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To comprehensively study the physical properties of inductively coupled plasma (ICP), a finite element method (FEM) simulation model of ICP is developed using the well-established COMSOL software. To benchmark the validation of the FEM model, two key physical parameters, the electron density and the electron temperature of the ICP plasma, are precisely measured by the state-of-the-art laser Thomson scattering diagnostic approach. For low-pressure plasma such as ICP, the local pressure in the generator tube is difficult to measure directly. The local gas pressure in the ICP tube has been calibrated by comparing the experimental and simulation results of the maximum electron density. And on this basis, the electron density and electron temperature of ICP under the same gas pressure and absorbed power have been compared by experiments and simulations. The good agreement between the experimental and simulation data of these two key physical parameters fully verifies the validity of the ICP FEM simulation model. The experimental verification of the ICP FEM simulation model lays a foundation for further study of the distribution of various physical quantities and their variation with pressure and absorption power, which is beneficial for improving the level of ICP-related processes.
Dye-sensitized solar cells consistently provide a cost-effective avenue for sources of renewable energy, primarily due to their unique utilization of nanoporous semiconductors. Through mathematical modelling, we are able to uncover insights into electron transport to optimize the operating efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells. In particular, fractional diffusion equations create a link between electron density and porosity of the nanoporous semiconductors. We numerically solve a fractional diffusion model using a finite-difference method and a finite-element method to discretize space and an implicit finite-difference method to discretize time. Finally, we calculate the accuracy of each method by evaluating the numerical errors under grid refinement.
In this study, we have spectroscopically investigated the plasma generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at its fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm focused on magnesium (Mg) and titanium (Ti) target samples in the air under atmospheric pressure. We employed circular cavities of radii (2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 mm) and a square cavity to investigate the cavity confinement effect on the spectral emission intensities of the plasmas. We observed that the circular cavity of radius 2.5 mm had the maximum signal enhancement, and this can be attributed to the compression of the plasma and reheating by the reflected shock waves. The maximum enhancement factor of the Mg I-518.4 nm line was reached at approximately 3.8, 3.4, and 2.8 with a circular cavity of radius 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 mm, respectively, at a delay time of 350 ns and a laser energy of 350 mJ. By applying varying external magnetic fields (0.47, 0.62, 0.91, and 1.23 T) across the generated plasma, the plasma parameters such as electron temperature and number density have been investigated. From our results, we observed that the radius of the cavity had a tremendous effect on the enhancement of the emission signal intensities. We also found that the increase in the electron temperature and the number density can be attributed to the increase in the applied magnetic field and the laser energy. From our calculations, the value of β, which was less than 1 for all the cases, confirms that there was a plasma confinement at the presence of the magnetic field.
The effect of magnetic field on the plasma parameters and surface modification of Cu-alloy has been investigated. For this purpose, we have employed Nd: YAG laser at various irradiances ranging from 1.9 to 5 GW/cm2 to irradiate Cu-alloy under 5 torr pressure of argon, neon, and helium. The evaluated values of excitation temperature (Texc) and electron number density (ne) of Cu-alloy plasma explored by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique are higher in the presence of 1.1 Tesla magnetic field as compared with field-free case. It is true at all irradiances as well as under all environmental conditions. It is also found that trends of both Texc and ne are increasing with increasing laser irradiance from 1.9 to 4.4 GW/cm2. For the highest used irradiance 5 GW/cm2, the decrease in both parameters is observed. The analytically calculated values of thermal beta, directional beta, confinement radius, and diffusion time for laser-irradiated Cu-alloy plasma confirm the validity of magnetic confinement. Scanning electron microscope analysis is utilized to study the surface modifications of laser-irradiated Cu samples and reveals the formation of islands, craters, cones, and droplets. The finer-scale surface structures are grown in case of magnetic. It is also revealed Texc and ne play a substantial part in the growth of surface structures on Cu-alloy.
This paper reports the measurement of the energy loss of protons at the energy of 100 keV penetrating a partially ionized hydrogen plasma. The plasma of ne ≈ 1015–16 cm−3; Te ≈ 1–2 eV and lifetime of about 8 µs is created by the hydrogen gas discharge. The experimental results show an increase of a factor of 2.8 in the energy loss, which are in good agreement with the Bethe, Standard Stopping Model, Li–Petrasso and Vlasov models’ predictions within the error limit. The Bethe–Bloch Coulomb logarithm term is found to increase by a factor of 4.0 for free electrons as compared with the situation where bound electrons prevail. The potential application of protons energy loss for diagnosing the electron density in plasma is proposed too.
