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Early eighteenth-century dictionaries departed from the hard-word tradition to include common words for a wider and expanding audience. Bailey s dictionaries (1721, 1730) provided comprehensive coverage of information of all kinds, not only linguistic, but were found lacking in clarity and lexicographic sophistication. Increasing desire for an authoritative standard for the language prompted Johnson s work on his dictionary of 1755. In this dictionary, he raised the standards of lexicography in regard to definitions (especially multiple ones), phrasal verbs, and other aspects, including the illustration of usage through the use of written authorities; however, he abandoned his hopes and intentions of fixing the language (prescriptivism) in the midst of his work, turning to a more descriptive model of English written usage. The change in method and approach occurred after the failure of his attempts to order literary and other written material he consulted into pre-ordained structures of definition. Concerns for proper speaking and spelling became louder throughout the century, because of the rapidly increasing and increasingly mobile population, as well as the Act of Union of 1707, uniting England and Scotland. Dictionary makers increasingly included guides to pronunciation and spelling in reaction to these concerns, and numerous pronouncing dictionaries appeared from mid-century onwards.
This chapter examines passages in Hebrews where the Spirit is portrayed as the speaker of Scripture quotations (Heb 3:7–4:11; 10:11–18). Due to previous skepticism about the Spirit’s role in Hebrews, this chapter also argues that the Spirit is a speaker in the same way as the Father and Son and that the author uses his speech to develop a thoroughly distinct divine character. In Hebrews 3-4, potentially the longest pneumatological discourse in the NT, the Spirit encourages the addressees to avoid the error of the wilderness generation and press on towards rest. In Hebrews 10, the Spirit “testifies” to the benefits of the new covenant - especially forgiveness. In contrast to the Father and Son, the Spirit’s conversation partner is “us.”
In this book, Madison N. Pierce analyzes the use of prosopological exegesis by the author of Hebrews in almost every major quotation of Scripture. She shows that the author uses Scripture in a consistent way that develops his characterization of God - Father, Son, and Spirit - and that results in a triune portrait of God in Hebrews. Offering a detailed reading of several passages, she also demonstrates how the author's portrayal of God is consistent with later theological developments. Pierce's method replaces atomistic approaches and allows readers to see a clear pattern of usage across the entire epistle. It offers researchers a tool for examining quotations of New Testament Scripture and will be of particular interest to those working in the field of trinitarian theology.
This chapter proposes that the author uses an ancient exegetical technique known as “prosopological exegesis.” This method was common in early Christianity, but is not often traced as far back as the NT. After establishing the author’s use, the chapter shows how this method developed out of Greco-Roman rhetorical training as well as literary criticism and also has resonances with Jewish reading strategies as well. Since this method was used by early Christian writers, such as Tertullian, to support a doctrine of the Trinity, this chapter also discusses the extent to which this is true of Hebrews. Finally, the chapter surveys previous literature on speech, or “the word of God,” in Hebrews.
This chapter shows how the patterns of speech outlined in the previous chapters support proposals for a tripartite structure of Hebrews; however, these patterns are especially prevalent in the first two sections, but break down some in the third. This chapter discusses the spoken quotations in the third section of Hebrews (10:19–13:25) and demonstrates how the author develops his motifs from the previous sections. This section also shows how the author’s spoken quotations relate to the opening prologue in which the Father speaks “to us” through the Son, even though no quoted speech from the Son is ever directed to the addressees in Hebrews.
This chapter examines passages in Hebrews where the Father or God is portrayed as the speaker of Scripture quotations (Heb 1:5–13; 5:1–10; 7:1–28; 8:1–13). In Hebrews 1, the Father speaks 7 quotations to the Son or to/about the angels. These quotations show the Son’s superiority. In Hebrews 5, the quotations show how the Son is called to be a priest and how that is linked to his Sonship. In Hebrews 7, the author’s important quotation of Ps 110:4 establishes Jesus as a high priest in the likeness of Melchizedek. Finally, in Hebrews 8, the Father speaks and establishes a “new covenant.” In most instances, a pattern emerges where the Father speaks to the Son and confers authority upon him. These speeches are then “overheard” by the addressees.