To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We obtain series expansions of the q-scale functions of arbitrary spectrally negative Lévy processes, including processes with infinite jump activity, and use these to derive various new examples of explicit q-scale functions. Moreover, we study smoothness properties of the q-scale functions of spectrally negative Lévy processes with infinite jump activity. This complements previous results of Chan et al. (Prob. Theory Relat. Fields150, 2011) for spectrally negative Lévy processes with Gaussian component or bounded variation.
Hardy kernels are a useful tool to define integral operators on Hilbertian spaces like
. These kernels entail an algebraic
-structure which is used in this work to study the range spaces of those operators as reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. We obtain their reproducing kernels, which in the
case turn out to be Hardy kernels as well. In the
scenario, the reproducing kernels are given by holomorphic extensions of Hardy kernels. Other results presented here are theorems of Paley–Wiener type, and a connection with one-sided Hilbert transforms.
Multi-compartment models described by systems of linear ordinary differential equations are considered. Catenary models are a particular class where the compartments are arranged in a chain. A unified methodology based on the Laplace transform is utilised to solve direct and inverse problems for multi-compartment models. Explicit formulas for the parameters in a catenary model are obtained in terms of the roots of elementary symmetric polynomials. A method to estimate parameters for a general multi-compartment model is also provided. Results of numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the approach.
When most students first approach feedback control, they are still coming to grips with its foundation in linear system theory. This unsteadiness with the foundation makes understanding feedback dramatically more difficult. Experienced professionals can have similar problems, painfully compounded by the fog of imperfect memory of the linear system theory studied years before. It is thus very common for all types of students to sit down to study feedback, glimpse the breadth and depth of knowledge required as a prerequisite, and simply give up. The purpose of this chapter is to strengthen the reader in linear system fundamentals. It will fill in the gaps for those who need gaps filled, deepen the understanding of those fluent in the mechanics of solving problems but who were never shown the overarching conceptual logic, and serve as a handy reference for those who are truly comfortable.
In this paper, we develop the lower–upper-bound approximation in the space of Laplace transforms for pricing American options. We construct tight lower and upper bounds for the price of a finite-maturity American option when the underlying stock is modeled by a large class of stochastic processes, e.g. a time-homogeneous diffusion process and a jump diffusion process. The novelty of the method is to first take the Laplace transform of the price of the corresponding “capped (barrier) option” with respect to the time to maturity, and then carry out optimization procedures in the Laplace space. Finally, we numerically invert the Laplace transforms to obtain the lower bound of the price of the American option and further utilize the early exercise premium representation in the Laplace space to obtain the upper bound. Numerical examples are conducted to compare the method with a variety of existing methods in the literature as benchmark to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency.
The longest gap $L(t)$ up to time $t$ in a homogeneous Poisson process is the maximal time subinterval between epochs of arrival times up to time $t$; it has applications in the theory of reliability. We study the Laplace transform asymptotics for $L(t)$ as $t\rightarrow \infty$ and derive two natural and different large-deviation principles for $L(t)$ with two distinct rate functions and speeds.
Chapter 8 addresses the intial value problem, x, where the effect of initial conditions are sought within the linear disturbance regime. Laplace transforms, moving coordinates and numerical approaches are all discussed. Examples of the latter include channel flows and the Blasius boundary layer. The chapter concludes with an in-depth discussion of optimizing the initial conditions for subcritical Reynolds numbers to obtain the maximum energy as a function of time. The concept of algebraically instability is discussed within this context, such that when the normalized energy density is greater than one, the flow is said to be algebraically unstable.
The distribution of the sum of dependent risks is a crucial aspect in actuarial sciences, risk management and in many branches of applied probability. In this paper, we obtain analytic expressions for the probability density function (pdf) and the cumulative distribution function (cdf) of aggregated risks, modelled according to a mixture of exponential distributions. We first review the properties of the multivariate mixture of exponential distributions, to then obtain the analytical formulation for the pdf and the cdf for the aggregated distribution. We study in detail some specific families with Pareto (Sarabia et al., 2016), gamma, Weibull and inverse Gaussian mixture of exponentials (Whitmore and Lee, 1991) claims. We also discuss briefly the computation of risk measures, formulas for the ruin probability (Albrecher et al., 2011) and the collective risk model. An extension of the basic model based on mixtures of gamma distributions is proposed, which is one of the suggested directions for future research.
Taylor's law (TL) originated as an empirical pattern in ecology. In many sets of samples of population density, the variance of each sample was approximately proportional to a power of the mean of that sample. In a family of nonnegative random variables, TL asserts that the population variance is proportional to a power of the population mean. TL, sometimes called fluctuation scaling, holds widely in physics, ecology, finance, demography, epidemiology, and other sciences, and characterizes many classical probability distributions and stochastic processes such as branching processes and birth-and-death processes. We demonstrate analytically for the first time that a version of TL holds for a class of distributions with infinite mean. These distributions, a subset of stable laws, and the associated TL differ qualitatively from those of light-tailed distributions. Our results employ and contribute to the methodology of Albrecher and Teugels (2006) and Albrecher et al. (2010). This work opens a new domain of investigation for generalizations of TL.
