessary for such administrative experiments. Paradoxically, assuming stability can be important in encouraging elites in new democracies to engage in necessary reforms. The administrative rationale also had a dark side, however. It led to a myopic focus on technical detail while ignoring the larger political context and in particular, underestimating the systemic threat from political extremism.
This paper introduces the concept of institutional resilience based on a population game. Agents in an economy are randomly matched to play a coordination game with two strategies, cooperate and defect. A breach of contract can be adjudicated in court. Agents can update their strategy, which is modelled using the replicator dynamic. In this context, cooperation is defined as the informal institution, whereas the legal system (contract law) constitutes the formal institution. Institutional resilience is defined by how the formal institution of a functioning legal system complements the informal institution of cooperation in a dynamic way. In the wake of an adverse exogenous shock, the formal institution can prevent a total breakdown of cooperation in the population.
This chapter provides a brief overview of the ageing process in relation to psychopathologies encountered in the practice of old age psychiatry. In addition, it addresses the role of spirituality and religion in ageing, and discusses ways in which people approach the challenges of transition in later life. The authors discuss the importance of a multidimensional and holistic approach that includes paying sufficient attention to core aspects of being and personality, which can convey important information with regard to coping skills and how they influence responses to diagnosis, treatment and outcome. Deep among these core aspects lie the root constructs of a person’s vision of life and personal meanings, and what some would describe as the presence of a spiritual/transcendent dimension.
Payne offers an account of the unsettling effects of confessions of violence by armed left guerillas or revolutionary fighters in Argentina in two moments in Argentine history. The chapter considers how the timing of these confessions shaped responses to them. In the years shortly after the transition from authoritarian rule, contentious debate moved toward a full accounting on the left for its role in past violence. In recent years, this proved less possible. As the right reconsolidated its political power, the confessional narratives from the Argentine armed left fueled fears of a backlash against the left, reinforcing a view of the left’s shared responsibility with the authoritarian regime for human rights violations, and a call for its prosecution. This silencing of open debate over the left’s past actions prevented the process of condemning violations regardless of who committed them. The prescriptive dimension to this observation highlights the need for urgency in thinking self-critically, to reflect broadly on the motives and consequences of violence, and to use moments of political advantage to condemn those parts of the (temporarily) dominant power’s past that deserve condemnation.
Baron’s chapter uses the lenses of periodical culture and reception studies to situate Joyce’s writing after Ulysses in the context of his involvement with the internationalist avant-garde editorially spearheaded by Eugene Jolas and Elliott Paul in transition. As Edmund Wilson stated in 1948, “without transition, it’s an open question whether Finnegans Wake would be comprehensible at all.” This chapter first reads letters around the serializations of Ulysses and Work in Progress to argue that Joyce learnt from his dealings with The Little Review how to use transition to orchestrate the exegesis and apologia of his rule-flouting project. The chapter examines the strategies that established the Wake’s reputation as an avant-garde triumph rather than a fraudulent con; for example, Joyce’s instigation of the publication of numerous essays devoted exclusively to the praise, explanation, and defense of his work as well as his incorporation of negative views. Most importantly, the chapterwill go on to uncover the ways in which transition brought Joyce into collaborations with a cohort of admiring idealists – involving him in relationships which in turn nourished and inflected the text as he wrote it.
Since 1999, more than 100 “Maisons des Adolescents” (MDAs) - “House of Adolescents” - have been developed in France. These integrated youth-friendly facilities enabled young persons to gain access to specific care. The various medical programs of MDAs depend on the priorities of local communities rather than on official regulations. Most MDAs offer the following essential services: a “Health and Prevention Space” open daily; multidisciplinary consultations; consult liaison for youths hospitalized in medical units; a home visiting service; outpatient clinic including art workshops; refresher courses for school work; peer and parent support groups. The MDAs from the start addressed an age group (young people aged 11-21 years) rather than an illness. They thus provide primary prevention for young persons according to the World Health Organization definition of health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being.” The success of the MDA network is already widely acknowledged by users, professionals, and policymakers.
Patient and public involvement (PPI) in suicide research is ethical, moral and can deliver impact. However, inconsistent reporting of meaningful PPI, and hesitancy in sharing power with people with experience of suicidality (i.e.co-researchers) in research makes it difficult to understand the full potential impact of PPI on the research, researchers and co-researchers.
To describe how our ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study, examining the sleep-suicide relationship in young psychiatric inpatients (aged 18-35) transitioning to the community, has been co-produced, whilst reflecting on impact, challenges, and recommendations.
We built on our experience of co-produced mental health research to conduct meaningful PPI in our study. Young adults with experience of psychiatric inpatient care and suicidality were appointed November 2020 to work across all research stages. Reflections on challenges, recommendations and impact have been collected throughout.