LASER induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used for the quantitative analysis of Cu–Ni alloy of known composition (75% Cu, 25% Ni) using the one line calibration free-LIBS (OLCF-LIBS), self-calibration-LIBS (SC-LIBS), calibration free LIBS (CF-LIBS), time of flight-mass spectroscopy (TOF-MS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). For the LIBS-based studies, the plasma was generated by focusing the beam of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, pulse energy about 200 mJ, 5 ns pulse duration) while the sample was placed in air at an atmospheric pressure. Plasma temperature about (9500 ± 300) K was calculated by the Boltzmann plot method using the neutral lines of Cu and Ni whereas the electron number density was calculated (2.0 ± 0.5) × 1016 cm−3 from the Stark broadening of an isolated Cu line as well as using the relative intensities of the neutral and singly ionized optically thin lines in the Saha–Boltzmann equation. The elemental compositions determined by different LIBS methods and standard techniques are; OLCF-LIBS (69% Cu and 31% Ni), SC-LIBS (72% Cu and 28% Ni), CF-LIBS (74% Cu and 26% Ni), TOF (74% Cu and 26% Ni), EDX (75% Cu and 24.5% Ni), XRF (73% Cu and 24.7% Ni), and LA-TOF (74% Cu and 26% Ni). It is demonstrated that the CF-LIBS method gives compositions comparable with that determined by LA-TOF, EDX, or XRF, which is also in agreement with the certified reported composition.
The influence of nature and pressure of ambient environment on the surface modification, plasma parameters, hardness, and corrosion resistance of Mg-alloy has been investigated. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns, 25 mJ) at a fluence of 1.3 J cm−2 has been employed as an irradiation source. Targets of Mg-alloy were exposed in the ambient environments of argon (Ar), neon (Ne), and helium (He) at pressures ranging from 5 to 760 Torr. Scanning electron microscope has been employed to investigate the surface morphology of the irradiated targets. It reveals the formation of cavities, cones, droplets, ripples, and islands on the surface of the irradiated sample. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique was employed to measure electron temperature (Te) and electron number density (Ne) of Mg-alloy. The value of electron temperature ranges from 6628 to 12,855 K, whereas the value of electron number density varies from 5.4 × 1017 to 19.2 × 1017 cm−3. The maximum Te and Ne are observed in Ar and minimum in case of He. It was also revealed that both the surface morphology and plasma parameters are strongly dependent upon nature and pressure of environmental gases. The maxima of Te is achieved at a pressure of 10 Torr for all the three ambient environments that is, Ar, Ne, and He; whereas maxima of Ne is achieved at different pressures, that is, at 760 Torr for Ar, at 200 Torr for Ne, and at 50 Torr for He. The hardness and corrosion resistance of irradiated Mg-alloy have been explored using Vickers Micro-hardness tester and Potentio-dynamic polarization technique, respectively. It was investigated that as compared with un-irradiated target, the hardness as well as corrosion resistance of the laser-irradiated target has been increased significantly in all environments. Plasma parameters, mechanical, and electrical properties of laser-irradiated Mg-alloy have been correlated with induced surface modifications and are strongly influenced by environmental conditions.
In the paper, nonlinear structure of electromagnetic field, electron temperature, and electron density in interaction with relativistic laser and collisional underdense rippled plasma are investigated. The results are shown that due to the combination influence of relativistic effect, ohmic heating and plasma density ripple, electromagnetic field profile presents obvious asynchronism, which the peak of electric field run ahead of the peak of magnetic field. Furthermore, the electromagnetic field profiles show obvious non-sinusoidal, and the profile of electron temperature and density become highly peaked. Especially, compared with the previous work, due to the added influence of plasma density ripple, electromagnetic field, electron temperature and electron density present obvious oscillation along plasma length rather than stabilization amplitude, and their peak are out of sync.
In this work, we present the spectroscopic studies of the plasma generated at the surface of manganese sulfate by the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The 4s4p 4F7/2→ 4s 2H9/2 at 438.80 nm, 4p 2I11/2 → 4s22I11/2 at 440.80 nm, 4p 4G11/2 → 4s 2H9/2 at 464.27 nm, 4p 4F5/2→ 4s 4D7/2 at 467.16, 4p 4F5/2 → 4s24G 7/2 at 515.08 nm, and 4p 4F7/2 → 4s2 4G 9/2 at 519.65 nm transitions have been used to estimate the electron temperature through the Boltzmann plot method. The number density has been estimated from the Stark broadened profiles of the spectral line 348.30 nm. The spatial behavior of the electron temperature and number density has been examined at different ambient air pressures and with laser irradiance. The temperature and number density are found to be in the range from 9842 K to 9371 K and 1.58 × 1017 to 3.26 × 1016 cm−3 for the 1064 nm laser, from 9668 to 9297 K and 2.27 × 1017 to 5.79 × 1016 cm−3 for the 532 nm laser.
