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The transition from childhood to adolescence is a sensitive period, triggering changes in health- and weight-related behaviours including eating habits which likely vary between girls and boys. We aimed to characterise the changes in the frequency of consumption of select sugary foods and drinks (‘sweet treats’) among 4237 Finnish girls and boys during a 2-year follow-up period. Additionally, we examined four subgroups: children whose weight or waist normalised as well as children whose weight or waist circumference increased during follow-up. An FFQ was completed at 11·1 (sd 0·9) and again at 13·4 (sd 1·1) years of age. A sum variable sweet treat index (STI, range 0–84) captured the weekly consumption frequencies of sweet treats. From baseline to follow-up, the mean STI decreased among girls from 7·1 (95 % CI 6·9, 7·3) to 6·0 (95 % CI 5·9, 6·2) (P < 0·001) and boys from 8·5 (95 % CI 8·3, 8·8) to 7·8 (95 % CI 7·6, 7·8) (P < 0·001), although both sexes increased their chocolate/sweets consumption: girls from 1·3 (95 % CI 1·3, 1·4) to 1·6 (95 % CI 1·5, 1·6) (P < 0·001) and boys from 1·4 (95 % CI 1·3, 1·4) to 1·6 (95 % CI 1·6, 1·7) (P < 0·001), and boys increased their soft drink consumption from 1·4 (95 % CI 1·3, 1·4) to 1·5 (95 % CI 1·4, 1·5) (P = 0·020). We found similar decreases in both the weight and waist subgroups. To conclude, the total frequency of consumption of sweet treats decreased during early adolescence. A similar trend across subgroups suggests that the frequency of consumption of sweet treats is unrelated to becoming overweight.
Exposure to chronic early trauma carries lasting effects on children's well-being and adaptation. Guided by models on resilience, we assessed the interplay of biological, emotional, cognitive, and relational factors in shaping two regulatory outcomes in trauma-exposed youth: emotion recognition (ER) and executive functions (EF). A unique war-exposed cohort was followed from early childhood to early adolescence. At preadolescence (11–13 years), ER and EF were assessed and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), biomarker of parasympathetic regulation, was quantified. Mother–child dyadic reciprocity, child's avoidance symptoms, and cortisol (CT) were measured in early childhood. Trauma-exposed youth displayed impaired ER and EF abilities. Conditional process analysis described two differential indirect paths leading from early trauma to regulatory outcomes. ER was mediated by avoidance symptoms in early childhood and modulated by cortisol, such that this path was evident only for preadolescents with high, but not low, CT. In comparison, EF was mediated by the degree of dyadic reciprocity experienced in early childhood and modulated by RSA, observed only among youth with lower RSA. Findings pinpoint trauma-related disruptions to key regulatory support systems in preadolescence as mediated by early-childhood relational, clinical, and physiological factors and highlight the need to specify biobehavioral precursors of resilience toward targeted early interventions.
Richard E. Tremblay was born in Canada in 1944. He is Emeritus Professor of Pediatrics and Psychology at the University of Montreal (Canada) and Emeritus Professor of Public Health at University College Dublin (Ireland). He received the Stockholm Prize in Criminology and the John Paul Scott Award for lifetime contributions to research on aggression from the International Society for Research on Aggression. He participated in the creation of numerous longitudinal and experimental studies to unravel the early development of chronic physical aggression and to identify effective early preventive interventions. He systematically used an integrated bio-psycho-social approach. He initially showed that boys’ frequency of physical aggressions from kindergarten to adolescence decreased, rather than increased with age as would be expected from a social learning perspective. With a study starting in infancy, he then showed that infants start to physically aggress before the end of the first year after birth and that frequency of physical aggressions substantially increase between 8 and 42 months of age, followed by a universal decrease in physical aggression frequency until adulthood. He also initiated the Montreal experimental preventive intervention with physically aggressive kindergarten boys from low socio-economic environments, which showed significant reductions of substance abuse, school drop-out, juvenile delinquency, and adult criminality.
