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The conventional product of exponentials
-based methods dissatisfy the parametric minimality for the kinematic calibration of serial robots due to overlooking the magnitude and pitch constraints. Thus, the minimal kinematic model is presented to solve this problem, which can be developed further. This paper puts forward an improved algorithm for the minimal parameter calibration. An actual kinematic model with the minimal parameters
is constructed according to the geometric properties of actual joint twists in the auxiliary frames established on the basis of the nominal joint axes. Then, the initial pose error is defined in the tool coordinate frame, which is expressed as the exponential map of the twist, and all twist descriptions are unified, so as to give a unified kinematic model in mathematics. By differentiating the kinematic model, a minimal error model is derived in explicit form. Subsequently, we propose a novel parameter identification method, which identifies the orientation error and position error parameters separately by the iterative least-squares method and updates the MP uniformly. Finally, the simulations and experiments on the different serial robots are conducted to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The simulation results show our calibration algorithm outperforms the existing ones in the accuracy aspect, and the experiment result shows that the absolute pose accuracy of the UR5 industrial robot is upgraded about 9 times under a statistics sense after the calibration.
Identification of human individuals within a group of 39 persons using micro-Doppler (μ-D) features has been investigated. Deep convolutional neural networks with two different training procedures have been used to perform classification. Visualization of the inner network layers revealed the sections of the input image most relevant when determining the class label of the target. A convolutional block attention module is added to provide a weighted feature vector in the channel and feature dimension, highlighting the relevant μ-D feature-filled areas in the image and improving classification performance.
This paper reveals the technological properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from raw milk (colostrum and mature milk) of Wagyu cattle raised in Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Isolates were identified based on their physiological and biochemical characteristics as well as 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Streptococcus lutetiensis and Lactobacillus plantarum showed high acid and diacetyl-acetoin production in milk after 24 h of incubation at 40 and 30°C, respectively. These strains are thought to have potential for use as starter cultures and adjunct cultures for fermented dairy products.
This chapter describes methods to detect and identify power system transmission line outages in near real time. These methods exploit statistical properties of the small random ﬂuctuations in electricity generation as well as energy demand to which a power system is subject to as time evolves. To detect and identify transmission line outages, a linearized incremental small-signal power system model is used in conjunction with high-speed synchronized voltage phase angle measurements obtained from phasor measurement units. By monitoring the statistical properties of voltage phase angle time-series, line outages are detected and identiﬁed using techniques borrowed from the theory of quickest change detection. Several case studies are considered for the cases of detecting and identifying single- and double-line outages in an accurate and timely fashion.
I provide an analysis of sentences of the form ‘To be F is to be G’ in terms of exact truth-maker semantics—an approach that identifies the meanings of sentences with the states of the world directly responsible for their truth-values. Roughly, I argue that these sentences hold just in case that which makes something F also makes it G. This approach is hyperintensional and possesses desirable logical and modal features. In particular, these sentences are reflexive, transitive, and symmetric, and if they are true, then they are necessarily true, and it is necessary that all and only Fs are Gs. I motivate my account over Correia and Skiles’  prominent alternative and close by defining an irreflexive and asymmetric notion of analysis in terms of the symmetric and reflexive notion.
Over the past decade, research on human–robot collaboration has grown exponentially, motivated by appealing applications to improve the daily life of patients/operators. A primary requirement in many applications is to implement highly “transparent” control laws to reduce the robot impact on human movement. This impact may be quantified through relevant motor control indices. In this paper, we show that control laws based on careful identification procedures improve transparency compared to classical closed-loop position control laws. A new performance index based on the ratio between electromyographic activity and limb acceleration is also introduced to assess the quality of human exoskeleton interaction.
