One of the greatest challenges in crop science worldwide is to generate a balance between crop production and environmental preservation. Agroforestry systems present promising strategies for balancing environmental health and crop production. The aim of this study was to evaluate yield components and the juice quality of five sugarcane crop years cultivated in the understory of Aleurites fordii, in two intercropping systems and a monocropping system. A field experiment was conducted from November 2011 to June 2016 in the city of Frederico Westphalen—Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Information generated in this study confirms the viability of the cultivation of sugarcane in agroforestry systems, and provides information for farmers which can be used to assist in the planning of more ideal agroforestry arrangements. Agroforestry systems should consider the benefits of both forest and cultivated plant species. In this study, A. fordii trees had greater growth in the intercrop II system; however, this system promoted reductions in sugarcane yield components due to the lowest relative amount of solar radiation intercepted by sugarcane plants. For sugarcane production, the use of an intercropping system with 12 × 12 m2 arrangements should be prioritized, because it promotes greater sugarcane yields when compared with 6 × 6 m2 intercropping systems; however, significant differences were not observed when the system (12 × 12 m2) was compared with the monocropping system for most of the analyzed variables. This study sought to provide new sustainable alternatives for farmers in order to increase the diversification of rural properties and maintain the preservation of existing agroecosystems.