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Recent studies mostly focus on the links between measures of alpha-band EEG networks and intelligence. However, associations between wide frequency range EEG networks and general intelligence level remain underresearched.
In this study in a student sample we aimed to correlate the intelligence level and graph metrics of the sensors/sources-level networks constructed in different frequency EEG bands.
We recorded eyes-closed resting-state EEG in 28 healthy participants (21.4±2.1 y.o., 18 females, 1 left-handed). The Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices Plus (‘SPM Plus’, 60 figures) was used as an intelligence measure. We constructed networks for all possible combinations of sensors/sources-level and 4-8, 8-13, 13-30, or 4-30 Hz frequency bands using Weighted Phase-Lag Index (wPLI), and calculated four graph metrics (Characteristic Path Length, Clustering Coefficient, Modularity, and Small World Index) for each network. Spearman correlation (with Holm-Sidak correction) was applied to characterize the relations between the SPM Plus scores and all the network metrics.
SPM Plus scores varied from 35 to 57 (mean 45.3±4.2), and the intelligence level negatively correlated with Modularity in beta-band (r = -0.63, pcorr = 0.0253).
High modularity may reflect relatively high segregation, but not integration, of networks (Girn, Mills, Christoff, 2019). Accordingly, our findings may shed light on the neural mechanisms of the general inefficiency of global cognitive processing in the case of intellectual decline related to different mental disorders. Funding: This research has been supported by the Interdisciplinary Scientific and Educational School of Lomonosov Moscow State University ‘Brain, Cognitive Systems, Artificial Intelligence’.
This chapter highlights the close interconnection between cosmology and human nature in the Timaeus. According to Timaeus, human beings are not merely part of the cosmos; they play a crucial role in explaining how the cosmos came to be. The cosmos must contain three kinds of mortal beings in order to be complete, and all three derive from human beings, as a result of varying degrees of moral and cognitive failure. Recognizing the distinctive role human beings play in completing the cosmos complicates the standard picture of Timaeus’ cosmology, as well as his account of human nature. While in large part the cosmos is a product of divine craft, in some part it is the product of the inevitable disturbance of immortal souls due to mortal embodiment. Human beings have a special status as the first generation of mortal beings, as well as the only ones produced solely by divine craft. However, this distinction does not extend beyond the first generation, nor does it include any women. Ultimately, Timaeus’ account of human nature blurs the lines between humans and gods, as well as between humans and non-human animals.
This chapter discusses the practice of measurement in psychological research. Here, where we cast doubt on the basic assumptions and endeavours underlying the act of measuring in mainstream psychology. Next, we introduce the processual alternative, which stresses the study of activity as situated and coupled with an environment. This chapter explains how a process approach to ‘measurement’ is thus fundamentally different from the standard one, and can remedy existing issues related to non-ergodicity and the ecological fallacy. These ideas are illustrated by means of the concept of intelligence, which is undoubtedly one of psychology’s show-pieces of measurement.
This chapter discusses why wisdom is so important. It opens with a discussion of why wisdom is so crucial in today’s world. The chapter points out that the world faces enormous problems, such as global climate change and threats of, and actual pandemics. Wisdom is needed more than ever, but often is not to be found. The chapter then discuss why intelligence, at least as usually defined, is not enough. Many people are smart, but they use their smarts only for their own benefit, or for the benefit of people like themselves rather than for a common good. The chapter next discusses why creativity is not enough. People can be creative but use their creativity for selfish or even destructive ends. Finally, the chapter discusses why wisdom is so hard to find. Many people appear, on the surface, to be wise, but then prove not to be. The chapter ends with some brief conclusions.
In this chapter, we examine how creativity, intelligence, and wisdom are related in theoretical frameworks and empirical studies. First, definitions of the three constructs are discussed. Although all of them are complex and multifaceted, the relationship between creativity and intelligence has been extensively studied based on their working definitions and models. However, wisdom research remains sparse, and there is a gap between people’s common beliefs and explicit theories of how wisdom is related to intelligence and creativity. Regardless, some common elements of wisdom have been distilled. These include self-awareness, knowledge, and strategies to cope with uncertainty, which can lead to contributions to social goodness. Second, several empirical studies are reviewed. They show some relationships among the three constructs, but the results have been inconsistent. Third, the WICS model, as a cognitive framework, is used to understand the relationships among the three constructs. The model integrated intelligence, creativity, and wisdom, and has also been tested in some fields. Finally, we argue that wisdom, as a distinguishable component of ability, can help determine whether our intelligence and creativity will be harnessed toward benevolence or malevolence.