Friedrich Lösel was born in Germany in 1945. He is Emeritus Professor at Cambridge University (UK), as well as Erlangen University and Berlin Psychological University in Germany. He received the Stockholm Prize in Criminology, the Sellin-Glueck Award from the American Society of Criminology, and the Joan McCord Award from the Academy of Experimental Criminology. He created the Erlangen–Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study (ENDPS), which combined a prospective longitudinal and experimental design and investigated more than 600 children and their families from kindergarten to adolescence. The ENDPS showed that accumulated individual and social risk factors at preschool age predicted behavior problems in youth, but there was also developmental flexibility. The prevention part of the ENDPS implemented a universal training of child social skills, a parent training on positive parenting, and a combination of both. There were substantial short-term effects and promising outcomes after 10 years. The ENDPS team trained about 2,000 facilitators for a nationwide dissemination of the program. He also carried out an important longitudinal study on school bullying showing that intensive bullying perpetration was not only a school phenomenon but correlated with violence in other contexts and with criminal behavior in adulthood.
Rainer K. Silbereisen was born in Germany in 1944. He was Professor of Psychology at the Friedrich-Schiller-University in Jena (Germany) and President of the International Society for the Study of Behavioural Development. His research program focused on complex ecology-biology-person interactions. Ecology was hypothesized to be a major developmental force. Maladjusted behaviors, such as antisocial behavior during adolescence, were investigated in order to understand their putative constructive role in the development of entrepreneurial behavior during adulthood. Longitudinal studies were conducted on a wide range of topics, such as substance use and delinquency during adolescence, variation in the timing of psychosocial transitions, the impact of social change on adjustment and development, psychological dimensions of entrepreneurship and civic participation, biobehavioral aspects of adolescent development, and acculturation among immigrants. These studies had an explicit cross-national and cross-cultural format. The prevention of maladjustment and scientific advice for policy makers were important dimensions of this research program. With longitudinal studies, Silbereisen examined the effects of German unification and of globalization on adjustment in adulthood. This provided opportunities to investigate how individuals cope with new challenges to their developmental tasks as the result of gross changes in ecological opportunity structures.
Gian Vittorio Caprara was born in Italy in 1944. He is Emeritus Professor in Psychology at the University of Rome and was also a fellow at the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study and at the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study. He founded the Interuniversity Center for the Study of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivation in Italy. He studied three major topics – personality, aggression, political preferences and participation – with an interactionist and social cognitive approach in which personality is considered a self-regulatory system while biological potential is mostly conditioned by culture. He initiated the Genzano Longitudinal Study, which followed 10-year-old children from elementary school through adolescence. The study focused on the development of aggression and prosocial behavior; stability and change in personality; the determinants of academic achievement and vocational choices; family and romantic relations; and civic and political behavior. The study investigated how different aspects of personality operate in concert. The aim was to clarify pathways that lead to maladjusted and risky behaviors. The findings led to the development of a theory that assigns to marginal deviations from normative behaviors a crucial role in the development of maladjusted behavior. The study also led to psychosocial interventions promoting and sustaining healthy development.
The first part of the introduction describes the historical context in which the authors of the book were born (World War II) and educated (from the 1950s to the 1970s), as well as the context in which they made their most important scientific contributions (from the 1980s to 2020). The advantages of being at the forefront of the baby boom are highlighted. The second part of the introduction describes the history of research on the development of aggressive and violent behavior, starting with the philosophical contributions of Aristotle, Seneca, Saint Augustine, Erasmus, Hobbes, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The chapter goes on to describe the first scientific studies that were initiated in the early part of the 18th century by Adolphe Quetelet and Charles Darwin, as well as the early prevention efforts of Mary Carpenter. The history of the main longitudinal and experimental studies of the 20th century are then presented with a focus on the work of William Healy, Richard C. Cabot, Sheldon and Eleanore Glueck, Joan McCord, and D. J. West.
Associations between meat consumption and heart disease have been assessed in several studies, but it has been suggested that other dietary factors influence these associations. The aim of the present study was to assess whether meat consumption is associated with ischaemic heart disease (IHD), and if the association is modified by dietary quality. The analyses were based on the cohort of adult participants in the Danish National Survey on Diet and Physical Activity in 2000–2002, 2003–2008 and 2011–2013. From these surveys, information on meat consumption and dietary quality was extracted. The cohort was followed in national registers to identify incident IHD. Associations were estimated using Cox regression analyses adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Analyses of associations between meat consumption and IHD stratified by dietary quality were subsequently evaluated. Among the 8007 participants, the median follow-up was 9·8 years and 439 cases of IHD were recorded. The results suggested a trend between consumption increments of 100 g/d of red meat (hazard ratio (HR) = 1·23; 95 % CI 0·99, 1·53) or of 50 g/d of processed meat (HR = 1·09; 95 % CI 0·93, 1·29) and higher risk of IHD. The trends were, however, not statistically significant. Stratification by dietary quality did not suggest that associations between meat consumption and risk of IHD were modified by dietary quality. This population-based cohort study with detailed dietary information suggested a trend with higher meat consumption being associated with higher risk of IHD, but the association was not statistically significant. Results did not indicate that dietary quality modifies such associations.
