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Researchers have studied truck crashes extensively using methods appropriate for behavior, technology, and regulatory enforcement. Few safety studies associate crashes with economic pressure, a pervasive latent influence. This study uses data from the US Large Truck Crash Causation Study to predict truck crashes based on work pressure factors that have their origins in market pressures on motor carriers and truck drivers. Logistic regression shows that factors associated with the work process, including an index of work-pressure attributes, predict the likelihood that crash analysts consider the truck driver to be the person whose last action could have prevented the crash. While not proving causation, the data suggest that economic factors affecting drivers contribute significantly to truck crashes.
While other research has shown that higher paid truck and bus drivers are safer, this is the first study showing why higher paid drivers are safer. We estimate the labour supply curve for long-haul truck drivers in the United States, applying two-stage least squares regression to a national survey of truck drivers. We start with the standard model of the labour supply curve and then develop two novel extensions of it, incorporating pay level and pay method, and testing the target earnings hypothesis. We distinguish between long-haul and short-haul jobs driving commercial motor vehicles. Truck and bus drivers choose between long-distance jobs requiring very long hours of work away from home and short-distance jobs generally requiring fewer hours. The labour supply curve exhibits a classic backward bending shape, reflecting drivers’ preference to work until they reach target earnings. Above target earnings, at a ‘safe rate’ for truck drivers, they trade labour for leisure, working fewer hours, leading to greater highway safety. Drivers work fewer hours at a higher pay rate and likely have less fatigue. Pay rates also have implications for driver health because worker health deteriorates as working time exceeds 40 hours.
Large truck crashes remain a significant problem in the truckload sector of the US motor carrier industry. Employing a unique firm-level data set from a large US truckload motor carrier, we identified two different driver groups hired during two distinct pay regimes. Before-and-after data on wages and safety outcomes created a natural experiment. Higher wages paid to experienced drivers in the new pay regime led to higher driver retention rates. Experienced drivers had lower average crash costs and were more productive during each tenure month. Experienced drivers had a much larger expected discounted net present value when compared with inexperienced drivers. As the previously inexperienced drivers gained additional experience, their crash probabilities and their value began to mirror those of the experienced drivers, demonstrating the value of greater tenure. This research supports ‘safe rates’ public policy because safety pays – for trucking companies, for cargo owners and for society.
A growing number of Chinese firms motivate their employees through employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs). Using a sample of listed firms in China, this paper examines the impact of ESOPs on firms’ total factor productivity (TFP), as well as the mechanisms of ESOPs. The empirical results show that ESOPs have a positive impact on firm TFP. The mechanism tests convey that ESOPs increase firm TFP by promoting research and development (R&D) investment and mitigating agency costs. These results are robust after accounting for endogeneity and using alternative metrics of TFP. In addition, we find that the positive effect of ESOPs on firm TFP is more pronounced in non-state-owned firms and firms with a less severe free-riding problem. Furthermore, the effect on firm TFP is positively associated with the subscription proportion of non-executive employees in ESOPs. Overall, the results of this study underscore the important role of employee ownership in firms’ productivity improvement.
In the trucking industry, truck drivers’ duties include not only driving trucks but also non-driving labor. However, non-driving work is not necessarily paid. This article analyses how the payment for non-driving duties (non-driving pay) affects truck drivers’ work hours. Using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Long-Haul Truck Driver survey, the study finds that remunerating drivers for non-driving duties decreases drivers’ work hours. Drivers who are paid for their non-driving labor may reach their target earnings in fewer work hours, leading them to refrain from working extremely long hours and more willingly comply with working time regulations. The policy implication is that paying for non-driving labor can prevent drivers from working excessively long hours, mitigating fatigue, and consequent accidents. Thus, pay for non-driving labor may enhance their safety and health.
Understanding the distributional impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the labour market and ultimately on the living standards of the population is key to designing adequate policy responses to shield individuals’ and families’ livelihoods. This article illustrates the impact of COVID-19 on the labour market as well as on living standards in the case of a small open economy: Mauritius. We present descriptive evidence based on a unique set of telephone household surveys, representative of the Mauritian population, conducted between May 2020 and March 2021. We find that women had a higher risk of losing their job and leaving the labour force, reversing a decade-long trend of increasing labour force participation. Low-skill workers in sectors that depend on global demand – and even more so if employed informally – together with women were more likely to be affected by the crisis. One in three households reported a loss in income since the start of the pandemic, and the probability of experiencing this shock increases with the number of household members who lost their job and who were employed informally. From a policy perspective, our findings underscore the negative distributional consequences of the pandemic and provide substantive evidence for the viability of a further proactive policy stance to shield the livelihoods of vulnerable households during the economic recovery phase.
