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Web Journal Club as a collaborative learning method, is an effective method to enhance the knowledge base of nursing students, their presentation skills, problem-solving skills and ability to critically appraise literature.
To describe the experience of a online journal club on education of MHN undergraduate students.
We implemented a journal club in the online classroom with a total of 24 portuguese undergraduate students enrolled in clinical training of MHN (sixth semester). Over a two-week period, five 2-hour online journal club sessions were conducted in April 2020. During each session, five journal articles were presented synchronously to a live online audience via the Zoom Classroom technology. After all sessions, students were invited by e-mail to complete an anonymous and voluntary online questionnaire via Google Forms.
All students were all very positive about the journal club sessions and found the opportunity to discuss and reflect on practice issues in depth very helpful. They found the sessions supportive, they helped to bond the group, they learnt a great deal from each others experiences, and they felt that they gained in confidence as a group. Survey results also indicated that few participants experienced technical difficulties during sessions.
This pedagogical practice enhances gains in the various actors involved: 1) in students, contributing to their learning process and acquisition of competences, articulating research and clinical practice; and 2) lastly, even more indirectly, in people receiving care, since a evidence-based practice ensures safe and quality of nursing care delivery.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander holistic health represents the interconnection of social, emotional, spiritual and cultural factors on health and well-being. Social factors (education, employment, housing, transport, food and financial security) are internationally described and recognised as the social determinants of health. The social determinants of health are estimated to contribute to 34% of the overall burden of disease experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Primary health care services currently ‘do what it takes’ to address social and emotional well-being needs, including the social determinants of health, and require culturally relevant tools and processes for implementing coordinated and holistic responses. Drawing upon a research-setting pilot program, this manuscript outlines key elements encapsulating a strengths-based approach aimed at addressing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander holistic social and emotional well-being.
The Cultural Pathways Program is a response to community identified needs, designed and led by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and informed by holistic views of health. The program aims to identify holistic needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people as the starting point to act on the social determinants of health. Facilitators implement strengths-based practice to identify social and cultural needs (e.g. cultural and community connection, food and financial security, housing, mental health, transport), engage in a goal setting process and broker connections with social and health services. An integrated culturally appropriate clinical supervision model enhances delivery of the program through reflective practice and shared decision making. These embedded approaches enable continuous review and improvement from a program and participant perspective. A developmental evaluation underpins program implementation and the proposed culturally relevant elements could be further tailored for delivery within primary health care services as part of routine care to strengthen systematic identification and response to social and emotional well-being needs.
The vaginal mesh scandal, in which thousands of women were irreversibly maimed by polypropylene mesh, revealed multilevel failures in medical device regulation and implantation, demonstrating that patient-centric care has not yet fully transcended from policy into practice. In law, informed consent is considered by a two-stage test: reasonable treatment and patient information disclosure. The standard of reasonable treatment is determined according to what is deemed acceptable in accordance with a body of medical opinion. However, such bodies of medical opinion were vulnerable to external influence from device manufactures. Vaginal mesh manufacturers were found to have had financial links to research, royal colleges, and influential clinicians, which then influenced the basis of the evidence-based practice that often guides such bodies of medical opinion. According to the Independent Medicines and Medical Device Safety Report, patients’ mesh complications were also frequently under-reported and patient-based evidence of harm disregarded. Patients were also not sufficiently informed of the material risks or reasonable alternatives to mesh, which is required of the second stage of informed consent pertaining to information disclosure. This paper makes the following recommendations: that conflict of interest disclosure be mandated, that greater value be afforded to patient-based evidence to improve evaluation of treatments, and that information disclosure for informed consent should relate to the risks, benefits, and alternatives to the surgical procedure and medical device. This will ensure that patients can evaluate whether surgeons are offering unbiased treatment options and are also informed of the potential long-term risks associated with device implantation.
Evidence syntheses of all types have their foundation in literature searches. Literature searching is developing in line with the growing use of evidence synthesis and is also informed, as a field of work, by the spirit of being evidence-based. Increasing numbers of research papers about information retrieval are being published, and keeping up to date with the latest developments in this ever more wide-ranging field is demanding.
Summarized Research in Information Retrieval for HTA (SuRe Info) is a Web site (http://www.sure-info.org) that summarizes research-based information on effective and efficient evidence identification for the different aspects of health technology assessment (HTA) and evidence synthesis. This paper describes the rationale, processes, and challenges of producing SuRe Info and insights into the pace of development in the field of evidence-based information retrieval. The paper also provides scenarios suggesting how SuRe Info can help searchers in their daily work and with specific questions.