This chapter examines Shakespeare’s interest in sympathy – both the word and the concept – and his representations of emotional correspondence between individuals, both real and imagined. Shakespeare’s works explore the relationship between the earlier understanding of sympathy as likeness and harmony (‘If sympathy of love unite our thoughts’ (2 Henry VI, 1.1.23)) and its newer association with ideas of compassion and commiseration (‘O what a sympathy of woe is this’ (Titus Andronicus, 3.1.148)). It is argued that Shakespeare was sceptical about the rhetorical ideal of sympathy as a straightforward or automatic process. After exploring a range of early Shakespearean texts the chapter focuses on Romeo and Juliet, which contains a notable example of the word sympathy, as the Nurse describes the shared emotions of the lovers: ‘O woeful sympathy! / Piteous predicament!’ (3.3.85-6). The fact that this speech contains some unintentional double entendres complicates both the Nurse’s sense of idealised harmony and the audience’s affective response. Shakespeare demonstrates that our commiseration for the sufferings of others is not simply the product of passive imitation or occult sympathies, but rather comes about through a combination of choice, thought, and judgement – and may differ significantly from the ‘original’ emotion being observed.
Victorian culture encouraged the identification of women readers with male narrators and characters as a vehicle for female submission to male representation through marriage. This chapter argues that wayward women readers were not appeased by masculine identification, but rather inspired by it to act beyond the domestic sphere. In contrast with women authors such as Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Charlotte Brontë, and George Eliot, who were criticized for adopting conventionally masculine styles or subject matter, women readers were exhorted from girlhood in conduct guides and John Ruskin’s Sesame and Lilies lectures to prepare for absorption into their husbands’ legal identities through identification with male characters and activities. Written during the debates on the reform of marriage law that would continue through the end of the century, and published on the eve of the 1857 Matrimonial Causes Act, Barrett Browning’s Aurora Leigh promotes a distinctively literary rather than marital mode of identification with masculinity. Instead of identifying herself with her future husband, an action she associates with self-erasure, Aurora models a wayward identification with male poetic muses that allows her to maintain her integrity as an artistic subject.
What do audience members feel when they go to playhouses, and how and why do they feel it? This essay explores responses to performances within plays as models for imagining the circulation of emotions in theatres. In Much Ado About Nothing, Claudio watches other men play-act versions of himself courting Hero, while Beatrice and Benedick fall in love by eavesdropping on staged stories of each other’s feelings. In Measure for Measure, a deputy representing Duke Vincentio responds unpredictably to watching Isabella’s commissioned performance of pleading on her brother’s behalf. Like playgoers, these characters experience emotions by participating vicariously in deliberately orchestrated dramas. In particular, identifying with surrogates who act on their behalf offers them otherwise risky forms of affective licence. In his depictions of these responses to performances, Shakespeare explores the uneasy status of the artificially induced emotions experienced in playhouses, and the thorny question of who or what is responsible for generating them.
This chapter examines the genre of sensation fiction, which flourished alongside efforts to introduce British women’s suffrage into the Ballot Act of 1872. Sensation and suffrage were both seen as alarming, unnatural, and immoral attempts for women to gain representation. Sensation novels inspired much critical hand-wringing through their depiction of antiheroines and villainesses that supposedly imperiled the virtue and femininity of the female reader, who identified with them against her will. Modern critics tend to accept sensation’s self-advertisement according to which it elicits a reflexive, psychosomatic response from female readers. This chapter, however, asserts that Mary Elizabeth Braddon’s narrative techniques in her popular sensation novels prompt readers’ awareness of and resistance to the affinities ostensibly endorsed by the novels, soliciting the reader’s choices among multiple possible perspectives. At issue in the arguments for and against women’s enfranchisement were notions of women’s ethical integrity and susceptibility to affective influence. The chapter contends that sensation fiction fomented scandal not because it corrupted impressionable female readers with its content, but because it challenged the automatized emotionalism ascribed to women and promoted, instead, their rational and ethical autonomy – in direct opposition to the premises held by the anti-suffragists.
