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Bubiyan Island, presently a vast sabkha and salt flat in the westernmost part of the Shatt Al-Arab delta, originated ca. 4000 cal yr BP as prodelta deposits from a paleochannel of the Euphrates River that flowed into a shallow sea. Southeastern Bubiyan Island first surfaced when spits and barrier islands formed on a 1–2 m forebulge caused by heavy sediment load to the northwest; the spits and barriers delineated an incipient shoreline and sheltered a shallow lagoon. Progradation of southeastern Bubiyan Island began when the spits and barriers were gradually stranded as beach ridges during minor sea-level fluctuations and continued marginal uplift. AMS dating of the beach ridges, which are ~1–5 km from the present shoreline, implies that Late Holocene relative sea level fell in three phases: ca. 3700–3400 cal yr BP, ca. 2600–1000 cal yr BP, and ca. 600–500 cal yr BP. Prior to each phase, relative sea level apparently stabilized to near stillstands, allowing spits and barriers to accrete. Torpedo-jar pottery sherds scattered on some of the most prominent beach ridges indicate Sasanian (AD ca. 300–650; 1650–1300 cal yr BP) to early Islamic (AD ca. 650–800; 1300–1150 cal yr BP) periods of human presence, concurrent with the Second phase of beach-ridge formation.
Throughout the mid-1980s, the Soviet-American rivalry in the Muslim world had remained a “zero-sum game.” Even after Mikhail Gorbachev embraced perestroika and Ronald Reagan toned down his Cold War rhetoric, the two superpowers continued to butt heads. Then between 1988 and 1991, the “end of history” seemed to arrive and George H. W. Bush trumpeted the emergence of a new world order based on cooperation, not confrontation, between capitalist America and communist Russia, even in volatile places like the Persian Gulf. By the early 1990s, however, American and Russian policymakers recognized that the Cold War was more likely to be followed by ethnic and religious conflict than by global peace and prosperity. In late 1991, Gorbachev lost his battle to reform the Soviet Union. Muslims in Chechnya and other non-Russian minorities sought independence. Elsewhere, the multiethnic regime in Yugoslavia disintegrated, with Christian Serbs slaughtering Bosnian Muslims; Islamists won elections in Algeria' and Islamic radicals toppled the pro-Soviet junta in Afghanistan. By January 1993, both Bush and Gorbachev were gone and all the hope for a new world order had been replaced by the fear that the post-Cold War Muslim world was becoming the epicenter of a “clash of civilizations.”
This study aimed to examine age-specific trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in Kuwait over a 13-year period (2007 to 2019) using the WHO, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) definitions.
Using cross-sectional approach, Kuwait Nutrition Surveillance System (KNSS) objectively measured weight and height of schoolchildren over a 13-year period. Log-binomial regression models were used to examine age-specific trends of obesity and overweight over the study period.
Public primary, middle and high schools in all provinces of Kuwait.
Schoolchildren aged 5–19 years (n 172 603).
According to the WHO definition, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren, respectively, increased from 17·73 % and 21·37 % in 2007 to 20·19 % and 28·39 % in 2019 (Pfor trend < 0·001). There is evidence that the obesity in females (but not males) has levelled off in the period 2014–2019 according to the three definitions of obesity, which is corroborated by a similar trend in the mean of BMI-for-age Z-score.
The prevalence of obesity and overweight in schoolchildren in Kuwait has risen over the last 13 years and trends are similar across all definitions. Obesity is no longer increasing at the same pace and there is evidence that the prevalence of obesity in females has plateaued. The current level of childhood overweight and obesity is too high and requires community-based and school-based interventions.
This chapter examines how the first Bush administration built domestic and international coalitions to respond to Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait in August 1990. I argue that Bush's plan for the Persian Gulf War was to weaken Saddam as much as possible and then establish a system of containment based on multilateral sanctions, inspections, and military deterrence in the aftermath. The administration hoped Saddam would fall from power as a result of the conflict but did not make this a policy goal to avoid breaking up the international coalition and bogging the United States down in occupying Iraq. Lastly, this chapter examines domestic political debates on Iraq during the Gulf Crisis and explores the conflict between “minimalists,” who wanted to focus on ejecting Saddam from Kuwait, and “maximalists,” who wanted to use the crisis to ensure Saddam's removal.”