SuRe Info currently comprises seventeen chapters, falling into two categories: (i) chapters about general search methods relating to all types of research and (ii) chapters summarizing the methods to use when searching for specific aspects of HTA (as defined in the HTA Core Model® by the European Network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA)).
SuRe Info is not a substitute for methods handbooks, but by providing an overview of current research evidence for major issues in information retrieval in HTA, it helps searchers in this field to keep abreast of the latest research.
To determine clinical consensus and non-consensus in regard to evidence-based statements about feeding infants with complex CHD, with a focus on human milk. Areas of non-consensus may indicate discrepancies between research findings and practice, with consequent variation in feeding management.
Materials and Methods:
A modified Delphi survey validated key feeding topics (round 1), and determined consensus on evidence-based statements (rounds 2 and 3). Patients (n=25) were an interdisciplinary group of clinical experts from across the United States of America. Descriptive analysis used SPSS Statistics (Version 26.0). Thematic analysis of qualitative data provided context for quantitative data.
Round 1 generated 5 key topics (human milk, developing oral feeding skills, clinical feeding practice, growth failure, and parental concern about feeding) and 206 evidence-based statements. The final results included 110 (53.4%) statements of consensus and 96 (46.6%) statements of non-consensus. The 10 statements of greatest consensus strongly supported human milk as the preferred nutrition for infants with complex CHD. Areas of non-consensus included the adequacy of human milk to support growth, need for fortification, safety, and feasibility of direct breastfeeding, issues related to tube feeding, and prevention and treatment of growth failure.
The results demonstrate clinical consensus about the importance of human milk, but reveal a need for best practices in managing a human milk diet for infants with complex CHD. Areas of non-consensus may lead to clinical practice variation. A sensitive approach to these topics is needed to support family caregivers in navigating feeding concerns.
There has been no evidence about the prescribing practices in psychiatric care in Eastern Europe.
To examine the patterns of psychotropic prescribing in five countries of Eastern Europe.
We conducted a one-day census of psychiatric treatments used in eight psychiatric hospitals in Albania, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and Romania. We examined clinical records and medication charts of 1304 patients.
The use of polypharmacy was frequent across all diagnostic groups. Only 6.8% of patients were on monotherapy. The mean number of prescribed drugs was 2.8 (SD 0.97) with 26.5% receiving two drugs, 42.1% receiving three drugs and 22.1% being prescribed four or more psychotropic drugs. Typical antipsychotics were prescribed to 63% and atypical antipsychotics to 40% of patients with psychosis. Older generations of antidepressants were prescribed to 29% of patients with depression. Anxiolitic drugs were prescribed to 20.4% and benzodiazepines to 68.5% of patients. One third of patients received an anticholinergic drug on a regular basis.
Older generation antipsychotics and antidepressants were used more frequently than in the countries of Western Europe. Psychotropic polypharmacy is a common practice. There is a need for adopting more evidence-based practice in psychiatric care in these countries.
We report results of an 8-year process of stakeholder engagement aimed at building capacity in Dissemination and Implementation (D&I) research at the University of Wisconsin as part of the National Institutes of Health’s Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Starting in 2008, annual individual interviews were held with leaders of the Wisconsin CTSA’s community engagement core for strategic planning purposes. Interviews were followed by annual planning meetings that employed a facilitated group decision-making process aimed at identifying and prioritizing gaps in the translational research spectrum. In 2011, the stakeholder engagement process identified D&I as a primary gap limiting overall impact of the institution’s research across the translational spectrum. Since that time, our CTSA has created an array of D&I resources falling into four broad categories: (1) relationship building with D&I partners, (2) D&I skill building, (3) translational research resources, and (4) resources to support D&I activities. Our systematic process of stakeholder engagement has increased the impact of research by providing D&I resources to meet investigator and community needs. CTSAs could engage with leaders of their community engagement cores, which are common to all CTSAs, to adapt or adopt these resources to build D&I capacity.
Distress intolerance has been suggested to be a maintaining factor in several mental health conditions. Distress tolerance skills training has been found to be beneficial in emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Short-term targeted interventions are increasingly being implemented in response to demand. This study investigates the efficacy of a distress tolerance brief psychological intervention (DT BPI) delivered by non-psychologists within an adult secondary care mental health service. Questionnaire data (pre and post) are reported from 43 participants who completed the intervention. Results suggest that the intervention was associated with significant improvements in distress tolerance, mood, anxiety and wellbeing. This indicates that a DT BPI can be effective when delivered by non-psychologists to real-world adult secondary care clients. The findings offer promising evidence that DT BPI could be a beneficial, cost-effective intervention and warrants further large-scale investigation.
