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Even if sovereign immunities fail to prevent holdout litigation before a domestic court, bondholder claims may still be effectively forestalled by the operation of collective action clauses. The limits of first-generation CACs have been partially overcome, and their use in sovereign bonds is now common in the United States and is mandatory in the Eurozone. This strengthened protection for debtor sovereigns is accompanied by the introduction of accountability mechanisms that guarantee fairness in the implementation of debt workout processes. This study has concluded that the development of CACs embodies a possible balance between bondholder protection and respect for debt restructuring by sovereigns. Although a more delicate question arises when a defaulting sovereign introduces a CAC mechanism by modifying the relevant domestic law governing sovereign debt instruments, such a measure may fall within the margin of discretion exercised by the debtor sovereign as the governance organ primarily responsible for addressing its sovereign default, provided that its accountability is duly discharged in and out of courts or tribunals.
Migration is a difficult and painful process for individuals, since they could no longer rely on the supportive structures of their own country that would help them develop resilience and mental well-being, on the one hand and, on the other hand, they may be obliged to find a new identity and adapt to a new social context.
To identify mental health issues in migrants in Greece.
A literature review has been made through PubMed database.
First-generation immigrants exhibited an increased risk of poor mental health including increased levels of depression, post-traumatic disorder and anxiety compared to local population. When immigrants come to a new country, they often experience culture shock, significantly influencing their mental health. The term “culture shock” describes feelings of weakness and a state of disorientation of individuals living in a new environment as well as the difficulties they face in the process of their adapting to the new conditions. Individuals lack a social supportive environment while experiencing lack of acceptance, as well as social discrimination, economic exploitation and racism by local society. Additionally, their cultural background can influence and differentiate the way they perceive, react and cope stressful conditions.
For the smooth completion of the cultural process, mutual adaption to the new conditions of both migrants and host society is needed, focusing on the understanding of different cultural heritage, as well as on the respect and recognition of rights of both sides.
The efforts to decode the mystery of the Antikythera mechanism, a unique machine surviving from around 70–60 BC, extend more than a century since its discovery in an ancient shipwreck off the coast of a Greek island. Although the first experts who looked at the device were baffled by its gear mechanisms, dating, and purpose, this chapter explains how many of these inscrutable aspects slowly came to be clarified and deciphered. The author illustrates the immense efforts it can take to ‘solve’ an enigma: in this case, the combined work of historians, epigraphers, radiographers, X-ray machines, mechanics, filmmakers, and multinational technology companies. The chapter also displays the valuable insights which can come from such endeavours. Decoding the Antikythera mechanism challenged common assumptions about technological skill and astronomical knowledge in antiquity, but it also encouraged innovations in modern technology and revealed something of humanity’s search to understand the cosmos.
The evacuation of 25,000 children from Northern Greece at the height of the Greek Civil War has a direct connection to Australia through the efforts of humanitarian Aileen Fitzpatrick, as discussed in Chapter 6. Drawing on arguments about notions of the family and the need for its continuation, Fitzpatrick was able to reunite children in neighbouring communist countries with their parents who had migrated to Australia. Several themes of significance run through Fitzpatrick’s efforts. Her argument for the unification of families echoed and endorsed the political and cultural discourse of the day, that the conventional family unit – the cornerstone of 1950s Australia – defined assimilation of migrants and upheld the ‘Australian way of life’. She hoped that in promoting an ideal of the white nuclear family, her appeal drawing together an emotional community would extend cross-culturally and would be supported in Eastern Bloc countries to allow children to be repatriated with their families. Saving the conventional family meant restoring the democratic way of life that she believed was defined by a 1950s understanding of the family. A focus on Fitzpatrick’s activities allows for women’s role as key players in international diplomacy and global movements to be highlighted, in ways that have not been recognised in accounts that focus on policy, the state and the role of diplomats.
Trees have a crucial importance in the functioning of ecosystems on Earth. They are among the largest and longest-living taxa and provide habitat and shelter to numerous species belonging to diverse groups of organisms. Relict trees are of particular interest through their history of survival and adaptation, and because they potentially shelter rare or threatened organisms today. We investigated for the first time the diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes found on the Cretan (Greek) endemic and relict phorophyte Zelkova abelicea (Ulmaceae). Our results showed that Z. abelicea hosts a high number of epiphytes. The Levka Ori mountain range in western Crete seems to be a hot spot for epiphytic lichens on Z. abelicea. Bryophytes had the highest diversity on Mt Kedros in central Crete but were absent from several other sites. Moreover, 17% of the studied lichens were recorded for the first time for Crete and 5% have never been recorded for Greece. Geographical position and browsing intensity seem to be important factors influencing the epiphytic community encountered. Tree morphology (dwarfed or arborescent) was also significant in influencing community composition although it was not possible to dissociate this factor from the effect of topography. Dwarfed individuals were found to have as much epiphytic diversity as arborescent trees. Ecological indicator values showed that high epiphytic diversity was found in some sites despite signs of eutrophication and disturbance due to pastoral activities and suggest the co-occurrence of both disturbance tolerant and sensitive species. Our results show how little is known about the biodiversity of Cretan phorophytes and highlights the need for further research on the topic.