This article examines ʿAbd al-Ilah al-Qinaʿi's early 20th-century melding of local, imperial, and transoceanic health practices alongside his 21st-century reemergence as a protonational Kuwaiti doctor. In the early 20th century, geographically and ideologically expansive horizons of health care fostered the emergence of hybrid medical practices. Facilitated by his access to multiple medical spheres and his proximity to Kuwait's rulers, ʿAbd al-Ilah was uniquely positioned to meet the demands of health-seeking consumers. In the 21st century, Kuwaitis' search for a national history that naturalizes claims to citizenship has resulted in ʿAbd al-Ilah's new designation as Kuwait's first doctor. Both processes—the interplay between local cultures of health and emergent institutions and the imagining of medical history as a nativist teleology—demonstrate how health-seeking and history-writing efforts of a range of historical actors have placed medicine at the center of politics in Kuwait.
This study aimed to determine anthropometric cut-points for screening diabetes and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Arab and South Asian ethnic groups in Kuwait and to compare the prevalence of the MetS based on the ethnic-specific waist circumference (WC) cut-point and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute WC criteria. The national population-based survey data set of diabetes and obesity in Kuwait adults aged 18–60 years was analysed. Age-adjusted logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to evaluate for 3589 individuals the utility of WC, waist:height ratio (WHtR) and BMI to discriminate both diabetes and ≥3 CVD risk factors. Areas under the ROC curve were similar for WC, WHtR and BMI. In Arab men, WC, WHtR and BMI cut-offs for diabetes were 106 cm, 0·55 and 28 kg/m2 and for ≥3 CVD risk factors, 97 cm, 0·55 and 28 kg/m2, respectively. In Arab women, cut-offs for diabetes were 107 cm, 0·65 and 33 kg/m2 and for ≥3 CVD risk factors, 93 cm, 0·60 and 30 kg/m2, respectively. WC cut-offs were higher for South Asian women than men. IDF-based WC cut-offs corresponded to a higher prevalence of the MetS across sex and ethnic groups, compared with Kuwait-specific cut-offs. Any of the assessed anthropometric indices can be used in screening of diabetes and ≥3 CVD risk factors in Kuwaiti Arab and Asian populations. ROC values were similar. The WC threshold for screening the MetS in Kuwaiti Arabs and South Asians is higher for women.
Most medical emergencies requiring first-aid occur at home. Little is known about the prevalence of these medical emergencies.
The objective of this study is to describe medical emergencies occurring at people’s homes requiring first aid; characteristics, burdens and impact on functional outcome, and to address the national public knowledge and practice of first aid.
A confidential, cross-sectional survey, primarily based on the 2015 American Heart Association (AHA) and American Red Cross first aid guidelines, was conducted among adults (>18 years) from 12 educational centers, under the Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic affairs, State of Kuwait.
A total of 3000 self-administered questionnaires were distributed from September 16 2019 to November 30, 2019. The response rate was 34% (n = 1033 participants) of which 1% (n = 11) were partially answered questionnaires leaving 1022 questionnaires for valid statistical analysis. The prevalence of medical emergencies was 118.5 out of 100000 per year and the level of public knowledge was 19%. Medical emergencies were more likely to occur in Hawali province (49%, n = 149), women were more likely to encounter medical emergencies (78%, n = 238). Victims above 18 years of age were more likely to experience hypoglycemia (39%, n = 55) and children were more likely to suffer from hypoglycemia (19%, n = 22) or burns (17%, n = 20). Compliance with First aid guidelines was seen in hypoglycemia (31%, n = 44) but lacking in burn incidents (44%, n = 15). Participants called the ambulance in seizures (50%, n = 13), with 62% of medical emergencies requiring attendance at a health-care facility and 29% requiring hospital admission. Of the victims, 15% missed school or a day of work, and 25% had impaired functional outcomes.
Medical emergencies occurring at home are relatively common in Kuwait, and public training on first aid is low. Kuwait has unique medical emergencies, with hypoglycemia, seizures and burns being the most frequent emergencies that occur at home. These emergencies cause a burden on the health-care system with a quarter of them having negative impact on the victim’s functional outcome.