Key learning aims
(1) To enhance practitioners’ awareness of distress intolerance as a potential maintaining factor and therefore treatment target.
(2) To outline a transdiagnostic distress tolerance brief psychological intervention.
(3) To illustrate the potential of this distress tolerance brief psychological intervention to produce positive reliable change with real-world clients when delivered by non-psychologists.
Exposure therapy is consistently indicated as the first-line treatment for anxiety-related disorders. Unfortunately, therapists often deliver exposure therapy in an overly cautious, less effective manner, characterized by using their own ‘therapist safety behaviours’. Cognitive behavioural models postulate that beliefs about therapist safety behaviours are related to their use; however, little is known about the beliefs therapists hold regarding therapist safety behaviour use. The present study aimed to identify the beliefs exposure therapists have regarding the necessity of therapist safety behaviours and to examine the relationship between this construct and therapist safety behaviour use. Australian psychologists (n = 98) completed an online survey that included existing measures of therapist safety behaviour use, therapist negative beliefs about exposure therapy, likelihood to exclude anxious clients from exposure therapy, and use of intensifying exposure techniques. Participants also completed the Exposure Implementation Beliefs Scale (EIBS), a measure created for the present study which assesses beliefs regarding the necessity of therapist safety behaviours. Beliefs about the necessity of therapist safety behaviours – particularly in protecting the client – significantly predicted therapist safety behaviour use. Findings suggest that exposure therapy training media should aim to decrease therapist safety behaviour use by addressing beliefs about the necessity of therapist safety behaviours, especially in protecting the client.
Key learning aims
(1) To understand what therapist safety behaviours are in the context of exposure therapy.
(2) To identify common beliefs about therapist safety behaviours.
(3) To understand how beliefs about therapist safety behaviours relate to therapist safety behaviour use.
(4) To consider how exposure therapy delivery may be improved by modifying beliefs about therapist safety behaviours.
(5) To explore how beliefs about therapist safety behaviours may be modified to reduce therapist safety behaviour use.
Consultation with children is a delicate art, and consultation with vulnerable children, even more so. Experienced clinicians believe best practice in undertaking such work requires tertiary studies in social work or psychology combined with extensive supervised clinical experience. The current pathways to becoming a children’s lawyer in the Northern Territory do not involve mandatory training in child well-being, and yet lawyers are asked to consult with highly traumatised children and bring the voices of children into the courtroom. Lawyers for young children are additionally required to provide an opinion as to what they believe to be in the best interests of the child, without a social work or psychology-based qualification, training or in-depth guidelines to support their position. This article looks at what the law says about child consultation, what child development research says about child consultation and child consultation in practice in a Northern Territory child protection setting. At its conclusion, the author discusses potential pathways forward for lawyers and clinicians to work together in safe practices of child consultation.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is the most efficacious and effective psychological intervention for treating anxiety disorders. Behavioural techniques, in particular exposure-based techniques, are fundamental to positive outcomes. However, research suggests that these techniques are either not used or are under-used when treating anxiety disorders. This study assesses therapists’ reported use of CBT techniques in the treatment of anxiety disorders, and explores which therapist variables influence technique use. A total of 173 CBT therapists completed measures on their demographics, routine therapy practices in treating anxiety disorders, and internal states (e.g. self-esteem). These data were analysed to see how often therapists employed particular techniques and the correlates of the use of those techniques. Behavioural techniques (e.g. exposure) were the least utilized set of core CBT skills, being used less often than non-CBT techniques. The under-utilization of these key techniques was associated with greater levels of increased inhibitory anxiety amongst therapists. Supervision and therapists’ self-esteem were both positively associated with the use of non-CBT techniques. While this study established what CBT therapists purport to use in routine practice with anxious populations, further research is needed to assess the association between adherence (or lack thereof) and client outcomes, and the factors that drive non-adherence.
Key learning aims
As a result of reading this paper, the reader should:
(1) Learn about what psychotherapists report as occurring in routine care for individuals with anxiety and related disorders.
(2) Know the potential therapist traits that influence the use of CBT techniques.
(3) Gain knowledge to help explain to clients why previous therapy may not have been effective.
(4) Develop a richer understanding of what factors may influence their own therapeutic practice.
Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in its current form might not be applicable in non-Western cultures. Differences between Western and non-Western cultures have been reported widely. Most psychotherapeutic interventions have been developed in the West and are underpinned by the values that might be specific only to Western culture. To adapt CBT, we need to understand whether the concepts associated with CBT may conflict with cultural beliefs, identifying barriers to the success of the therapy using the views of experts by experience, public and practitioners. This paper discusses the process, foci and framework of cultural adaptation of CBT. We describe an evidence-based framework for adapting CBT for individuals from non-Western cultures that will benefit clinicians who practise CBT and individuals from different cultural backgrounds.