This article explores the political and discursive framing of the emerging project Holocaust Museum of Greece (HMG) based in Thessaloniki (announced in 2013). As an “in situ” Holocaust museum, the HMG could represent an important step toward recognizing Jewish suffering in a country where—compared with the rest of Europe—unprecedentedly high levels of antisemitic attitudes have been recorded over the past decade. Supported by a qualitative media analysis and supplemented with data from our online survey, we explore how HMG stakeholders and potential local visitors reflect on the project. Occurring amid contemporary endeavors in Holocaust commemoration and Greek-German reconciliation, we connect it with their persistence in combating far-right tendencies and antisemitism. Specifically, we investigate whose memory HMG stakeholders aim to display, how they reflect on dominant Greek historical narratives and whether they express a clear memory commitment and a genuine effort to produce a more integrated historical interpretation of the Holocaust in Greece.
This chapter is concerned with Germany’s stand on State responsibility and liability. Regarding the former, the German position on State responsibility in the context of arms exports to Yemen is explored. Germany’s reading of the Nicaragua judgment is found to be both unnecessary and incorrect. Further, Germany’s differentiation between ‘bearing responsibility’ and ‘being responsible’ is assessed as being well founded in the context of a missile attack carried out on Saudi Arabia. Concerning the dispute with Greece on war reparations stemming from the two World Wars, Germany’s rejection of claims of reparations, grounded in the opinion that twhe issue is settled, is presented and discussed.
Chapter 1 situates the reader within the landscape of Blackness in the twenty-first century. In addition to laying out the task at hand (untangling representations of blackness in Greek antiquity), this chapter underlines the dangerous consequences that occur when scholars conflate modern tropes with ancient material.
How should articulations of blackness from the fifth century BCE to the twenty-first century be properly read and interpreted? This important and timely new book is the first concerted treatment of black skin color in the Greek literature and visual culture of antiquity. In charting representations in the Hellenic world of black Egyptians, Aithiopians, Indians, and Greeks, Sarah Derbew dexterously disentangles the complex and varied ways in which blackness has been co-produced by ancient authors and artists; their readers, audiences, and viewers; and contemporary scholars. Exploring the precarious hold that race has on skin coloration, the author uncovers the many silences, suppressions, and misappropriations of blackness within modern studies of Greek antiquity. Shaped by performance studies and critical race theory alike, her book maps out an authoritative archaeology of blackness that reappraises its significance. It offers a committedly anti-racist approach to depictions of black people while rejecting simplistic conflations or explanations.
This Chapter provides an illustration of the trends and dynamics discussed in the previous chapters through a comprehensive and contextualised examination of the specific, but paradigmatic, Greek debt crisis, arguing that, in this case as well, both the responses devised by national and supranational institutions, and their scrutiny by some human rights monitoring bodies in particular, seem to reflect an increasingly neoliberalised conception of human rights and of the debt-ESR relationship
This book offers a distinctive critical discussion of the relationship between sovereign debt and socio-economic human rights in the context of the contemporary global neoliberal economic order, going beyond strictly 'post-crisis' approaches and emphasising the structural character and consistent growth of public and private indebtedness. It reflects on the implications of mounting debt for the actual ability of States to realise human rights in a world of escalating indebtedness, inequality and insecurity. It expands existing definitions of neoliberalism by reflecting in particular on neoliberalism's epistemological underpinnings, and provides a comprehensive and systematic analysis of the 2009 Greek debt crisis and the main elements of post-crisis developments in international and EU law, arguing that the 'neoliberalisation of law' has essentially been advanced in the wake of the Eurozone debt crisis.
The Republic of Cyprus was founded on bi-communality: it is a unitary state with a single citizenship, but the state is divided on the basis of nationality into two communities, a Greek majority and a Turkish minority. The constitutional breakdown of 1964, the Turkish invasion of 1974, and the subsequent refusal of the Turkish community to participate in the institutions of the state have given rise to a number of unique problems of citizenship and nationality. Turkish Cypriots remain citizens of the Republic of Cyprus, a state that they refuse to recognize, while at the same time residing within a political entity (North Cyprus) that the international community does not recognize. The interplay between citizenship and national descent in the peculiar situation of Cyprus offers an ideal case study for exploring the concept and boundaries of citizenship and its relationship to the concept of nationality.