In 2008, the Chinese government created the Thousand Talents Program (TTP) to recruit overseas expertise to build up China’s science and technology knowledge and innovation base. Ten years later, in 2018, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) announced a new “China Initiative” that aimed to counter the transfer by U.S.-based scientists involved in the TTP of knowledge and intellectual property that could support China’s military and economic might and pose threats to U.S. national security. This initiative launched a number of investigations into major U.S. federal funding agencies and universities and charged several scientists, many of them life scientists, with failing to accurately report their work and affiliations with Chinese entities and illegally transferring scientific information to China. Although the FBI cases demonstrate a clear problem with disclosure of foreign contracts and research integrity among some TTP recipients, they have failed to demonstrate any harm to U.S. national security interests. At the heart of this controversy are core questions that remain unresolved and need more attention: What is required to transfer and develop knowledge to further a country’s science and technology ambitions? And can the knowledge acquired by a visiting scientist be easily used to further a country’s ambitions? Drawing on literature from the field of science and technology studies, this article discusses the key issues that should be considered in evaluating this question in the Chinese context and the potential scientific, intelligence, and policy implications of knowledge transfer as it relates to the TTP.
Cognitive impairment is common in people with mental disorders, leading to transdiagnostic classification based on cognitive characteristics. However, few studies have used this approach for intellectual abilities and functional outcomes.
The present study aimed to classify people with mental disorders based on intellectual abilities and functional outcomes in a data-driven manner.
Seven hundred and forty-nine patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression disorder or autism spectrum disorder and 1030 healthy control subjects were recruited from facilities in various regions of Japan. Two independent k-means cluster analyses were performed. First, intelligence variables (current estimated IQ, premorbid IQ, and IQ discrepancy) were included. Second, number of work hours per week was included instead of premorbid IQ.
Four clusters were identified in the two analyses. These clusters were specifically characterised in terms of IQ discrepancy in the first cluster analysis, whereas the work variable was the most salient feature in the second cluster analysis. Distributions of clinical diagnoses in the two cluster analyses showed that all diagnoses were unevenly represented across the clusters.
Intellectual abilities and work outcomes are effective classifiers in transdiagnostic approaches. The results of our study also suggest the importance of diagnosis-specific strategies to support functional recovery in people with mental disorders.
This paper investigates the activities of the KGB residency in Iran during the 1978–79 revolution and early years of the Islamic Republic. While some foreign experts were quick to point to the KGB as behind the revolution, it soon became clear that Soviet leadership and intelligence were no less surprised with the events than their counterparts in the West. However, this does not mean that Moscow did not see the revolution as an opportunity. The KGB served as one of the principal tools of Soviet attempts to influence the domestic situation in Iran and, although it achieved little in pursuing its goals, KGB activities in Iran reveal the extent to which binary Cold War thinking limited Soviet leadership in dealing with the challenge of the Iranian revolution.
From the 1950s to at least the 1970s, China established and operated a variety of intelligence networks from Switzerland. The chapter relies on thousands of files by the Federal Police as well as Chinese memoirs, biographies, commemorative volumes of former agents, and publications on the history of Chinese intelligence to discuss different forms of intelligence activities carried out by Chinese diplomats in Switzerland. Showing just how intertwined Chinese foreign policy and intelligence were, the chapter argues that diplomatic staff were so often also active as intelligence agents that it could be argued that the Chinese used a hybrid form of diplomat–agent in Switzerland. Some of the national, international, and transnational intelligence networks that the Chinese operated from Switzerland show that Switzerland functioned as a Chinese intelligence hub in Cold War Europe. These include a network of UN officials, ethnic Chinese students and scientists, Chinese restaurants, and Chinese Indonesians. The chapter also describes the Swiss Federal Police’s counterintelligence measures as a reaction to the Chinese intelligence activities. The chapter begins with a discussion of the development of Communist Chinese intelligence in the 1930s and 1940s in order to show how this contributed to Chinese intelligence activities in Europe.
