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This chapter presents a game-theoretic solution to several challenges in electricity markets, e.g., intermittent generation; high levels of average prices; price volatility; and fundamental aspects concerning the environment, reliability, and affordability. It proposes a stochastic bi-level optimization model to find the optimal nodal storage capacities required to achieve a certain price volatility level in a highly volatile energy-only electricity market. The decision on storage capacities is made in the upper-level problem and the operation of strategic/regulated generation, storage, and transmission players is modeled in the lower-level problem using an extended stochastic (Bayesian) Cournot-based game.
Soil degradation is characterized by loss of soil organic matter, decline in fertility, imbalance in elemental content, deterioration of soil structure, and overall a deterioration of soil environment. According to the classification method of Pieri et al. (1992), the soil is classified into different degradation classes by calculating the soil structural stability index (St) of each sample point. We aimed to investigate changes in the contents, storages and stoichiometry of soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) together with changes in soil physical traits along a soil degradation gradient in jasmine croplands in Fuzhou area (China). The content and storage of soil C and N decreased with increasing intensity of land degradation. Soil organic C content was 15.4%, 32.3%, and 38.8% lower, respectively, in the low, medium, and high degree of degradation soils, than in the nondegraded soils. The soil C:N ratio was 18.5% higher in soils in the middle degree of degradation than in the nondegraded soils. Compared with nondegraded soils, the bulk density of the degraded soils increased and water content decreased. The decrease of soil pH coupled with salinity (conductivity) and the loss of aggregate stability are the main traits that distinguish degraded from nondegraded soils. We also detected a general N and P deficiency that is aggravated by the degradation process. Unreasonable management easily leads to degradation associated with a loss of organic C and total soil nutrients, thus impairing even more a general N and P deficiency in this area. Therefore, higher inputs of organic fertilizer should be added to alleviate the lack of organic matter, and appropriate burial should be conducted to reduce nutrient loss. Moreover, a rise of N and P fertilizer application is also advisable.
In this book, Catherine E. Pratt explores how oil and wine became increasingly entangled in Greek culture, from the Late Bronze Age to the Archaic period. Using ceramic, architectural, and archaeobotanical data, she argues that Bronze Age exchange practices initiated a strong network of dependency between oil and wine production, and the people who produced, exchanged, and used them. After the palatial collapse, these prehistoric connections intensified during the Iron Age and evolved into the large-scale industries of the Classical period. Pratt argues that oil and wine in pre-Classical Greece should be considered 'cultural commodities', products that become indispensable for proper social and economic exchanges well beyond economic advantage. Offering a detailed diachronic account of the changing roles of surplus oil and wine in the economies of pre-classical Greek societies, her book contributes to a broader understanding of the complex interconnections between agriculture, commerce, and culture in the ancient Mediterranean.
In this study, we tried to maintain the vitality of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) ova before fertilization with several treatments in vitro. The ovulated eggs were allocated to groups with different incubation medium (coelomic fluid and artificial media), temperature (4°C and 16°C) and storage duration (2 h and 6 h). The maximum fertilization and hatching rate were observed for the control group in which the ova were fertilized immediately after spawning, with the values of 82.45% and 84.73%, respectively. Compared with the control group, the fertilization and hatching rate of all the treatment groups stored at 4°C or in coelomic fluid decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The fertilization rate of the treatment group stored in artificial medium at 16°C did not change obviously in the first 2 h (P > 0.05), but declined dramatically (P < 0.05) after 6 h. In comparison with the control group, no significant (P > 0.05) reduction was shown in hatching rate of the treatment group stored in artificial medium at 16°C for 6 h. The results showed that the ova of Chinese sturgeon can be stored for at least 6 h at 16°C in artificial medium without weakening; this provides a practical application method for the routine hatchery practice of Chinese sturgeon, as well as certain relevant research.
