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This study investigated how semantically relevant auditory information might affect the reading of subtitles, and if such effects might be modulated by the concurrent video content. Thirty-four native Chinese speakers with English as their second language watched video with English subtitles in six conditions defined by manipulating the nature of the audio (Chinese/L1 audio vs. English/L2 audio vs. no audio) and the presence versus absence of video content. Global eye-movement analyses showed that participants tended to rely less on subtitles with Chinese or English audio than without audio, and the effects of audio were more pronounced in the presence of video presentation. Lexical processing of subtitles was not modulated by the audio. However, Chinese audio, which presumably obviated the need to read the subtitles, resulted in more superficial post-lexical processing of the subtitles relative to either the English or no audio. On the contrary, English audio accentuated post-lexical processing of the subtitles compared with Chinese audio or no audio, indicating that participants might use English audio to support subtitle reading (or vice versa) and thus engaged in deeper processing of the subtitles. These findings suggest that, in multimodal reading situations, eye movements are not only controlled by processing difficulties associated with properties of words (e.g., their frequency and length) but also guided by metacognitive strategies involved in monitoring comprehension and its online modulation by different information sources.
This chapter presents another extension of the core model: an eye-movement control system is integrated with the parsing architecture, and this extended model is investigated using benchmark eyetracking data (the Potsdam Sentence Corpus).
Very little is known about the processes underlying second language (L2) speakers’ understanding of written metaphors and similes. Moreover, most of the theories on figurative language comprehension do not consider reader-related factors. In the study, we used eye-tracking to examine how native Finnish speakers (N = 63) read written English nominal metaphors (“education is a stairway”) and similes (“education is like a stairway”). Identical topic–vehicle pairs were used in both conditions. After reading, participants evaluated familiarity of each pair. English proficiency was measured using the Bilingual-language Profile Questionnaire and the Lexical Test for Advanced Learners of English. The results showed that readers were more likely to regress within metaphors than within similes, indicating that processing metaphors requires more processing effort than processing similes. The familiarity of a metaphor and L2 English proficiency modulated this effect. The results are discussed in the light of current theories on figurative language processing.
Drawing on second language acquisition theory, this chapter establishes why language input is so fundamental to language learning. It explores ‘teacher talk’ as one major way for learners to get maximum exposure to input and discusses the challenge for teachers and learners of teachers using the target language in the classroom. Examples from classrooms and teachers’ comments/perspectives are included. The chapter explores, with examples, how teachers may offer ‘environmental support’ to help learners deal with challenging language input. The chapter discusses the type of input that learners need for learning and the type of input that is likely to engage adolescent language learners. It suggests ways that teachers can address the difficulty of maximising access to the target language, looking at opening up opportunities beyond the language classroom. The use of the learners’ first or other languages, in the language classroom, is discussed.
This chapter distinguishes three types of text‐related understanding: (1) understanding that consists in seeing how the parts of a text hang together; (2) understanding that consists in grasping what a writer wanted to communicate; (3) understanding that consists in grasping the value of what the text, or its author, says. It is argued that through reading we can come to understand not only texts and authors but also subject matters. Finally, it is argued that reading‐based understanding normally builds on reading‐based knowledge.
This chapter argues that reading doesn't reduce to attending to testimony (given the accounts of testimony offered by C. A. J. Coady, Robert Audi, Elizabeth Fricker, and Jennifer Lackey) nor to visual perception (not to Fred Dretske’s simple seeing, nor to Thomas Reid’s acquired perception, nor to Dretske’s primary and secondary epistemic seeing). This paves the way for considering reading as a source of knowledge in its own right.
This chapter discusses the commonalities and differences between reading and listening by focusing on the commonalities and differences between writing and speaking. Common to writing and speaking is that they are both activities that normally have a fourfold intentionality: (1) they are performed intentionally; (2) they are targeted at other people; (3) they are about things; and (4) they are the means by which the author intends to reach certain aims. Next, I discuss Paul Ricoeur's views on the distinction between writing and speaking, in which the notion of autonomy plays an important role. It is argued that Ricoeur is not successful in bringing out the distinction that he is groping for and that a more adequate view on the distinction should make use of the idea that at least some writing is creative‐investigative – that is, some writing is such that an author would not and even could not have formed the thoughts and ideas expressed in their text if they had not engaged in writing.