This book describes the lives of 12 people born in Europe and North America during the Second World War. They became leading scholars on the development and prevention of violent human behavior. From the first to the last page, the book introduces contrasting life-stories and shows how their paths crossed to create a relatively unified body of knowledge on how human violence develops and possible prevention methods. The authors describe the similarities and differences in their family background, university training, theories, and collaborations. Not to mention how they differ in research methods, scientific conclusions, and their influence on the research published today. These comparisons celebrates the diversity of their experience and, in turn, their achievements. By knowing this, you can stand on the shoulders of these giants to look to the future of this subject and potentially contribute to its next steps.
Individual differences in two inhibitory temperament systems have been implicated as key in the development of early disruptive behaviors. The reactive inhibition system, behavioral inhibition (BI) entails fearfulness, shyness, timidity, and caution. The active inhibition system, or effortful control (EC) entails a capacity to deliberately suppress, modify, or regulate a predominant behavior. Lower scores in each system have been associated with more disruptive behaviors. We examined how the two systems interact, and whether one can alleviate or exacerbate risks due to the other. In two community samples (Study 1, N = 112, ages 2.5 to 4, and Study 2, N = 102, ages 2 to 6.5), we assessed early BI and EC, and future disruptive behaviors (observed disregard for rules in Study 1 and parent-rated externalizing problems in Study 2). Robustly replicated interactions revealed that for children with low BI (relatively fearless), better EC was associated with less disruptive behavior; for children with low EC, more BI was associated with less disruptive behavior. This research extends the investigation of Temperament × Temperament interactions in developmental psychology and psychopathology, and it suggests that reactive and active inhibition systems may play mutually compensatory roles. Those effects emerged after age 2.
Difficult infants are commonly considered at risk for maladaptive developmental cascades, but evidence is mixed, prompting efforts to elucidate moderators of effects of difficulty. We examined features of parents’ representations of their infants – adaptive (appropriate mind-mindedness, MM) and dysfunctional (low reflective functioning, RF, hostile attributions) – as potential moderators. In Family Study (N = 102), we tested parents’ appropriate MM comments to their infants as moderating a path from infants’ observed difficulty (negative affect, unresponsiveness) to parents’ observed power assertion at ages 2–4.5 to children's observed and parent-rated (dis)regard for conduct rules at age 5.5. In father–child relationships, MM moderated that path: for fathers with low MM, the infants’ increasing difficulty was associated with fathers’ greater power assertion, which in turn was associated with children's more disregard for rules. The path was absent for fathers with average or high MM. In Children and Parents Study (N = 200), dysfunctional representations (low RF, hostile attributions) moderated the link between child objective difficulty, observed as anger in laboratory episodes, and difficulty as described by the parent. Reports of mothers with highly dysfunctional representations were unrelated to children's observed anger. Reports of mothers with average or low dysfunctional representations aligned with laboratory observations.
Most linguistic theories of language socialization from childhood to early adulthood are based on cross-sectional studies or case studies of individuals. The Frank Porter Graham (FPG) project radically breaks from this tradition by examining the longitudinal development of more than 70 African American children for the first 21 years of their lives. The result is an unprecedented, comprehensive study that offers insight into the trajectory of change from pre-school through post-secondary education for speakers of African American Language (AAL) and the primary factors that influence these changes during this vital stage in the lifespan.
The monumental research project reported here emerges at a crucial juncture in the field, bridging work on individual variation across distinct life stages with more traditional questions related to community variation, style, and change. The project expands previous approaches to African American Language (AAL) by considering the interaction between life stages, a host of social variables, and language use. The participants come from a wide variety of neighborhoods and communities, allowing us to move beyond the tradition of prioritizing highly vernacular speakers from ethnically homogenous communities to investigate the relationship between segregation and language variation. The depth and breadth of this study adds a new richness to our understanding of AAL as it relates to distinct life stages and social contexts. It also represents a more inclusive and comprehensive variationist perspective by adding to the analytical toolkit the composite dialect index that has traditionally been eschewed and dismissed by variationists in favor of myopically focused isolated, single linguistic structures. Though this methodological inclusion is controversial in variationist studies, we have offered empirical evidence and argued for its methodological utility and its theoretical validity as a complement to traditional variation studies.