In Isis in a Global Empire, Lindsey Mazurek explores the growing popularity of Egyptian gods and its impact on Greek identity in the Roman Empire. Bringing together archaeological, art historical, and textual evidence, she demonstrates how the diverse devotees of gods such as Isis and Sarapis considered Greek ethnicity in ways that differed significantly from those of the Greek male elites whose opinions have long shaped our understanding of Roman Greece. These ideas were expressed in various ways - sculptures of Egyptian deities rendered in a Greek style, hymns to Isis that grounded her in Greek geography and mythology, funerary portraits that depicted devotees dressed as Isis, and sanctuaries that used natural and artistic features to evoke stereotypes of the Nile. Mazurek's volume offers a fresh, material history of ancient globalization, one that highlights the role that religion played in the self-identification of provincial Romans and their place in the Mediterranean world.
Very few data are available regarding the association of adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MeDi) with Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) evolution over time. A cohort of 939 cognitively normal individuals reporting self-experienced, persistent cognitive decline not attributed to neurological, psychiatric or medical disorders from the Hellenic Epidemiological Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD study) was followed-up for a mean period of 3·10 years. We defined our SCD score as the number of reported SCD domains (memory, language, visuoperceptual and executive), ranging from 0 to 4. Dietary intake at baseline was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire; adherence to the MeDi pattern was evaluated through the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) that ranged from 0 to 55, with higher values indicating greater adherence to the MeDi. The mean SCD score in our cohort increased by 0·20 cognitive domains during follow-up. After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, we showed that an MDS higher by 10 points was associated with a 7% reduction in the progression of SCD within one year. In terms of food groups, every additional vegetable serving consumption per day was associated with a 2·2% reduction in SCD progression per year. Our results provide support to the notion that MeDi may have a protective role against the whole continuum of cognitive decline, starting at the first subjective complaints. This finding may strengthen the role of the MeDi as a population-wide, cost-effective preventive strategy targeting the modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline.
The American Women’s Hospitals was an all-women, all-physician, all-American organization. These women, as civilizational and racist as their male colleagues, were brave to the point of setting up a quarantine island in Macronissi. They continued health relief and public health work up until the late 1930s. Their work is little-known and adds a gender dimension to the interwar humanitarianism, which is sometimes forgotten by historians.
Greece was the theater of international humanitarian actions before the events of the summer of 1922. The defeat of the Greek army, the forced expulsion of Ottoman Christians, and the massive voluntary flight of hundreds of other Christians created a serious humanitarian crisis. The international community reacted slowly and older forms of charity helped out distressed civilian populations.
Tyranny’s lengthy history in European debate lends itself to a linear narrative, and this chapter inserts, into that frame, debates over tyranny from archaic Greece to the contemporary era. Linearity often presents a false picture of continuity, progression and coherence, none of which can be bestowed upon tyranny. Rather, there are controversies and contingencies: the rise and fall of empires, the emergence of the Catholic Church, colonialism, constitutionalism, democracy and individual and collective roles contribute to contemporary tyranny’s complexity. Progressing through a history of Western thought – including its imperialism – highlights how changing attitudes towards governance affected accounts of tyranny. This account reveals how Roman hatred of monarchs, attitudes towards gender, the invention of race, the emergence of contemporary democracy and consequent concerns over majority tyranny demonstrate a consistent concern built into a European tyrannical theory subsequently projected onto the rest of the world.
The dimensions of funding and healthcare provision are combined with each other. From the intersection of these two dimensions, four families of healthcare systems stand out: two large ones (each containing a dozen countries) and two smaller ones. The two larger families reflect the traditional contrast between "Bismarck" systems and "Beveridge" systems. One of the two largest families is, in fact, made up of the Social Health Insurance countries in that all these countries have a separate provision system. The other larger family is made up of integrated universalist systems (NHS countries). The two smaller families are made up, respectively, of countries that have a separated universalist system and countries that adopt the mandatory residence insurance model. The latter all have a separated delivery system. From the four families just outlined, three countries are excluded: Greece, Israel and the United States can be considered as “outliers.”
Chapter Five: Imperial Creations (192–284 CE) investigates the outcome of these negotiations between the citizens and their imperial overlords, as the balance of Roman involvement in Antioch shifted from provincial to imperial in an increasingly unstable climate. Antioch was not yet a completely imperially governed city, as the civic administration retained a visible degree of agency and still presented itself as a distinct body. Even so, the Antiochians were forced to adjust under intensified Roman rule as the imperial government exploited the city’s resources and interrupted civic operations.
Chapter Three: Imperial Transitions (129 BCE–31 BCE) clarifies that it was the civic body that outlasted the fall of the Seleucid Empire and weathered Roman annexation. For much of this transitional period, the dysfunction of the final Seleucid kings and the subsequent hands-off attitude of the Roman generals and governors present within the city and Levant allowed or forced the Antiochians into managing their own internal affairs. In the early years of Roman rule in particular, it is difficult to claim that Antioch served as a provincial capital, because so much of the city was defined by the far more restricted authority of the citizens themselves.