Many psychological therapies help clients to direct and sustain their awareness onto specific aspects of their problems to promote change. Yet, no theory-driven measure exists that can code moment-by-moment changes in awareness during a therapy session. It is known that awareness plays a crucial role in the process of change, but little is known about the underlying core processes. Perceptual Control Theory (PCT) offers a scientific explanation of psychological distress as loss of control and describes the role of awareness in processes responsible for restoring control by resolving any internal conflict. The Depth and Duration of Awareness Coding Scheme (D-DACS) was previously developed to capture the person’s current focus of awareness and its duration on the areas that from a PCT point of view are desirable in order to facilitate effective psychological change. The current research applies D-DACS to code three publicly available Method of Levels (MOL) therapy sessions delivered by an expert therapist and presents a visual representation of the client’s presumed attention in these sessions. The results showed that an average of 61.65% of the client’s attention was focused on the D-DACS areas, which is higher than the previous studies involving novel therapists. The produced visual representation of the clients’ presumed attention helps to examine the utility of this new coding scheme and further examine the validity of the underlying theory. Such work might help in examining effectiveness of therapy in meeting the underlying theoretical foundations of change. However, limitations and areas for improvement are also evident.
Key learning aims
(1) To provide a rationale for the use of observer-rated measures of within-session processes involved in therapeutic change.
(2) To describe the desired focus of the client’s awareness in order to facilitate effective psychological change as described by Perceptual Control Theory.
(3) To use an earlier validated scheme to code the depth and duration of awareness of three clients in best practice videos of Method of Levels psychotherapy.
(4) To present and test the feasibility of a visual representation of moment-to-moment changes in a client’s awareness in a therapy session.
This paper is clinical practice-based, and examines the Greek cultural linguistic schema of Politeness Plural in the application of the Schema Therapy mode model. The philosophical principles of Schema Therapy and the importance the model ascribes on creating a warm therapist–client relationship as a pre-requisite for schema healing are discussed. We further explore the need for the therapist to be culturally sensitive to the linguistic use of Politeness Plural in Greek-speaking populations. We are looking into the reasons of why, whilst culturally sensitive, a schema therapist needs to remain inquisitive of potential maladaptive and/or internalized dysfunctional coping mechanisms of inter-relating that are masked by the use of the Politeness Plural linguistic schema. The implications the cultural linguistic schema of Politeness Plural can have in the therapy outcome are considered. Specifically, we argue that holding on to the Politeness Plural cultural linguistic schema may reinforce emotional distancing and compromise schema healing. The authors identify the need for more research to further understand the issues that are raised in this article. Although the focus of the article is on Greek populations, the matters under consideration may be valuable to other cultures.
To appraise and synthesize empirical literature on implementation of evidence within community nursing. To explore the use of implementation theory and identify the strategies required for, and the barriers and facilitators to, successful implementation within this context.
There is an international consensus that evidence-based practice can improve outcomes for people using health and social care services. However, these practices are not always translated into care delivery. Community nursing is a relatively understudied area; little is known about how innovations in practice are implemented within this setting.
Systematic mixed-studies review, synthesizing quantitative and qualitative research. The electronic databases AMED, PsycINFO, Ovid Medline, CINAHL Plus, ASSIA, British Nursing Index and EMBASE were used. Two grey literature databases were also searched: OpenGrey and EThOS. English language, peer-reviewed papers published between January 2010 and July 2017 were considered. Criteria included implementation of an innovation and change to practice within adult community nursing. An approach called Critical Interpretive Synthesis was used to integrate the evidence from across the studies into a comprehensible theoretical framework.
In total, 22 papers were reviewed. Few studies discussed the use of theory when planning, guiding and evaluating the implementation of the innovation (n=6). A number of implementation strategies, facilitators and barriers were identified across the included studies, highlighting the interplay of both service context and individual factors in successful implementation.
Implementation is an expanding area of research; yet is challenged by a lack of consistency in terminology and limited use of theory. Implementation within community nursing is a complex process, requiring both individual and organizational adoption, and managerial support. Successful adoption of evidence-based practice however, is only possible if community nurses themselves deem it useful and there is evidence that it could have a positive impact on the patient and/or their primary carer.
The impact of disasters and large-scale crises continues to increase around the world. To mitigate the potential disasters that confront humanity in the new millennium, an evidence-informed approach to disaster management is needed. This study provides the platform for such an evidence-informed approach by identifying peer-reviewed disaster management publications from 1947 through July 2017.