We investigate the impact of professional networks on men's and women's earnings, using a dataset of European and North American executives. The size of an individual's network of influential former colleagues has a large positive association with remuneration, with an elasticity of around 21%. However, controlling for unobserved heterogeneity using various fixed effects as well as a placebo technique, we find that the real causal impact of networks is barely positive for men and significantly lower for women. We provide suggestive evidence indicating that the apparent discrimination against women is due to two factors: first, both men and women are helped more by own-gender than other-gender connections, and men have more of these than women do. Second, a subset of employers we identify as ‘female friendly firms’ recruit more women but reward networks less than other firms.
Environmental incentives are characterized by two distinct features: (1) a benefit-cost trade-off; and (2) private information about the trade-off. This suggests a degree of freedom of where to attach the private information, either to the benefit or the costs, as long as these choices imply the same behavior absent incentives (‘observation equivalent’). However, we show that different observation equivalent specifications can lead to different incentives. This is demonstrated for two cases: rainforest protection and contributions to a public good. Therefore, the choice of a private information parameter must be justified against observation equivalent alternatives.
Executive stock options (ESOs) are widely used to reward employees and represent major items of corporate liability. The International Accounting Standards Board IFRS9 financial reporting standard which came into full effect on 1-Jan 2018, along with its Australian implementation AASB9, requires public corporations to report their fair-value cost in financial statements. Reset ESOs are typically issued to re-incentivise employees by allowing the option to be cancelled and re-issued with a lower exercise price or later maturity. We produce a novel analytical Reset ESO valuation consistent with the IFRS9 financial reporting standard incorporating the simultaneous resetting of vesting period, exercise window, reset level and maturity. We allow for voluntary and involuntary exercise. Our analytical result is expressed solely in terms of standardised European binary power option instruments. Using the multi-state mortality model of Hariyanto (2014, Mortality and disability modelling with an application to pricing a reverse mortgage contract, PhD thesis, University of Melbourne), we estimate longitudinal disability and death transition probabilities from cross-sectional data. We determine survival functions for pre-vesting forfeiture or post-vesting involuntary exercise for use with weighted portfolios of our formulae to illustrate the effect of survival on the fair value. We examine the IFRS9 method of valuation using expected time to option exercise and demonstrate a consistent overestimation of fair value of up to 27% for senior executives.
The State of Washington, as part of a State Innovation Model (SIM) grant, is changing the payment model within state employee health insurance plans. The system is moving away from traditional fee-for-service reimbursement to value-based payment, through insurance design (the creation of accountable care network insurance products) and bundled payment strategies. New plans were rolled out January 2016 (enrollment occurred in late 2015), with the stated goal of getting 80% of state employees covered by plans that contain value-based purchasing within the next 5 years. The goal of payment reform is to improve member experience, member health, and cut costs. However, changing health insurance during employment can directly and indirectly change labor market outcomes. Decreasing costs of insurance could lead people to remain in the state-employment sector longer. However, it could also influence retirement timing, through changing the relative costs of insurance and through improving health.
This paper examines who switches to value-based insurance, where the insurance explicitly decreases premiums without changing out-of-pocket costs. We find that the peak age for switching insurance plans is 35–45, even among the subsample of individuals who would not need to change their usual sources of care. Second, we look at the labor market activity – both leaving the state-employee sector and retiring from state-employment – and find that younger workers with value-based insurance plans are less likely to leave state employment. Further, we find evidence of value-based insurance, available at a reduced cost to both employees and retirees, leads to a shifting downward in the distribution of retirement age. While these findings support the existence of both the price and income effects, the effect sizes are rather small.
We explore what happened when the state of Utah moved away from its traditional defined benefit pension. In its place, it offered new hires a choice between a conventional defined contribution plan and a hybrid plan option, where the latter has both a guaranteed benefit component and a defined contribution plan where employees bear investment risk. We show that around 60% of new hires failed to make any active choice and, as a result, were automatically defaulted into the hybrid plan. Slightly more than half of those who made an active choice elected the hybrid plan. Post-reform, employees who failed to actively elect a primary retirement plan were also far less likely to enroll in a supplemental retirement account, compared with new hires who actively selected a plan. We also find that employees hired following the reform were more likely to leave public employment, resulting in higher separation rates. This could reflect a reduction in the desirability of public employment under the new pension design and an improving economic climate in the state. Our results imply that public pension reformers must consider employee responses in addition to potential cost savings, when developing and enacting major pension plan changes.