The effect of laser-irradiance on the surface morphology and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of zinc has been investigated by employing Nd:YAG laser (wavelength λ = 1064 nm, pulse duration t ~ 10 ns, and repetition rate = 10 Hz) under ambient environment of argon at a pressure of 20 Torr. For this purpose, zinc targets were exposed to various laser irradiances ranging from 13 GW/cm2 to 100 GW/cm2. Scanning electron microscope analysis has been performed to analyze the surface modification of irradiated zinc targets. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed the formation of various kinds of structures such as ripples, cones, cavities, and wave like ridges at the center and peripheral regions of ablated zinc. In the central ablated region with increasing laser irradiance, the growth of distinct and well defined ripples is observed. Further increase in irradiance makes the appearance of these ripples diffusive and narrow. In order to correlate the plasma parameters with the surface modification, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis has also been performed. The electron temperature and number density of zinc plasma have been evaluated at various laser irradiances. For both plasma parameters, an increasing trend up to a certain value of laser irradiance is observed which is due to enhanced energy deposition. Afterword a decreasing trend is achieved which is attributed to the shielding effect. With further increase in irradiance a saturation stage comes and almost no change in plasma parameters is observed. This saturation is explainable on the basis of the formation of a self-regulating regime near the target surface. A strong correlation between surface modification and plasma parameters is established.
A nanosecond pulsed Nd-Yag laser, operating at an intensity of about 109 W/cm2, was employed to irradiate different metallic solid targets (Al, Cu, Ta, W, and Au) in vacuum. The measured ablation yield increases with the direct current (dc) electrical conductivity of the irradiated target. The produced plasma was characterized in terms of thermal and Coulomb interaction evaluating the ion temperature and the ion acceleration voltage developed in the non-equilibrium plasma core. The particles emission produced along the normal to the target surface was investigated measuring the neutral and the ion energy distributions and fitting the experimental data with the “Coulomb-Boltzmann-shifted” function. Results indicate that the mean energy of the distributions and the equivalent ion acceleration voltage of the non-equilibrium plasma increase with the free electron density of the irradiated element.
Our recent experimental results demonstrate that the formation of plasma jets is a fundamental process accompanying the laser produced plasma expansion, if a massive planar target with relatively high atomic number is irradiated by a defocused laser beam. In this paper some new results on the influence of target irradiation conditions on plasma jet parameters are presented. The experiment was carried out at the PALS iodine laser facility, with the third harmonic beam of the pulse duration of 250 ps (FWHM). The beam energies varied in the range of 13–160 J, the focal spot radii in the range of 35–600 µm. The planar massive targets used in the experiment were made of Cu, Ag and Ta. For measurements of the electron density evolution a three frame interferometric system was employed. The jets were observed in the whole range of the laser energy used. The initial velocities of the plasma jets produced in the reported experiment reached the value of up to 7·107 cm/s, the jets were up to 4 mm long including the jet pedestal and about 400 µm in diameter. Calculations of the efficiency of the plasma jet production show that it decreases with increasing the laser energy.
Nowadays GPS is widely used to monitor the ionosphere. However, the current results from ground-based GPS observations only provide some information on the horizontal structure of the ionosphere, and are extremely restricted in mapping its vertical structure. In this paper, tomography reconstruction technique was used to image 3D ionospheric structure with ground-based GPS. The first result of the 3D images of the ionospheric electron density distribution in South Korea has been generated from the permanent Korean GPS Network (KGN) data. Compared with the profiles obtained by independent ionosondes at or near the GPS receiver stations, the electron density profiles obtained by the GPS tomographic construction method are in better agreement, showing the validity of the GPS ionospheric tomographic reconstruction. It has also indicated that GPS-based 3D ionospheric mapping has the potential to complement other expensive observing techniques in ionospheric mapping, such as ionosondes and radar.
The optical emission spectra of the plasma generated by a
1.06-μm Nd:YAG laser irradiation of Al target in air was
recorded and analyzed in a spatially resolved manner. Electron
temperatures and densities in the plasma were obtained using
the relative emission intensities and the Stark-broadened
linewidths of Al(I) emission lines, respectively. The dependence
of the electron density and temperature on the distance from
the target surface and on the laser irradiance were manifested.
We also discussed how the air takes part in the plasma evolution
process and confirmed that the ignition of the air plasma was
by the collisions between the energetic electrons and the nitrogen
atoms through a cascade avalanche process.
I first review the observables and optics of interstellar seeing associated with radio wave scattering in the interstellar medium. I then describe the Galactic distribution of electron density and its fluctuations, as inferred from a number of observables, including angular and pulse broadening, diffractive scintillations, and dispersion measures. Propects for improving the Galactic model are outlined.
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