Individuals with obesity tend to perform less well than their non-obese peers in tertiary education, but there is little evidence from non-Western countries and recent studies. The present study aimed to test whether academic attainment differed between female undergraduates with obesity (defined by body mass index (BMI)), and those who were non-obese in Kuwait, a country with very high obesity prevalence. In 400 female Kuwaiti first- and second-year Social Science students (mean age 18⋅0, sd 0⋅6 years), educational attainment was defined as the Grade Point Average (GPA) across all subjects (from 1⋅00 to 4⋅00). The mean GPA (2⋅51, sd 0⋅53) among students defined as obese by the BMI (n 163) was significantly lower than among the students defined as non-obese by the BMI (n 237; 2⋅80, sd 0⋅63; P < 0⋅001), and those defined as obese were more likely to be in the lowest quartile for the GPA (OR 3⋅03; 95% CI 1⋅90, 4⋅85), independent of socio-economic status. Similar differences were observed between students defined as having high versus normal body fatness. Female undergraduates in Kuwait with obesity have lower academic attainment than their non-obese peers, and universities should consider measures to mitigate reduced attainment among their female undergraduates.
This article fills a gap in the literature by quantifying impacts of fossil fuel subsidy reform on trade (inflow and outflow) in an oil-producing, “almost small”, economy, using Kuwait as an example. It employs a two-region economy-wide model with oligopoly behaviour in a general equilibrium framework. The model embodies unique elements of Kuwait's economic structure, idiosyncratic rigidities, and distortions, including oligopolistic industrial structure and labour markets. Simulations show that energy subsidies have minimal effects on trade and on non-energy exports, largely due to the pervasiveness of oligopolies that sustain large markups and their collusive pricing. Reforming energy subsidies generates higher pro-trade effects if implemented during low (not high) oil prices because its negative effects are partially offset by efficiency gains and reduction in oligopoly markups. Yet, contrary to claims by proponents of reforms, these effects remain largely constrained unless appropriate incentives are introduced. These results have important policy implications. In developing oil-exporting economies with pervasive oligopolies, microeconomic reform can be a channel through which to achieve pro-trade effects of energy subsidy reform. Further, benefits beyond export expansion, such as higher economic efficiency, could be better motivators of energy subsidy reform in oil economies.
In the years following World War I, the British Government of India began taking greater interest in internal security challenges in the Gulf. Aside from small detachments of sepoys in Manama and Muscat, Britain did not have forces stationed in the area to prevent plots against rulers or defend against unexpected tribal attacks from the desert. There were very few incentives for Britain to fill this power gap by garrisoning troops, but plenty of disincentives: hostile inhabitants, an unforgiving climate in summer and malaria in winter. In keeping with its hands-off approach, Britain wanted the rulers to secure their own positions by developing militaries. In Muscat, the British actively encouraged the sultan to develop a force that could dominate the land approaches to Muscat. Britain supported the establishment of the Bahrain Levy Corps in 1924 to protect the regent from relatives. In Kuwait, the threat was external: raids by the Ikhwan (religiously inspired tribal fighters) into Kuwaiti territory. In all cases, the British Government of India wanted the local rulers to take greater responsibility for securing their own territories rather than continually seeking British military assistance in a crisis.
When money-sensitive civil servants questioned British expenditure on local forces, supporters of this spending argued that it was less costly in the long run as greater indigenous capabilities would reduce the likelihood of Britain having to intervene directly and could reduce defence expenditure in the long term. This was the logic applied in Kuwait after independence from Britain in 1961. This was especially true after 1966 when Britain reduced its defence commitment to Kuwait air support only. Unlike Kuwait, the build-up of military capabilities in the Trucial States and Bahrain was not seen as a security gain for Britain. Accepting its reduced ability to shape events in the Gulf, however, Britain reasoned that if it could not stop the rulers from setting up their own armed forces – or prevent them from expanding too rapidly – then it might as well try to steer them in the right direction. The right direction for Britain meant, if possible, that British officers (contract or loan service) should command and train these forces and that they should use weaponry produced by British manufacturers.
This study aimed to report the WHO infant and young child feeding (IYCF) indicators from Kuwait and to investigate the associations between these indicators and anthropometric measurements.
The Kuwait Nutritional Surveillance System uses observational cross-sectional approach to collects data by face-to-face interviews with mothers or child guardians using a structured questionnaire that was developed based on the WHO IYCF indicators. The weight and height of infants and young children were measured using digital scales in a standardised manner.