The final chapter moves beyond historical examples of wayward reading to current pedagogical praxis. It examines recent psychological studies of how modern readers self-report their identificatory experiences, and how interpretation of these experiences remains conditioned by Victorian rhetoric and assumptions. The discourse of anxiety that surrounded women’s reading in the nineteenth century has shifted direction in the late twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Now cultural consternation is leveled at boys’ deficiency in reading engagement. The chapter closes with examples and suggestions of ways in which we might counter these embedded expectations of identification and lack thereof, especially by surmounting essentialist gender stereotypes. Considering the implications of current research on the cognitive dynamics of reading, the chapter argues that students can learn to interrogate their supposedly “natural” or spontaneous identification with texts or resistance to them. Pedagogical techniques are recommended that prompt readers to control and shift their identifications in order to navigate their own way through a text. Although no longer “wayward” outside of the Victorian context, these techniques of identification equip students for the consciously active mode of reading to which women were, and boys now are, thought to be essentially averse.
In the nineteenth century, no assumption about female reading generated more ambivalence than the supposedly feminine facility for identifying with fictional characters. The belief that women were more impressionable than men inspired a continuous stream of anxious rhetoric about “female quixotes”: women who would imitate inappropriate characters or apply incongruous frames of reference from literature to their own lives. While the overt cultural discourse portrayed female literary identification as passive and delusional, Palacios Knox reveals increasing accounts of Victorian women wielding literary identification as a deliberate strategy. Wayward women readers challenged dominant assumptions about “feminine reading” and, by extension, femininity itself. Victorian Women and Wayward Reading contextualizes crises about female identification as reactions to decisive changes in the legal, political, educational, and professional status of women over the course of the nineteenth century: changes that wayward reading helped women first to imagine and then to enact.
outlines the history of citizenship as a political concept, showing that the dominant view of citizenship today is still primarily seen as nationally provided and tied inextricably to legal status, despite global and urban scholars challenging its claims of exclusivity and immigration scholars challenging its singular focus on legal status. The limited power of these critiques is due, in part, to the fuzziness of claims regarding rights and identities. The authors make a fresh start in the systematic conceptualization of citizenship, showing that legal status is not the gateway to rights as is often assumed. In its place, they develop a concept of federated citizenship as a parallel set of rights along five key dimensions, with the provision of those rights varying by jurisdiction – federal, state, and local. They also lay out important differences between progressive citizenship, regressive citizenship, and reinforcing citizenship. Finally, they move from concept formation to the development of indicators for state citizenship regimes, which sets the stage for the empirical analysis is subsequent chapters on Black citizenship rights and immigrant citizenship rights.
This chapter analyzes the Victorian figure of the female medium as another embodiment of wayward reading. In both nonfictional and fictional portrayals of telepathy, or “brain-reading,” female mediums represent a model of identification that is neither passive nor manipulative but defensive. This model also provides a corrective to recent popular accounts of scientific studies that conflate enhanced Theory of Mind (the ability to recognize and interpret the beliefs and emotional states of other people) with actual compassion as an effect of reading literature. Though mediums sometimes represented their ability to communicate with dead and distant minds as an unwanted gift, accounts of spiritualism depict telepathy as directed and purposeful, and not always sympathetic. In her memoir novelist and actress Florence Marryat recounts using clairvoyance in order to understand the disposition and plans of both declared and secret enemies. Mina, the heroine of Dracula (1897), can reverse the direction of mind-reading between herself and the villainous Count, and use her access to his perspective to help defeat him. The feminized type of the Victorian medium deploys her stereotypical sensitivity not always as an effusion of beneficent feeling but as a social strategy to protect herself from predatory and intrusive others.