In this paper, we propose an estimator of the survival probability for a Lévy risk model observed at low frequency. The estimator is constructed via a regularised version of the inverse of the Laplace transform. The convergence rate of the estimator in a sense of the integrated squared error is studied for large sample size. Simulation studies are also given to show the finite sample performance of our estimator.
In this work, we introduce a mathematical model for the theory of generalized thermoelasticity with fractional heat conduction equation. The presented model will be applied to an infinitely long hollow cylinder whose inner surface is traction free and subjected to a thermal and mechanical shocks, while the external surface is traction free and subjected to a constant heat flux. Some theories of thermoelasticity can extracted as limited cases from our model. Laplace transform methods are utilized to solve the problem and the inverse of the Laplace transform is done numerically using the Fourier expansion techniques. The results for the temperature, the thermal stresses and the displacement components are illustrated graphically for various values of fractional order parameter. Moreover, some particular cases of interest have also been discussed.
The longest stretch L(n) of consecutive heads in n independent and identically distributed coin tosses is seen from the prism of large deviations. We first establish precise asymptotics for the moment generating function of L(n) and then show that there are precisely two large deviation principles, one concerning the behavior of the distribution of L(n) near its nominal value log1∕pn and one away from it. We discuss applications to inference and to logarithmic asymptotics of functionals of L(n).
This paper presents an analysis of unsteady flow of incompressible fractional Maxwell fluid filled in the annular region between two infinite coaxial circular cylinders. The fluid motion is created by the inner cylinder that applies a longitudinal time-dependent shear stress and the outer cylinder that is moving at a constant velocity. The velocity field and shear stress are determined using the Laplace and finite Hankel transforms. Obtained solutions are presented in terms of the generalized G and R functions. We also obtain the solutions for ordinary Maxwell fluid and Newtonian fluid as special cases of generalized solutions. The influence of different parameters on the velocity field and shear stress are also presented using graphical illustration. Finally, a comparison is drawn between motions of fractional Maxwell fluid, ordinary Maxwell fluid and Newtonian fluid.
Inspired by the works of Landriault et al. (2011), (2014), we study the Gerber–Shiu distribution at Parisian ruin with exponential implementation delays for a spectrally negative Lévy insurance risk process. To be more specific, we study the so-called Gerber–Shiu distribution for a ruin model where at each time the surplus process goes negative, an independent exponential clock is started. If the clock rings before the surplus becomes positive again then the insurance company is ruined. Our methodology uses excursion theory for spectrally negative Lévy processes and relies on the theory of so-called scale functions. In particular, we extend the recent results of Landriault et al. (2011), (2014).
In this paper we focus on a class of linear Hawkes processes with general immigrants. These are counting processes with shot-noise intensity, including self-excited and externally excited patterns. For such processes, we introduce the concept of the age pyramid which evolves according to immigration and births. The virtue of this approach that combines an intensity process definition and a branching representation is that the population age pyramid keeps track of all past events. This is used to compute new distribution properties for a class of Hawkes processes with general immigrants which generalize the popular exponential fertility function. The pathwise construction of the Hawkes process and its underlying population is also given.
We take a fresh look at the classical problem of runs in a sequence of independent and identically distributed coin tosses and derive a general identity/recursion which can be used to compute (joint) distributions of functionals of run types. This generalizes and unifies already existing approaches. We give several examples, derive asymptotics, and pose some further questions.
We derive the explicit formula for the joint Laplace transform of the Wishart process and its time integral, which extends the original approach of Bru (1991). We compare our methodology with the alternative results given by the variation-of-constants method, the linearization of the matrix Riccati ordinary differential equation, and the Runge-Kutta algorithm. The new formula turns out to be fast and accurate.
The aim of this article is to investigate the solutions of generalized fractional partial differential equations involving Hilfer time fractional derivative and the space fractional generalized Laplace operators, occurring in quantum mechanics. The solutions of these equations are obtained by employing the joint Laplace and Fourier transforms, in terms of the Fox’s H-function. Several special cases as solutions of one dimensional non-homogeneous fractional equations occurring in the quantum mechanics are presented. The results given earlier by Saxena et al. [Fract. Calc. Appl. Anal., 13(2) (2010), pp. 177–190] and Purohit and Kalla [J. Phys. A Math. Theor., 44 (4) (2011), 045202] follow as special cases of our findings.
This study applies the numerical inversion of Laplace transform methods to study the piezoelectric dynamic fracture problem, recalculating Chen and Karihaloo's  analysis on the transient response of a impermeable crack subjected to anti-plane mechanical and in-plane electric impacts. Three numerical methods were adopted for calculating the dynamic stress intensity factor: Durbin method, Zhao method 1, and Zhao method 2. The results obtained were more accurate than the results in Chen and Karihaloo's  study. Through the calculation, this study presents a better range of parameters for the above three methods, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of each method in detail.