Three young people became co-researchers. Researcher and co-researcher reflections indicated establishing and maintaining safe environments for open discussion, and continued communication (e.g.WhatsApp group) were vital to effectively share power and decision making. Safeguarding and support requirements for both co-researchers (e.g.individualised strategy) and researcher (e.g.clinical supervision) were particularly evident. To date, the co-produced recruitment poster, research documentation, and research article have demonstrated significant impact.
This is the first EMA study focused on suicide-sleep during transitions to be co-produced with young people with experience of suicidality. Co-producing suicide research is intensive, time-consuming, and challenging but makes a significant impact to the research, researchers, and co-researchers. We expect our learning will directly influence, and help others produce, meaningful co-produced suicide research.
Understanding the factors that play a role in the initiation of alcohol use and the subsequent transition to later alcohol abuse adolescence is of paramount importance from the context of developing better-targeted types of secondary (“pro-active”) prevention interventions (Hendriks VM, Dom G., 2021). Peer and family influences together with temperament traits have been suggested to be of cardinal importance regarding the initiation of alcohol use. In addition to these factors neurobiological and genetic factors play a major role in the risk of developing alcohol abuse upon initiation. The presentation will highlight the different psychological, neurobiological, and social factors underlying the risk of the transition to abuse and dependence in adolescence. In addition, examples of targeted prevention interventions will be highlighted.
This chapter extends the previous ones by examining the constraints that the natural environment imposes on economic development over the long period. The congestion of the (finite-sized) planet Earth is examined, as well as the consequences of environmental damages on the possibilities of long-run economic expansion.
This chapter considers the practical and legislative challenges of and requirements for achieving an effective crypto-legal structure for DLT in the carbon trading economy. It also explores the roles of different stakeholders in this transitioning process to achieve an efficient carbon economy.
This chapter develops a simplified discrete-time version of Kremer's model (Kremer QJE 1993) aimed at explaining the existence of a transition from a stagnation regime (where GDP per capita remains constant despite continuous technological progress) to the modern growth regime (where GDP per capita grows continuously despite population growth). As such, this chapter provides a first illustration of what a Unified Growth Model can bring to the study of the long period. We also use that model to cast some light on the Industrial Revolution, and its particular timing and location in space.
This chapter uses Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Population to provide a simple model of stagnation, which explains GDP per capita’s flat trend during the longest part of History. That model of Malthusian stagnation explains the constancy of standards of living as follows: during the longest part of History, each time a technological progress took place, this was followed by a rise in population size that annihilated any improvement in standards of living. As such, this chapter provides one possible representation of the stagnation regime. Criticisms of that theory of long-run stagnation by Marx, Weyland and others are also examined.
This book provides a non-technical introduction to Unified Growth Theory (UGT), that is, the study of history as a succession of economic regimes. It first focuses on the canonical example of regime shift: the transition from the regime of Malthusian stagnation to the modern regime of sustained economic growth. Then, it broadens the perspectives on historical change by examining other regime shifts involving institutional and environmental forces. This book fills a gap in the market by providing a more accessible treatment of UGT and invites readers to explore ideas of continuity and discontinuity in history.
At one level or another, by one means or another, for one reason or another, a higher percentage of the population of western Europe was engaged with books and other forms of the printed word in the nineteenth century than at any time previously. In this as in most things, the various countries were not equal. Experience varied from region to region, from town to town and among different social groups. It depended on literacy rates, on transport and communication, on manufacturing capability, on education, on the requirements of everyday life whether in government, religion or social assumptions and practices.
Emerging meta-analytical evidence indicates that baseline exposure to antipsychotics in individuals at clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR-P) is associated with a higher risk of an imminent transition to psychosis. Despite their tolerability profile and potential beneficial effects, baseline exposure to antidepressants (AD) in CHR-P has surprisingly received far less attention as a potential risk modulator for transition to psychosis. The current systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to fix such a knowledge gap.
Systematic scrutiny of Medline and Cochrane library, performed up to 1 August 2021, searching for English-language studies on CHR-P reporting numeric data about the sample, the transition outcome at a predefined follow-up time and raw data on AD baseline exposure in relation to such outcome.
Of 1942 identified records, 16 studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. 26% of the participants were already exposed to AD at baseline; at the end of the follow-up 13.5% (95% CI 10.2–17.1%) of them (n = 448) transitioned to psychosis against 21.0% (18.9 to 23.3%) of non-AD exposed CHR-P (n = 1371). CHR-P participants who were already under AD treatment at baseline had a lower risk of transition than non-AD exposed CHR-P. The RR was 0.71 (95% CI 0.56–0.90) in the fixed-effects model (z = −2.79; p = 0.005), and 0.78 (0.58–1.05) in the random-effects model (z = −1.77; p = 0.096; tau-squared = 0.059). There was no relevant heterogeneity (Cochran's Q = 18.45; df = 15; p = 0.239; I2 = 18.7%).
Ongoing AD exposure at inception in CHR-P is associated to a reduced risk of transition to psychosis at follow up.