Vaccination centres in all governorates (provinces) of Kuwait.
Infants and young Kuwaiti children aged 0–23 months (N 5839).
The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and age-appropriate breastfeeding were 8·0 and 7·4 %, respectively. The prevalence of stunting and wasting was 7·5 and 2·4 %, respectively, while the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6·5 and 1·6 %, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, exclusive breastfeeding and age-appropriate breastfeeding were more common in children with stunted growth (AOR 1·71 (95 % CI 1·08, 2·70; P = 0·021) and 1·44 (95 % CI 1·01, 2·06; P = 0·046), respectively). The introduction of solid/semisolid or soft foods was inversely associated with stunting (AOR 0·52; 95 % CI 0·30, 0·90; P = 0·021). Only age-appropriate breastfeeding was inversely associated with overweight (AOR 0·62; 95 % CI 0·39, 0·98; P = 0·043).
Our findings showed that indicators of breastfeeding are low in Kuwait. Our findings suggest that the associations between different WHO IYCF indicators and stunting as well as overweight is complex, which highlights the need for a better understanding of WHO IYCF indicators in both low- and high-income countries.
Examines George H. W. Bush’s efforts to establish a new world order and reliance on traditional Cold War strategies and alliances. Assesses Bush Sr.’s successes (e.g. German reunification) and failures (in Yugoslavia and Iraq). Documents beginning of post-Cold War US wars of Muslim liberation, a pattern continued by the presdients that followed him.
Most research on the Gulf states focuses on oil and its impact on state power. The literature on rentier theory almost unanimously agrees that oil rents buy off citizens and lead to socio-political stagnation. Massive protests and government attempts to address citizen demands in Kuwait between 2011 and 2013 call into question that narrative. Since those protests, the Kuwaiti government has taken steps to increase its representation of public officials and accessibility in the public sphere, including by expanding the government's presence on Instagram. How have Kuwaiti citizens voiced their opinions to government accounts? And how has the government responded to online criticism?
This essay looks at the pattern of interactions between the state and Kuwaiti citizens on Twitter and Instagram using a content analysis of government accounts. The findings raise questions about the validity of the payoff thesis and understandings of consent and acquiescence. My analysis illustrates that there is a public dialogue that moves beyond the rigid structure of state and society by which the literature has traditionally understood Gulf rentier societies.
This study sought to explore main barriers and facilitators to implementing health technology assessment (HTA) in Kuwait from the perspective of key stakeholders.
Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with ten key stakeholders: seven healthcare providers working at various departments of the Kuwaiti Ministry of Health (MOH), and three academics with substantial experience in teaching HTA or related fields. Interviews were conducted face-to-face, audio-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using an inductive thematic approach.
Participating stakeholders reported several factors that might act as a barrier to building HTA in Kuwait: minimal awareness of HTA, lack of institutional and human capacity, a fragmented healthcare system, poor communication between researchers and policy makers, the country's wealth, politics, as well as data quality, availability, and sharing. Institutionalizing HTA as a politically empowered body, enforcing its recommendation by law, and benefiting from neighboring countries' experiences were suggested as possible ways to move forward.
Studies exploring the unique challenges that high-income developing countries may face in implementing HTA are still scarce. The results of this study are consistent with evidence coming from other developing countries, while also suggesting that the abundance of financial resources in the country is a double-edged sword; it has the potential to facilitate the development of HTA capacity, but also hinders recognizing the need for it.
The beneficial role of breast-feeding for maternal and child health is now well established. Its possible role in helping to prevent diabetes and obesity in children in later life means that more attention must be given to understanding how patterns of infant feeding are changing. The present study describes breast-feeding profiles and associated factors in Kuwait.
Interviews with 1484 recent mothers were undertaken at immunisation clinics across Kuwait. Descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression of results were performed.
Rates of breast-feeding initiation in Kuwait were high (98·1 %) but by the time of discharge from hospital, only 36·5 % of mothers were fully breast-feeding, 37·0 % were partially breast-feeding and 26·5 % were already fully formula-feeding. Multiple social and health reasons were given for weaning the child, with 87·6 % of mothers who had stopped breast-feeding completely doing so within 3 months postpartum. Nationality (P<0·001), employment status 6 months prior to delivery (P<0·001), mode of delivery (P=0·01), sex of the child (P=0·026) and breast-feeding information given by nurses (P=0·026) were all found to be significantly associated with breast-feeding. Few women (5·6 %) got information on infant nutrition and feeding from nursing staff, but those who did were 2·54 times more likely to be still breast-feeding at discharge from hospital. Over 70 % of mothers had enjoyed breast-feeding and 74 % said they would be very likely to breast-feed again.