Hittite records can be classified as either short-term or long-term texts. Within the latter group we distinguish semi-current and permanent records. The various tasks of scribes working for the state are discussed in this chapter: drafting new documents, either from scratch or using earlier, related documents, copying and editing existing compositions, and reading. As part of the discussion about editing, an attempt is made to make sense of a number of closely related but still largely unclear technical terms found in many colophons. Finally, the question of tablet storage is addressed. Given the confusing archaeological context in which most Hittite tablets and fragments have been found there is little certainty to be gained. A case is made for a smaller rather than larger number of scribal “offices” and estimates of the original total of tablets present at any time in the tablet collections of the thirteenth century are discussed. An appendix gives a concrete example of what text editing might have looked like.
The discovery of a large underground silo complex with spectacular intact grain stores at the Late Bronze Age Hittite capital of Hattusha in Turkey provides a unique snapshot of the mobilisation of crop production by the Hittite state. A combination of primary archaeobotanical analysis, crop stable isotope determinations and functional weed ecology reveals new insights into Hittite cultivation strategies, featuring a range of relatively low-input, extensive production regimes for hulled wheats and hulled barley. Taxation of extensively produced grain in the sixteenth century BC reveals how an ancient state sought to sustain itself, providing wider implications for the politics and ecology of territorially expansive states in Western Asia and beyond.
Emotional experiences are often more likely than neutral experiences to be remembered, or to be retrieved richly. In this chapter, we provide an overview of how the effects of emotion arise, emphasizing the effects that operate during the initial experience of the event (encoding), the storage and stabilization of the memory trace for that experience (consolidation), and the accessing of that trace (retrieval). We discuss how these effects of emotion can explain both why emotion enhances many aspects of memory throughout the adult life span and also why there are often age-by-valence interactions in memory, with older adults remembering information more positively than younger adults.
In a pre-industrial world, storage could make or break farmers and empires alike. How did it shape the Roman empire? The Socio-Economics of Roman Storage cuts across the scales of farmer and state to trace the practical and moral reverberations of storage from villas in Italy to silos in Gaul, and from houses in Pompeii to warehouses in Ostia. Following on from the material turn, an abstract notion of 'surplus' makes way for an emphasis on storage's material transformations (e.g. wine fermenting; grain degrading; assemblages forming), which actively shuffle social relations and economic possibilities, and are a sensitive indicator of changing mentalities. This archaeological study tackles key topics, including the moral resonance of agricultural storage; storage as both a shared and a contested concern during and after conquest; the geography of knowledge in domestic settings; the supply of the metropolis of Rome; and the question of how empires scale up. It will be of interest to scholars and students of Roman archaeology and history, as well as anthropologists who study the links between the scales of farmer and state.
The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is currently the most common ectoparasite affecting egg-laying hens. Since continuous culture of D. gallinae on birds is a biologically and economically costly endeavour, storage techniques for mites are urgently needed. Effects of temperature on adult and nymph survival were first studied to optimize storage conditions. Then, fecundity of D. gallinae was studied after mites were stored at optimal storage conditions. Results showed the survival rates of protonymphs (42.11%), deutonymphs (8.19%) and females (19.78%) at 5°C after 84 days were higher than those at 0, 25 and 30°C. Thereafter the fecundity and the capability of re-establishing colonies of D. gallinae were evaluated after they were stored for 40 and 80 days at 5°C. After storage, the mean number of eggs showed no statistical difference between treated (5°C for 40 or 80 days) and control groups (25°C for 7 days), while the hatching rates of eggs were in all cases above 97%. The dynamic changes of mite populations and egg numbers showed similar trends to the control group after the stored adult or nymph mites were fed on chicks. Dermanyssus gallinae can be successfully stored at 5°C for 80 days with no interference with the fecundity of mites, and the stored mites could re-establish colonies successfully. Adults and nymphs were two main stages with capability for low temperature storage. These results suggest that low temperature storage is a viable option for colony maintenance of D. gallinae under laboratory conditions.