Why is reading never thought of as a source of knowledge? This chapter analyzes, first, what it is for something to be a source of knowledge and, second, by what kind of principles acknowledged sources of knowledge have been individuated. It is shown that epistemologists have used five kinds of principles, and it is argued that reading can be individuated by means of some of those principles.
The introduction explains the aims of the book, its timeliness, and its relevance, and it specifies a number of commitments that I work with: a true-belief view of knowledge, a realist conception of truth, justification as truth aiming, and the notion that writing is acting. It is explained that the book’s scope is wide in that it treats the epistemology of reading texts across literary genres, while it is at the same time exclusively focused on the interpretation of texts.
This chapter offers a comprehensive characterization of reading as a source of knowledge. It is argued that a distinction should be made between factive and nonfactive reading. Factive reading is reading that p. Nonfactive reading is an activity. An analysis of nonfactive reading is offered. Next, it is argued that two kinds of factive reading must be distinguished: (1) knowing through reading that what a text (or its author) says is p, and (2) knowing through reading that what a text (or its author) says, viz. p, is true. In addition, it is argued that a third kind of reading knowledge must be distinguished: knowing through reading a text that p, where p is not something that the text (or its author) says. Finally, it is argued that the source that reading is, is both a transmission and a generation source; that it is a nonbasic source; that it is in certain respects an essential source; and that sometimes, it is a unique source.
This study investigates reading comprehension in adult deaf and hearing readers. Using correlational analysis and stepwise regression, we assess the contribution of English language variables (e.g., vocabulary comprehension, reading volume, and phonological awareness), cognitive variables (e.g., working memory (WM), nonverbal intelligence, and executive function), and language experience (e.g., language acquisition and orthographic experience) in predicting reading comprehension in deaf and hearing adult bilinguals (native American Sign Language (ASL) signers, non-native ASL signers, and Chinese–English bilinguals (CEB)), and monolingual (ML) controls. For all four groups, vocabulary knowledge was a strong contributor to reading comprehension. Monolingual English speakers and non-native deaf signers also showed contributions from WM and spoken language phonological awareness. In contrast, CEB showed contributions of lexical strategies in English reading comprehension. These cross-group comparisons demonstrate how the inclusion of multiple participant groups helps us to further refine our understanding of how language and sensory experiences influence reading comprehension.
Reading and textual interpretation are ordinary human activities, performed inside as well as outside academia, but precisely how they function as unique sources of knowledge is not well understood. In this book, René van Woudenberg explores the nature of reading and how it is distinct from perception and (attending to) testimony, which are two widely acknowledged knowledge sources. After distinguishing seven accounts of interpretation, van Woudenberg discusses the question of whether all reading inevitably involves interpretation, and shows that although reading and interpretation often go together, they are distinct activities. He goes on to argue that both reading and interpretation can be paths to realistically conceived truth, and explains the conditions under which we are justified in believing that they do indeed lead us to the truth. Along the way, he offers clear and novel analyses of reading, meaning, interpretation, and interpretative knowledge.
There is limited understanding amongst patients and parents of paediatric patients regarding adenoidectomy. Most patients access health-related information online. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of online information on adenoidectomy.
The term ‘adenoid’ was used to search Google, and the first 50 websites identified were screened. For each website, the readability and quality were assessed.
Of the 41 websites that met the inclusion criteria, the mean readability scores corresponded to ‘difficult to read’ and university-level reading categories. For the quality of the websites, the mean score corresponded to ‘fair’ with 39 per cent of the websites containing either ‘poor’ or ‘very poor’ quality data. The ENT UK information is one of the most readable and reliable online resources.
The online information on adenoidectomy is largely set at an inappropriate readability level and of variable quality. Surgeons should consider assisting their patients with online searches regarding adenoidectomy.
There is a significant problem of unidentified and unaddressed reading disabilities leading to psychiatric problems in children and adolescents because of not having proper tools of assessments in schools. This research proposal can be a revolutionary paradigm in identifying, classifying, modeling, and benefitting children and adolescents with a specific learning disorder (SLD).
The objective of the current research proposal is to provide a framework of our reading program and collect data over time as cohorts to reflect the positive outcomes of the reading program.
1. To provide an intervention that is accessible and feasible for children and their parents that will improve their academic and socio-emotional aspects.
2. Educate parents regarding SLD.
3. To provide reading training to address SLD in reading and improve reading.
4. To provide Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) to target the anxiety and depression that results because of having a SLDin reading.
After a reading assessment, students with specific reading disabilities will be registered in the program for 10 weeks. Every student will have reading training and CBT on different days of the week via video conference. Data will be collected retrospectively from the initial cohort and subsequent cohorts will be added to the data collection process for a final analysis when 60 students have completed the program.