Peer-reviewed disaster management publications were identified using a comprehensive search of: MEDLINE (US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA); CINAHL (EBSCO Information Services; Ipswich, Massachusetts USA); EMBASE (Elsevier; Amsterdam, Netherlands); PsychInfo (American Psychological Association; Washington DC, USA); and the Cochrane Library (The Cochrane Collaboration; Oxford, United Kingdom).
A total of 9,433 publications were identified. The publications were overwhelmingly descriptive (74%) while 18% of publications reported the use of a quantitative methodology and eight percent used qualitative methodologies. Only eight percent of these publications were classified as being high-level evidence. The publications were published in 918 multi-disciplinary journals. The journal Prehospital and Disaster Medicine (World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine; Madison, Wisconsin USA) published the greatest number of disaster-management-related publications (9%). Hurricane Katrina (2005; Gulf Coast USA) had the greatest number of disaster-specific publications, followed by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks (New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania USA). Publications reporting on the application of objective evaluation tools or frameworks were growing in number.
The “science” of disaster management is spread across more than 900 different multi-disciplinary journals. The existing evidence-base is overwhelmingly descriptive and lacking in objective, post-disaster evaluations.
SmithEC, BurkleFMJr, AitkenP, LeggattP. Seven Decades of Disasters: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(4):418–423
Evidence-based practice (EBP), which is commonly implemented in high-income countries (HICs), integrates the best research evidence, clinical expertise and patient preferences in the planning and provision of healthcare for both physical and mental health conditions. Although the same principles of EBP apply in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), research into and implementation of such interventions in these countries remains significantly behind compared with HICs. This article presents a brief overview of the global mental health agenda and initiatives aiming to address this pressing gap through the promotion of research and scaling up services, identification of barriers to developing and implementing EBP in LMICs, and possible solutions to overcome them.
Introduction: Translating research evidence into routine clinical practice in emergency departments (EDs) often requires changing the behavior(s) of one or more member of the healthcare team. Changing strongly entrenched behavior patterns or occasional behaviors that are impacted by psychological, social or environmental factors can be challenging. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify implementation strategies that have been evaluated to change ED provider behavior and promote the uptake of evidence in emergency practice settings. Methods: The following databases were systematically searched from inception to 2017 with the support of a library scientist: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase and Cochrane CENTRAL. We also manually searched the last 5 years of Annals of Emergency Medicine, Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine, and Implementation Science. Studies were assessed by two independent reviewers and retained if they included one or more of the implementation strategies listed in the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care (EPOC) Taxonomy, targeted any health care provider working in any type of emergency department. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess study quality. Results: Following review of 13,000 title and abstracts, 33 studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of included studies were randomized control trials (N=32) and 50% were published in the last seven years. Although poorly described, interventions targeted either physicians (n=12), nurses (n=8), pharmacists (n=1) or multi-disciplinary teams (n=12). Common behavioral targets included compliance with practice guidelines, test ordering and prescribing. According to the EPOC Taxonomy most implementation strategies were multi-component and could be categorized as either educational materials/meetings and/or reminders. Only one study author reported using evidence to inform the design of the implementation strategy. Effect sizes varied across relevant study outcomes but the direction of effect was positive in 22/33 included studies. Heterogeneity of study interventions and outcomes precluded meta-analysis. Conclusion: To strengthen the evidence base regarding implementation strategies that promote provider behavior change across different ED contexts, there is a critical need to improve both the design and reporting of implementation strategies in ED research.
Recent developments have led the UK government to deem clinical supervision ‘essential’ to a safe and effective national health service. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) supervision has been increasingly operationalized and manualized, but there are few psychometrically sound observational instruments with which to measure CBT supervision. This paper reports the factor analysis of a promising 23-item instrument for observing competence in CBT supervision (Supervision: Adherence and Guidance Evaluation: SAGE). N =115 qualified mental health practitioners (supervisors and their supervisees) rated the same supervision session by completing SAGE. A principal components analysis indicated that a two-factor solution, identified as the ‘Supervision Cycle’ and the ‘Supervisee Cycle’ components, accounted for 52.8% of the scale variance and also demonstrated high internal reliability (α = .91 and α = .81, respectively). These findings provide the basis for a shorter, 14-item version of SAGE, clarify the factor structure of SAGE, ease implementation, and afford more succinct feedback. Short-SAGE also improves implementation yield, taking half the time to complete as the original 23-item scale. These conceptual and practical improvements strengthen the role of SAGE as a promising observational instrument for evaluating CBT supervision, complementing self-report assessments of competent CBT supervision with an instrument that can fulfil the distinctive functions that are provided through direct observation.