To estimate the cesium sorption by the bentonite and to obtain the isotherms, some batch-adsorption experiments are being carried out, being the Kd (retardation coefficient) calculated from these isotherms. One-dimensional flow cell was constructed to measure the bentonite permeability regarding to a cesium solution, which results will be used to evaluate the diffusion coefficient – D. It will be used the PHREEQC software to model the transport of the cesium radionuclide through this bentonite with the Kd and D data. The modelling of radionuclide transport in the Brazilian materials will contribute to evaluate the efficiency of multi-barriers system of the national repository, because it is one of its safety criteria.
The global expansion of nuclear energy will generate increasing quantities of waste with low levels of plutonium or other nuclear materials (NM) potentially subject to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. Reducing requirements on retained wastes has the potential to reduce future demands on already strained IAEA resources. We describe an effort to help the IAEA and Member States better estimate projected waste loads and associated safeguards obligations by developing a reporting tool to estimate types and sizes of future waste-storage and -disposal facilities. States can use such information to plan waste facilities, including size and type. The IAEA can use these data for inclusion in multiple agency reports and products for the benefit of Member States.
A 250kW hydrogen electrolysis facility was recently installed at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority's (NELHA's) campus. This facility that will begin operation in 2020 to produce hydrogen for fuel cell buses on the island to demonstrate of the application of hydrogen to decarbonize transportation. Given the size of the electrolysis station, it has the potential to significantly increase electricity costs for the campus, which is subject to energy and peak demand charges from the local utility.
In this paper, we analyze the cost of hydrogen production at NELHA given the rate structure options available from the utility. Production costs are estimated using optimal versus constant scheduling of the facility to meet the buses’ demand. A model of the electrolysis station is used to capture changes in production efficiency over the power range in the optimization routine. The effects of combining the station and campus load versus standalone operation and increasing solar generation are also explored. The analyses surrounding this scenario show the importance of multiple factors on the potential profitability of hydrogen production in behind-the-meter applications and show trends that could have implications for other similar installations.
For energy storage to be part of the transmission solution, storage developers need to work with transmission owners and follow the Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) transmission planning protocols.
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 841 mostly treats Electric Storage Resource (ESR) as a generation asset. To date, no FERC order lays out a path for treating energy storage as a transmission asset. One of FERC-jurisdictional RTOs – Midcontinent Independent System Operator (MISO) – has sent a “storage as a transmission-only asset” proposal to FERC, which FERC did not reject but did not approve either. This MISO filing begs the question – how to treat energy storage as a transmission project? The industry needs to understand how RTO cost allocation works for new and existing transmission projects. To appreciate cost allocation, stakeholders need to grasp the fundamentals of transmission project categories. Because to put together a business case for storage, modeling is essential. And modeling for reliability and economic projects vary. Getting into the weeds of transmission planning is what it takes to treat storage as a transmission asset.
Placing a large storage project at one transmission node influences the transmission flows in the model. Hence, planners need an approach that estimates future storage services and logically places storage at multiple transmission nodes.
In planning models, it is hard to forecast which service storage might provide at any given hour because storage provides a wide variety of services such as capacity benefit, peaker replacement, reduction in renewable energy curtailment, and ancillary services. But transmission planning models are required to address North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) reliability standards and criteria, with assumptions for planned additions of generation, transmission, and demand response resources. Hence, planners must assume a basic set of services for storage resources.
And this paper outlines a suggested approach to site storage resources in planning models by focusing on the generator interconnection queue for utility-scale storage and energy-intensive industries for commercial and industrial customers.
This perspective article summarizes the operational principles of dual-ion batteries and highlights the main issues in the interpretation and reporting of their electrochemical performance.
Secondary dual-ion batteries (DIBs) are emerging stationary energy storage systems that have been actively explored in view of their low cost, high energy efficiency, power density, and long cycling life. Nevertheless, a critical assessment of the literature in this field points to numerous inaccuracies and inconsistencies in reported performance, primarily caused by the exclusion of the capacity of used electrolytes and the use of non-charge-balanced batteries. Ultimately, these omissions have a direct impact on the assessment of the energy and power density of DIBs. Aiming to secure further advancement of DIBs, in this work, we critically review current research pursuits and summarize the operational mechanisms of such batteries. The particular focus of this perspective is put on highlighting the main issues in the interpretation and reporting of the electrochemical performance of DIBs. To this end, we survey the prospects of these stationary storage systems, emphasizing the practical hurdles that remain to be addressed.
