The objectives of this study were to describe the peracaridean fauna associated to the algae Corallina elongata from the Strait of Gibraltar, and explore possible biodiversity and biogeographical patterns of variation along the north–south and Atlantic–Mediterranean axes across the Strait of Gibraltar. Twenty-five stations were selected along the north and south coasts of the Strait to cover the broadest possible range of human pressure and environmental conditions, including both natural rocky shores and artificial breakwaters. The alga Corallina elongata was selected as substrate, and the peracaridean crustaceans were identified to species level and classified in geographical distribution groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to explore and confirm patterns of variation. Forty peracarid species were collected, most of them with an Atlantic–Mediterranean distribution (67%) with only the gammarid Parhyale eburnea, being an endemic Mediterranean species. The most common species collected during the present study were the gammarids Hyale stebbingi, Jassa marmorata, Stenothoe monoculoides and Ampithoe spp., the caprellids Caprella grandimana and C. penantis, the isopod Ischyromene lacazei and the tanaid Tanais dulongi. The number of species per station and the diversity index were significantly higher in the stations located along the north side of the Strait of Gibraltar. However, the two-way ANOVA discarded differences between north and south due to the type of substrate (natural versus artificial) and degree of human pressure. Based on peracaridean assemblages, the Strait of Gibraltar behaves as a whole and homogeneous region, with a very similar faunal composition in all stations and there is not a clear gradient of species substitution from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic stations. Provided that we selected the same substrate in all stations, and that statistical analyses revealed that differences between north and south stations were not due to environmental factors such as anthropogenic stress or type of substrate, we should look to historical biogeographical reasons to explain the higher diversity in the north side of the Strait of Gibraltar.