The introduction to Victorian Women and Wayward Reading traces the vexed literary and philosophical history of identification as a feminized reading response and uncovers a concurrent history of wayward reading in the Victorian era. The eponymous heroine of Charlotte Lennox’s The Female Quixote (1752) embodied identification as a feminine mode of delusional and egoistic reading, in contrast to the philosophically valorized response of sympathy. Through her fictional heroine, Lennox created a convenient archetype for female susceptibility that would recur over the next 150 years in criticism, cartoons, and novels, from Northanger Abbey to Madame Bovary and beyond. The introduction explicates how various modern conceptions and critiques of literary identification possess nineteenth-century forebears in explicit disapproval and tacit endorsement of stereotypically feminine reading practices. While Victorian critics and modern scholars alike have concentrated on sympathy and empathy as redemptive readerly affects, the introduction shifts focus to Victorian women’s intentional identification, beyond the stereotypically feminine arenas of emotion and interpersonal relationships. This introduction refines and clarifies an active definition of literary identification based in cognitive psychology, to demonstrate how identification can be intentionally directed by the reader and illuminate possibilities for wayward reading in the past and present.
Defamation can have a long-term effect – a ‘propensity to percolate through underground channels and contaminate hidden springs’ of C’s reputation (per Slipper v BBC1). It is a technically difficult tort, in which the defences available to D assume equal, if not greater, prominence in the judgments as do the elements of the cause of action itself. As a common law tort, it is an ‘ancient construct’ (per Lachaux v Independent Print Ltd2). The Defamation Act 2013, which took effect on 1 January 2014, overruled aspects of the common law, but preserved other aspects, adding to the complexity of the tort. Wherever the publication complained of began in 2013 and continues into 2014, the court is now likely to have to consider the position both at common law and under statute (per Donovan v Gibbons3).
This chapter continues the book’s analysis of sensation fiction to consider Wilkie Collins’s No Name (1862), with its actress antiheroine Magdalen, together with the memoirs of actresses as focal texts for examining wayward identification in a theatrical context. The figure of the actress dramatized the Victorian conception of female psychology as naturally fluid, apt to identify with and conform to the shapes of others’ personalities. While this supposedly made women better actresses, it also seemed to threaten the stability of the actress’s own “authentic” self. Charlotte Brontë’s immortalization of the actress Rachel as Vashti in Villette exemplifies this paradoxical perception of the era’s most prominent and powerful actresses as fragile vessels. While No Name spotlights the physical and psychic repercussions of Magdalen’s various dramatic roles, it never represents acting as the uncontrolled effluence of passion or even as self-forgetfulness. No Name casts its actress anti-heroine as a subject who is indestructible because of her imaginative mobility. She thus aligns with accounts of Victorian professional actresses who represent their identification with characters as a deliberate and habitual exercise instead of subjection through relinquishing agency.
In this chapter, we address identifying and serving students with academic potential and promise. We briefly review the literature on racial and socioeconomic gaps at the highest levels of achievement (i.e. excellence gaps) and how schooling does little to close them. We then present a framework for talent development that moves gifted education from a singular focus on the identification of children already displaying high levels of accomplishment to a greater focus on providing services that develop potential talent in the form of increased opportunities to learn. We review promising identification practices and program models that serve a broader range of gifted learners.
Chapter 2 focuses on literary representations of the consumption of such mediated crime stories. I analyze Moderato cantabile (1958) and Dix heures et demie du soir en été (1960), to illustrate how Duras thematizes reader identification with sensational crimes in the media by staging the identification of her heroines with fait divers-style crimes of her own invention. Where in “La Maladie de la douleur” [The Malady of Grief] Julia Kristeva (Soleil noir,1987) claims that Duras’s work is non-cathartic, I contend that Duras uses the model of an anonymous fait divers to demonstrate how reader/witness identification with “true” crime and its aftermath can occasion the processing and purging of the intense affective responses they inspire.
As the field of modelling mortality has grown in recent years, the number and importance of identifiability issues within mortality models has grown in parallel. This has led both to robustness problems and to difficulties in making projections of future mortality rates. In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis of the identifiability issues in age/period mortality models in order to first understand them better and then to resolve them. To achieve this, we discuss how these identification issues arise, how to choose identification schemes which aid our demographic interpretation of the models and how to project the models so that our forecasts of the future do not depend upon the arbitrary choices used to identify the historical parameters estimated from historical data.