Initial two weeks of reading training and CBT shows positive and promising results so far.
Children need to be screened at a young age for a reading disability before they struggle academically, and develop psychiatric issues later in life.
Conflict of interest
The aim of this research proposal is to help us understand, evaluate and benefit children with Specific Learning Disorder (SLD) with our newly setup reading program at RUSH University Medical Center, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
Literacy affects many aspects of language and cognition, including the shift from a more holistic mode of processing to a more analytical part-based mode of processing. Here we examined whether this shift impacts the ability of preschool and primary school children to learn the rules underlying a finite-state grammar using an artificial grammar learning (AGL) paradigm implemented with either linguistic (letters) or non-linguistic (colors) materials to further examine if children’s AGL performance was modulated by type of stimuli. Both tasks involved a training phase in which half of the preschool children and half of the primary school children were exposed to a set of either letter or color strings without any information about the rules underlying the construction of those strings. Later, in the test phase, they were asked to decide whether a new set of letter or color strings conformed to those rules to test grammar learning. Results showed that only primary school children showed evidence of learning, and, importantly, only with colors. These findings seem to support the view that learning to read promotes reliance on smaller linguistic units that might hinder the ability of first-graders to learn the rules underlying finite-state grammars implemented with linguistic materials.
This chapter argues that Edmund Spenser is at his most deeply political when he invites his readers to immerse themselves in the lush flowerbeds of his poetry. Immersive reading of the lavish and apparently “pointless” descriptions and inventories of flowers in The Shepheardes Calendar, Virgils Gnat, Muiopotmos, and the Garden of Adonis in The Faerie Queene reveal Spenser at his most resistant to submitting the poetic word to the ideological controls associated with the Crown and the court. Spenser plants his flowerbeds in the morally positive terrain of the liberty of speech and poetic license.
The conceptual framework that accompanies stylistic virtue was the product of over two thousand years of rhetorical, critical, and philosophical development, much of which appears to collapse in the first decades of the twentieth century. However, the Afterword suggests that stylistic virtue persisted in constituent and strategically obscured forms: for example, in T.S. Eliot’s analysis of stylistic “impersonality” and I.A. Richards’s conception of the poem as “pseudo-statement.” The Afterword goes on to claim that contemporary virtue theory provides a promising avenue for the continued defense of style, and of aesthetic value more generally, as an ethical good, offering an innovative way of defending the humanities at a moment of contemporary crisis.
Revisiting Sau-Ling Wong’s Reading Asian American Literature, this chapter posits its key terms of Necessity and Extravagance, which counterbalance tendencies toward freedom with the force of constraint, as analytics toward apprehending a larger Asian American(ist) economy where work and play traffic in the circulation and distribution of energy, value, and desire. Asian American(ist) economy names two interdependent modes of operations. The first operates descriptively, mapping the economy of activities, attachments, and resources that undergird the racial formation of Asian America. The second manifests itself prescriptively through attempts by racial projects to articulate the cathexis of energies toward specific objectives, defining the work that “Asian American” can and should do. Centering Necessity and Extravagance reassesses Asian American literary debates around texts, contexts, and inter-texts wherein Extravagance becomes bound to anxieties about excess: libidinal, theoretical, and capitalist. Necessity and Extravagance provide valuable methods for contending with such excesses alongside shifting permutations of race and Asian Americanness from 1965 to 1996.
Chapter 4 turns to Huguenot texts printed in the aftermath of the Saint Bartholomew’s Day massacres: the Reveille-matin des François, a pair of dialogues which features a Politique character, and several texts from Simon Goularts Mémoires de l’estat de France sous Charles IX, especially the dialogue ‘Le Politique’. Here we see a figure sometimes overlooked in historiography: the explicitly Protestant politique. In these writings there is a sense that politiques could turn bad, and an attempt to prevent that. This chapter addresses the connection between the figure of the Machiavel and the politique, and the status of the politique character in Protestant arguments for liberty. I argue that these issues are bound up with Renaissance practices of reading and writing. The paradigmatic example of the connection between the issue of liberty and somewhat coercive textual practices is the illicit, unattributed printing of extracts of Etienne de la Boétie’s Discours de la servitude volontaire in the texts discussed. Finally, the chapter addresses the question of memory and the wishful ‘poetics of memorialisation’ at work in these representations of politics and politiques.