A major objective of the government during the Great Recession has been severely to restrict public sector real wage growth. One potential advantage of performance-related pay schemes is that they naturally offer greater wage responsiveness to fluctuations in the business cycle. Based on evidence from engineering and allied industries during the Great Depression we show that piecework wages exhibited more flexibility than their timework equivalents. We compare and contrast southern/midland engineering districts of Britain with northern districts. The former region was dominated by piece-rated workers and by modern sections of the industry, such as vehicle and aircraft manufacture. Time-rated work predominated in northern districts where older sections – for example, marine and textile engineering – were clustered‥
This paper revisits a literature on the links between unionisation and performance-related pay (PRP), which offers a disparate set of results. Part of the reason for this is the usual inability to distinguish between different types of PRP and the lack of rich panel data containing such measures. Analysis of panel data containing six separate PRP schemes reveals that union members are less likely to receive PRP in general and less likely to receive bonus payments, stock options, or profit sharing than non-members. Furthermore, profit sharing is negatively related to both union membership and coverage. However, union members or those covered by a union contract are more likely to be paid piece rates, providing further evidence that piece-rate pay differs from other forms of PRP.
We address basic questions about performance-related pay in the US. How widespread is it? What characteristics of employers and jobs are associated with it? What are recent trends in its incidence? What factors are responsible for these trends? Nearly two-fifths of hours worked in the US economy in 2013 were in jobs with performance-related pay, but this share has been declining. We consider several possible causes for this trend and find that they do not have much explanatory power. We do establish, however, that any potential explanation must also account for a long-term shift in the relative incidence of performance-related pay away from low-wage and toward high-wage jobs.
L'innovation est devenue un facteur clé de la croissance économique. La question des incitations à l'innovation au sein des entreprises est donc primordiale. Dans ce papier, nous nous intéressons au type d'incitations monétaires reçues par les inventeurs au sein des entreprises avec une attention particulière à la mobilité inter-entreprise de ces derniers. Les résultats montrent un rendement salarial positif pour les inventeurs, celui-ci est plus important pour les inventeurs ayant connu une mobilité inter-entreprise, ce qui pourrait suggérer que les entreprises sont prêtes à payer les connaissances acquises par les inventeurs au sein des autres entreprises. Par contre, l'utilisation de stock-options comme incitation pour les inventeurs semble moins répandue dans les entreprises françaises que dans les entreprises étrangères.
This study uses a unique data set of retiree characteristics and salary histories for administrators, teachers, and non-professional employees of the Denver Public School Retirement System (DPSRS) to analyze surplus deferred compensation for DPSRS and four state K-12 defined benefit pension plans. We find sizable levels of surplus deferred compensation for each plan, with significant differences across plans, job classes, and age groups. Across plans, differences in cost of living allowances impact the expected present value of retirement benefits more than benefit table differences when controlling for each respective factor. Somewhat surprisingly, the plans in our study with the largest present value of future benefits had lower employee contribution rates. Pension wealth for reduced benefits showed larger wealth accrual at younger ages than full, unreduced benefits, and younger cohorts starting work at an earlier age received significantly higher surplus deferred compensation.
Sick pay has been debated recently in several economies, including the US, Germany and Sweden. There is, however, little academic discussion of the nature of sick pay, or of how it should be structured. This paper clears the ground for such a discussion in two ways; it identifies a conceptual difference between the North American model, rooted in job protection, and the European model, which is predominantly a form of social insurance. Secondly, it argues that experience-rated sick pay provided by employers avoids the classical problems of insurance markets. US-style paid sick leave is an example of such a scheme.
A l'heure de l'économie du savoir et de la connaissance, l'éducation est devenue un enjeu majeur et l'enseignant a acquis une place centrale dans le processus de production d'éducation. Dans ces conditions, sont recherchés les moyens d'augmenter la performance des enseignants afin d'améliorer les résultats scolaires des élèves. La mise en place de structures incitatives (notamment la rémunération à la performance) est souvent suggérée mais les études démontrant l'efficacité des incitations restent mitigées.
Cet article propose une revue de la littérature théorique et empirique sur la façon dont les incitations affectent le comportement des enseignants. Les arguments pour et contre la mise en incitation des enseignants sont étu-diés. En particulier, nous examinons i) les difficultés à contrôler et à évaluer la performance des enseignants, ii) la question du travail en équipe dans un contexte d'individualisation de la performance et iii) le problème du multitâches lorsque les incitations portent sur seulement quelques tâches.
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