This chapter deals with the inherited metabolic diseases affecting the heart in which there are morphological changes sufficient to permit a tentative diagnosis to be offered by a pathologist. A large first section deals with glycogen storage disorders and is well illustrated. This is followed by discussion of lysosomal storage disorders, including Niemann–Pick disease, sections on mucopolysaccharidosis and of the commoner disorders of lipid oxidation. Disorders of iron metabolism and amino acidurias close the chapter.
Archaeological evidence provides the only basis for comparative research charting wealth inequality over vast stretches of the human past. But researchers are confronted by a number of problems: small sample sizes; variable indicators of wealth (including individual grave goods, the area of household dwellings or storage spaces); overrepresentation of the wealthy, or invisibility of those without wealth; and vastly different population sizes. Here, the authors develop methods for estimating the Gini coefficient—a measure of wealth inequality—that address these challenges, allowing them to provide a set of 150 comparable estimates of ancient wealth inequality.
Various jurisdictions have legalized cannabis for medical purposes. As with all psychoactive medications, medical cannabis carries a risk of diversion and accidental ingestion. These risks may be particularly high among long-term medical cannabis patients as safety practices may become less salient to patients once the treatment becomes part of everyday life. The current study examines whether patients who have used medical cannabis for longer periods differ from those who have used for shorter periods in terms of sociodemographic background and other key aspects of medical cannabis use. Furthermore, the study examines the relationship between length of medical cannabis treatment and risk factors related to storage and diversion. Finally, the study examines the extent to which oncologists provide information to their patients about safe storage and disposal.
One hundred twenty-one medical cannabis oncology patients were interviewed face-to-face and 55 oncologists participated in a survey about safe storage and disposal practices related to medical cannabis.
Length of medical cannabis treatment was related to administration by smoking and using higher monthly dosages. In terms of risk for unsafe storage and diversion, length of medical cannabis was positively associated with using cannabis outside the home and having been asked to give away medical cannabis. Physicians did not report providing information to patients regarding safe storage and disposal practices in a regular manner.
Significance of results
Results suggest that there is an ongoing risk of unsafe storage and diversion over the course of medical cannabis treatment. Oncologists may need to give more consistent and continued training in safe storage and disposal practices, especially among long-term medical cannabis patients.
State policymakers and regulators should consider how to respond to the emergence of new storage technologies while observing the regulatory and legal proceedings that will draw the line between state and federal jurisdiction over matters related to storage.
The emergence of new energy storage is challenging traditional jurisdictional lines and giving state policy makers new things to consider. This article discusses conflicts in jurisdiction and offers options for policy makers to consider with regard to storage technologies.
The research of high-performance flexible supercapacitors is urgent due to the rapid development of wearable and portable electronics. The key challenge is the preparation of flexible electrodes with high areal capacitance since electrodes are the most important part of supercapacitors. Compared to those conventional electrodes loading with typical flexible substrates such as textile, PET, paper et al, free-standing electrodes have many advantages such as more efficient capacity contribution, solidly embedded active materials and thinner thickness. Herein, we have successfully fabricated a novel sandwich-like structure free-standing MoO3-rGO (reduced graphene oxide) composite film electrode for flexible supercapacitors using simple vacuum filtration method followed by HI reduction process. The obtained MoO3-rGO composite film electrode shows excellent electrochemical performance, whose areal specific capacitance reaches 8972 mF·cm-2 (1.5 mA·cm-2). Here, MoO3 provides pseudocapacitance and rGO provides double-layer capacitance. After cycling for 2000 cycles, the capacity retention is 86.7%, showing good cycle stability. Besides, the as-prepared composite film has good flexibility and will not break easily during following bending, rolling, folding or twisting steps. This study has been approved to be an important step for the high-performance electrode design for free-standing flexible supercapacitors.