From birth to early adulthood, all aspects of a child's life undergo enormous development and change, and language is no exception. This book documents the results of a pioneering longitudinal linguistic survey, which followed a cohort of sixty-seven African American children over the first twenty years of life, to examine language development through childhood. It offers the first opportunity to hear what it sounds like to grow up linguistically for a cohort of African American speakers, and provides fascinating insights into key linguistics issues, such as how physical growth influences pronunciation, how social factors influence language change, and the extent to which individuals modify their language use over time. By providing a lens into some of the most foundational questions about coming of age in African American Language, this study has implications for a wide range of disciplines, from speech pathology and education, to research on language acquisition and sociolinguistics.
Growing research indicates that police legitimacy is a strong predictor of whether people behave respecting or violating rules. Perceptions of legitimacy are an output of socializing processes through which individuals develop their values and orientations toward authorities and the legal system. Legal socialization studies show that encounters with legal authorities are critical “teachable moments” in this process. The present study verifies whether direct or vicarious negative contacts with police officers affect changes in the perception of the legitimacy of police authority by adolescents over time. The adolescents were classified according to whether or not they had witnessed or experienced any negative contact or experience with the police during the period before the interview, composing two group trajectories at the first wave, four at the second wave, and eight at the third wave. Then the trajectories were compared in terms of the extent to which they agree with statements about police legitimacy, allowing the quantification of changes of opinion after negative contacts with the police. Results show that three main factors diminish the perception of police legitimacy: having negative contact with the police; having more than one negative contact; and having a recent negative contact. These findings have important implications for police patrolling and approach strategies.
Exposures to adverse events are associated with impaired later-life psychological health. While these associations depend on the type of event, the manner in which associations for different event types depend on when they occur within the life course has received less attention. We investigated associations between counts of adverse events over the life course, and wellbeing and mental health outcomes in older people, according to their timing (age of occurrence), orientation (self or other) and, both their timing and orientation.
Linear and logistic random-effects models for repeated observations.
A total of 4,208 respondents aged >50 years with 22,146 observations across Waves 1–7 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.
Cumulative adversity was measured by counts of 16 types of events occurring within four age ranges over the life course using retrospective life history data. These were categorized into other- (experienced through harms to others) and self-oriented events. Outcomes included CASP-12 (control, autonomy, self-realization, and pleasure), the eight-item Centre of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and self-appraised subjective life satisfaction.
Additional adverse events were associated with lower CASP-12 and life satisfaction scores, and higher odds of probable depressive caseness. In childhood, other-oriented events had a larger negative association with later-life wellbeing than self-oriented events; the converse was found for events occurring in adulthood.
Events occurring at all life course stages were independently associated with both later-life wellbeing and depression in a cumulative fashion. Certain age ranges may represent sensitive periods for specific event types.
The longitudinal relationship between muscle strength, dietary intake and physical activity among adolescents is not well understood. We investigated the trend and longitudinal effects of dietary intakes and physical activity scores on muscle strength in adolescents. This prospective cohort study consisted of 436 adolescents (134 males; 302 females) aged 13 years at baseline (2012) who were followed up at the ages of 15 (2014) and 17 (2016) years, respectively. We measured muscle strength using a calibrated hand dynamometer, estimated dietary intake with a 7-d dietary history and physical activity scores with a validated physical activity questionnaire for older children. A generalised estimating equation was used to examine the effect of dietary intakes and physical activity on muscle strength changes. The analysis was performed separately by sex. The muscle strength for males and females had increased within the 5-year period. The dietary intakes (energy and macronutrients) also increased initially but plateaued after the age of 15 years for both sexes. Females recorded a significant declining trend in physical activity scores compared with males as they grew older. A significant positive longitudinal relationship was found between protein (β = 0·035; P = 0·016), carbohydrate intake (β = 0·002; P = 0·013) and muscle strength among males. However, no longitudinal relationship was found between dietary intake, physical activity and muscle strength among females. Higher protein and carbohydrate intake among males was associated with higher muscle strength but was not observed in females. Nutrition and physical activity focusing on strength building are required in early adolescence and need to be tailored to males and females accordingly.