During the Cold War, the People's Republic of China used Switzerland as headquarters for its economic, political, intelligence, and cultural networks in Europe. Based on extensive research in Western and Chinese archives, China's European Headquarters charts not only how Switzerland came to play this role, but also how Chinese networks were built in practice, often beyond the public face of official proclamations and diplomatic interactions. By tracing the development of Sino-Swiss relations in the Cold War, Ariane Knüsel sheds new light on the People's Republic of China's formulation and implementation of foreign policy in Europe, Latin America and Africa and Switzerland's efforts to align neutrality, humanitarian engagement, and economic interests.
The chapter examines the legal and extra-legal difficulties in eliminating military objectives. It also attempts to verify the claim, often made in literature on the subject, that civilians account for the majority of victims of armed conflict. The review of legal complexities begins with the examination of the principle of proportionality, the requirement to take appropriate cautionary measures, and the prohibition of reprisals. Extra-legal difficulties include the following issues: the shift in the nature of contemporary armed conflict; the tendency to protect one’s own troops at the expense of other goals; the trend to deliberately attack populations perceived as vulnerable; using gender as a potential cause for targeting; insufficient precision of weapons used in action; and difficulty in obtaining reliable information on the status of a person or object.
Conventionally, intelligence is seen as a property of individuals. However, it is also known to be a property of collectives. Here, we broaden the idea of intelligence as a collective property and extend it to the planetary scale. We consider the ways in which the appearance of technological intelligence may represent a kind of planetary scale transition, and thus might be seen not as something which happens on a planet but to a planet, much as some models propose the origin of life itself was a planetary phenomenon. Our approach follows the recognition among researchers that the correct scale to understand key aspects of life and its evolution is planetary, as opposed to the more traditional focus on individual species. We explore ways in which the concept may prove useful for three distinct domains: Earth Systems and Exoplanet studies; Anthropocene and Sustainability studies; and the study of Technosignatures and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). We argue that explorations of planetary intelligence, defined as the acquisition and application of collective knowledge operating at a planetary scale and integrated into the function of coupled planetary systems, can prove a useful framework for understanding possible paths of the long-term evolution of inhabited planets including future trajectories for life on Earth and predicting features of intelligentially steered planetary evolution on other worlds.
In this study, we have compared 229 Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale – Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) cognitive profiles of different severity adults with autism spectrum disorder to verify the impact of several variables including sex, age, level of education and autism severity level in an Italian sample. Moreover, we wanted to find out the optimal cut points for the major intelligence quotients in order to discriminate autism severity levels.
Participants were recruited from two National Health System Center in two different Italian regions and were assessed with gold-standard instruments as a part of their clinical evaluation. According to DSM-5, cognitive domains were also measured with multi-componential tests. We used the Italian adaptation of WAIS-IV. We checked our hypotheses using linear regression models and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves.
Our results showed that age and level of education have a strong impact on Verbal Comprehension (VCI) and Working Memory Indexes (WMI). Gender differences are relevant when considering the VCI and Processing Speed index (PSI) in which women obtained the best performance. These differences are still relevant when considering cut points of ROC because 69 resulted to be the optimal cut point for women, 65 for men.
Few conclusions can be assumed only examining Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) scores as it includes many different information about broader cognitive abilities. Looking deeper at main indexes and their subtests findings are consistent with previous research on the disorder (moderate correlations of FSIQ, Perceptual Reasoning index, WMI and PSI with the participants’ age), while other results are unforeseen (no effect of sex found on FSIQ score) or novel (significant effect of education on VCI and WMI). Using an algorithm predicting optimal cut point for discriminating through autism severity levels can help clinicians to better label and quantify the required help a person may need, a test cannot replace diagnostic and clinical evaluation by experienced clinicians.
This chapter asks what it is about “intelligence” (nous) that, in Aristotle’s view, makes “understanding” or “insight” (noēsis) its proprietary work. It argues that the answer lies in the peculiar clarity and distinctness of that activity. This clarity and distinctness, it argues, make intelligence the very “form” or “measure” of its objects – what they all “have in common,” what “makes” them intelligible, what their intelligibility consists in.