In Kuwait where the prevalence of both obesity and type 2 diabetes is growing rapidly, the public health role of breast-feeding must be recognised and acted upon more than it has in the past.
In northeastern Kuwait, ancient beach ridges and associated berms are separated from the present shoreline by a 4–6 km-wide sabkha. A diverse mollusk fauna in the beach ridges attests to a former open marine environment. A total of 21 AMS dates were obtained in this study. Thirteen mollusk samples from beach ridges yielded AMS dates ranging from ~ 6990 cal yr BP in the southeast to ~ 3370 cal yr BP in the northwest, suggesting a southeast to northwest age progression during the Holocene transgression. In contrast, four samples from berms throughout the study area yielded AMS dates of 5195–3350 cal yr BP showing no age progression; these berms consist largely of Conomurex persicus gastropods that aggregated by storms during a highstand at ~ 5000–3500 cal yr BP. The berms are presently at ~ + 6 m above sea level, 2–3 m above the beach ridges. Human settlements were common on the ridge crests before and after the highstand. Regression to present-day sea level commenced after the highstand, which is when the sabkha began forming. A landward, marine-built terrace, which yielded AMS dates > 43,500 14C yr BP, probably formed during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 5e and hence is not genetically related to the beach ridges.
The presence of the fish species Enneapterygius pusillus and confirmation of Parablennius opercularis occurrence in the Kuwaiti waters of the northern Arabian Gulf regions are both reported here. One adult specimen of each species was photographed in the Qit at Binaya patch reef off Al Khiran, in southern Kuwait waters. The pixie triplefin record is a new ichthyofaunal record for the northern Arabian Gulf.
Poultry meat consumption in Kuwait has increased rapidly over the past 15 years. The objective of this report is to examine and explain the development of the Kuwait poultry during this period with a special focus on the reasons for the recent rapid expansion of the broiler breeder industry.
In 2011, 39,396 tonnes of poultry meat were produced in Kuwait with a value of $56.1 million, but this accounted for only 20% of the total poultry meat consumption (97.5 kg/person). The Kuwait poultry industry is economically competitive with imported poultry meat, but expansion is limited because of the availability of suitable land and water resources. Poultry companies therefore increase revenue by producing a higher proportion of higher value products (fresh/chilled meat, further processed chicken products and live bird sales). The industry now provides almost all its requirements for broiler chicken hatching eggs, but production efficiency is reduced in the late summer months when combinations of high temperatures and humidity give extreme climatic conditions. There is a need for research to improve production efficiency and training and education of staff to ensure a continued skill base for the industry.
The present study was designed to assess physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits among adolescents in Kuwait and to compare the differences between genders.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among secondary-school children who participated in the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS), a multi-centre collaborative project.
Secondary schools in Kuwait.
Adolescents (463 boys and 443 girls), aged 14–19 years.
Nearly half (44·6 %) of the boys and three-quarters (76·0 %) of the girls did not meet the recommended daily physical activity levels (≥2520 MET-min/week, moderate to vigorous intensity). Nearly all (96·3 % of boys and 96·7 % of girls) adolescents reported spending >2 h/d on screen time, with girls found to spend more time per day watching television (P = 0·02) and using a computer (P < 0·001). The large majority of the adolescents reported skipping breakfast and not having milk and milk products, vegetables and fruit daily, while nearly two-thirds of the boys and girls had sugar-sweetened drinks on more than 3 d/week. Compared with girls, boys reported consuming more fruit (3·4 v. 2·8 times/week, P = 0·001), dairy products (4·5 v. 3·6 times/week, P = 0·001) and energy drinks (1·3 v. 1·1 times/week, P = 0·003).
The majority of the Kuwaiti adolescents, especially girls, do not perform adequate physical activity, spend more time on sedentary activities and have unhealthy dietary practices. The findings emphasize an urgent need for implementing an appropriate intervention for promoting physical activity, healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviours among these children.