Complementary feeding (CF) and overweight relationships during early childhood are inconsistent in the literature. We described the association of CF during the first year of life with risk of overweight at 24 months of age in the population-based 2004 and 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohorts (2004c and 2015c). CF introduction was evaluated at the 3 and 12 months’ follow-ups by asking mothers using a list of foods. Risk of overweight at 24 months of age was BMI-for-age z-score above +1sd from the median of the WHO 2006 growth standards. Our analyses included 3823 (2004c) and 3689 (2015c) children. Early introduction CF (before 6 months of age) prevalence in 2004c was 93·3 (95 % CI 92·5, 94·1) % and in 2015c was 87·2 (95 % CI 86·1, 88·2) %. Tea was the item introduced earlier in both 2004c (68·8 %) and 2015c (55·7 %). At 6 months of age, vegetable mash was the most introduced food in 2004c (33·5 %) and 2015c (47·9 %). Between 2004c and 2015c, the introduction of fresh milk decreased 82·1 to 60·5 % and yogurt from 94·4 to 78·1 % during the first year. Risk of overweight prevalence at 24 months was 33·0 (95 % CI 31·6, 34·5) % in 2004c and 32·0 (95 % CI 30·5, 33·5) % in 2015c. In 2015c, the adjusted odds of risk of overweight at 24 months were increased 1·66 and 1·50 times with the early introduction of fresh/powdered milk: plus water, tea or juice, and plus semi-solid/solid food groups, respectively. It is essential to reinforce the adherence to global recommendations on timely feeding introduction and encourage exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months of age to prevent child overweight.
Little is known about predictors of decline in vitamin D status (vitamin D decline) over time. We aimed to determine demographic and lifestyle variables associated with vitamin D decline by sufficiently controlling for seasonal effects of vitamin D uptake in a middle-aged to elderly population. Using a longitudinal study design within the larger framework of the Murakami Cohort Study, we examined 1044 individuals aged between 40 and 74 years, who provided blood samples at baseline and at 5-year follow-up, the latter of which were taken on a date near the baseline examination (±14 d). Blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were determined with the Liaison® 25OH Vitamin D Total Assay. A self-administered questionnaire collected demographic, body size and lifestyle information. Vitamin D decline was defined as the lowest tertile of 5-year changes in blood 25(OH)D (Δ25(OH)D) concentration (<6·7 nmol/l). Proportions of those with vitamin D decline were 182/438 (41·6 %) in men and 166/606 (27·4 %) in women (P < 0·0001). In men, risk of vitamin D decline was significantly lower in those with an outdoor occupation (P = 0·0099) and those with the highest quartile of metabolic equivalent score (OR 0·34; 95 % CI 0·14, 0·83), and higher in those with ‘university or higher’ levels of education (OR 2·92; 95 % CI 1·04, 8·19). In women, risk of vitamin D decline tended to be lower with higher levels of vitamin D intake (Pfor trend = 0·0651) and green tea consumption (Pfor trend = 0·0025). Predictors of vitamin D decline differ by sex, suggesting that a sex-dependent intervention may help to maintain long-term vitamin D levels.
Emerging evidence suggests that the consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) plays a role in the development of chronic diseases, but evidence of their influence in children is limited. Our objective was to study longitudinal trends of UPF intake and determine their impact on blood lipids in young children. The present study was a follow-up of a randomised field trial of children (n 308) from Porto Alegre, Brazil. Dietary intake was collected using two 24-h recalls at 3 and 6 years of age, and consumption of UPF was classified according to the NOVA system, a food classification based on the extent and purpose of industrial food processing. At age 6 years, blood tests were performed to measure lipid profile. Contribution of UPF to total energy intake increased by 10 % during the follow-up period, from 43·4 % at 3 years to 47·7 % at 6 years of age. Linear regression models showed that children in the highest tertile of UPF consumption at age 3 years had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC; β 0·22 mmol/l; 95 % CI 0·04, 0·39) and TAG at age 6 years (β 0·11 mmol/l, 95 % CI 0·01, 0·20) compared with those in the lowest tertile. A positive dose–response was observed for an absolute increment of 10 % of UPF on TC (β 0·07 mmol/l, 95 % CI 0·00, 0·14) and TAG (β 0·04 mmol/l, 95 % CI 0·01, 0·07). Based on our data, consumption of UPF increased significantly over time and was associated with higher blood lipid levels in children from a low-income community. Our findings highlight the need for effective strategies to minimise the consumption of UPF in early life.