This chapter shows how Templer recognised that the MCP’s October 1951 Resolutions had shifted the strategic initiative to government, but also that it had increased the importance of winning ‘hearts and minds’. It shows how he increased both punishment and reward, and resettlement amenities and training to secure kills, until late in his term, but above all optimised the government, military and committee system, and the policy towards Orang Asli and the jungle. He created a better system and learning organisation, which in turn started to experiment with the big combined food control–Special Branch–military operations that would start to clear communist committees out of one area after another. The next chapter shows how that learning took off over 1953–4, providing a solution to the problem Briggs had not cracked: how to ‘clear’ areas. Rejecting both hagiographic and hateful accounts of Templer, it reveals the truth about the man, and about the perfecting of Malaya’s counterinsurgency apparatus and the constant refining of its recipe of ingredients.
Aristotle maintains that defining "intelligence" (nous) requires first defining its activity, “understanding” or “insight” (noēsis) which requires first having considered its objects, intelligible beings (noēta). This chapter is about the nature of these objects: what about them makes them intelligible? My principal proposals are that what makes them intelligible is that they are "separate" and "unmixed," and that because, insofar as they are intelligible, they are, in their essence, "activity."’ I am aware this makes it sound as though Aristotle takes intelligibility to consist in some kind of intelligence. But in fact this is a result he is committed to, by the doctrines that intelligence is intelligible and that there is something that intelligible objects "all are in common"; for the alternative, as he himself says, is to suppose that intelligence "will have something mixed-in, which makes it intelligible just like the rest." The challenge, then, is not to steer clear of this result, but to make sense of it. My proposal is that the key to this lies in realizing that and why Aristotle thinks of intelligibility as a creature of intelligence.
Although the development of creativity is an oft-stated goal for students, it is seldom infused into school curricula, nor are teachers explicitly trained on how to promote it within their classrooms, even in the context of selective programs. We have several goals for this chapter. The first is to describe our view of the current status of creativity education for advanced pre-university students, noting its minimal presence except in artistic domains. Second, we differentiate the concepts of gifted education and talent development, favoring the latter as the direction of the future for enhancing the role of creativity. Third, we address some challenges for applying creativity in the gifted and talented classroom.
This chapter reviews theoretical and empirical relationships between wisdom and aspects of intelligence, personality, emotions and well-being, and value orientations. Relationships between wisdom and other psychological characteristics vary considerably by wisdom measure. On average, wise people tend to be somewhat more intelligent than not-so-wise people. They also tend to be more open to new experiences and ideas. Wise people are generally quite happy with their lives, although there are many people who are happy without also being wise. Wise people care more than other people about self-direction and a common good.
Intelligence is inversely associated with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD); it remains unclear whether low intelligence is a cause or consequence. We investigated causal associations of intelligence with SCZ or BD risk and a shared risk between SCZ and BD and SCZ-specific risk.
To estimate putative causal associations, we performed multi-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Mendelian randomization (MR) using generalized summary-data-based MR (GSMR). Summary-level datasets from five GWASs (intelligence, SCZ vs. control [CON], BD vs. CON, SCZ + BD vs. CON, and SCZ vs. BD; sample sizes of up to 269,867) were utilized.
A strong bidirectional association between risks for SCZ and BD was observed (odds ratio; ORSCZ → BD = 1.47, p = 2.89 × 10−41, ORBD → SCZ = 1.44, p = 1.85 × 10−52). Low intelligence was bidirectionally associated with a high risk for SCZ, with a stronger effect of intelligence on SCZ risk (ORlower intelligence → SCZ = 1.62, p = 3.23 × 10−14) than the reverse (ORSCZ → lower intelligence = 1.06, p = 3.70 × 10−23). Furthermore, low intelligence affected a shared risk between SCZ and BD (OR lower intelligence → SCZ + BD = 1.23, p = 3.41 × 10−5) and SCZ-specific risk (ORlower intelligence → SCZvsBD = 1.64, p = 9.72 × 10−10); the shared risk (ORSCZ + BD → lower intelligence = 1.04, p = 3.09 × 10−14) but not SCZ-specific risk (ORSCZvsBD → lower intelligence = 1.00, p = 0.88) weakly affected low intelligence. Conversely, there was no significant causal association between intelligence and BD risk (p > 0.05).
These findings support observational studies showing that patients with SCZ display impairment in premorbid intelligence and intelligence decline. Moreover, a shared factor between SCZ and BD might contribute to impairment in premorbid intelligence and intelligence decline but SCZ-specific factors might be affected by impairment in premorbid intelligence. We suggest that patients with these genetic factors should be categorized as having a cognitive disorder SCZ or BD subtype.