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The aim of this study was to compare the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of delirium in patients treated in a clinical cardiology unit (CCU) and an oncological palliative care unit (OPCU) at a high-complexity institution.
Delirium is a neuropsychiatric syndrome with multicausal etiology, associated with increased morbidity and mortality.
This was a cross-sectional, analytical observational study. CCU and OPCU patients were evaluated for 480 days. The diagnosis was made according to DSM-V. Sociodemographic characteristics, the Karnofsky index, and the Charlson index were evaluated. Possible etiologies were verified. Severity was assessed with the Delirium Severity Scale (DRS-R98).
A total of 1,986 patients were evaluated, 205 were eligible, and 110 were included in the study (CCU: 61, OPCU: 49). Delirium prevalence was 11.35% in the CCU and 9.87% in the OPCU. CCU patients were 12 years older (p < 0.03) and a history of dementia (41 vs. 8.2%; p < 0.001). Organ failure was the most frequent etiology of delirium in the CCU (41.0%), and in the OPCU, the etiologies were neoplasms (28.6%), side effect of medication (22.4%), and infections (2.5%). Differences were found in the clinical characteristics of delirium evaluated by DRS-R98, with the condition being more severe and with a higher frequency of psychotic symptoms in OPCU patients.
Delirium was a common condition in hospitalized patients in the CCU and the OPCU. The clinical characteristics were similar in both groups; however, significant differences were found in OPCU patients in terms of age, personal history of dementia, and opioid use, as well as the severity of delirium and a greater association with psychotic symptoms. These findings have implications for the early implementation of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
Palliative care, an approach to care that improves the quality of life of patients and families, has rapidly become the standard of care for patients with serious illness in recent decades. A large body of quality evidence supports interprofessional palliative care delivery as a means to improve symptom control, mood, and communication and result in less aggressive treatment at the end of life. One large component of this palliative care is skilled, structured communications; meeting with patient, family, and other medical specialists involved with complex patient care. Additionally, focus on pain and symptom control requires a nuanced approach, especially in the older adult at higher risk of drug-related adverse events. Increasingly important to understand is the complexity in use and prescription of opioids. They have both intended and unintended consequences of use; both effective pain control in serious illness and diversion or misuse. Pain, nausea, vomiting, dyspnea, and delirium increase in prevalence as patients burden of illness increases. Pharmacotherapy and non-medication-based interventions are both often effective as patients approach the end of life. Hospice remains the gold standard of care for dying patients, but because many people still die in hospital settings, it is critical that clinicians are knowledgeable in providing end-of-life care.
As Medicare has focused more on hospital readmissions and care transitions over time, programs and movements aimed at providing geriatric-focused care have developed nationally. These programs aim to minimize and prevent hazards of hospitalization, decrease readmissions, provide safer transitions to the post-acute setting, and decrease length of stay while acknowledging and addressing specific care considerations of hospitalized older adults, such as dementia, sensory impairment, and mobility impairment. Inpatient geriatric assessments help providers tailor care plans to the specific needs of individual hospitalized older adults and determine their post-acute care needs, and also help with appropriate counseling of family and caregivers. Prevention measures are vital during hospitalization of older adults, who are at higher risk of delirium, pressure injury, falls, aspiration, malnutrition, sleep disturbances, and venous thromboembolism. Detailed transition plans and specialized discharge summaries are important to highlight the needs of older adults as they transition to post-acute care settings, and should allow for providers to resume the care plan seamlessly, including continuation of advanced care planning conversations.
This chapter describes the phenomenon of psychosis and how it presents in patients with PWS. Characteristics of psychosis, including delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking, abnormal motor behavior, or negative symptoms are described. Although the classical presentation of schizophrenia, schizophreniform, and other schizoid disorders is uncommon in PWS, there are other less-recognized psychotic presentations that are explained in the text. Delirium, despite not being considered a psychotic disorder, is important to recognize due to its association with medications patients with PWS are prescribed. Cycloid psychosis is another phenomenon that, although not formally recognized in the DSM-5, is frequently seen in PWS. The sudden onset and cycling between normalcy and psychosis makes it difficult to diagnose for providers who are unfamiliar with it. We emphasize the need for immediate medical attention and treatment in the case of suspected psychosis. Some commonly used strategies for management are discussed. Continued monitoring by mental healthcare providers and need for maintenance treatment is discussed.
Catatonia has been increasingly described in cases of COVID-19; we therefore aimed to investigate the evidence for catatonia in patients with COVID-19. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, BIN and CINAHL databases for articles published in English, from the initial descriptions of the COVID-19 pandemic to January 2022.
A total 204 studies were identified, 27 (13%) of which met the inclusion criteria. The evidence available was based on case reports. The articles included in this review identified a total of 42 patients, ranging from the ages of 12 to ≥70 years, with confirmed or possible catatonia during or after a COVID-19 infection.
This review provides valuable information to clinicians in medical practice for treating patients with COVID-19, and a foundation for further research for this uncommon syndrome of COVID-19.
Patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis (ANMDARE) show a wide range of behavioral abnormalities and are often mistaken for primary psychiatric presentations. We aimed to determine the behavioral hallmarks of ANMDARE with the use of systematic neuropsychiatric and cognitive assessments.
A prospective study was conducted, with 160 patients admitted to the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Mexico, who fulfilled criteria for possible autoimmune encephalitis and/or red flags along a time window of seven years. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) antibodies against the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR were processed with rat brain immunohistochemistry and cell-based assays with NMDA expressing cells. Systematic cognitive, neuropsychiatric, and functional assessments were conducted before knowing NMDAR antibodies results. A multivariate analysis was used to compare patients with and without definite ANMDARE according to antibodies in CSF.
After obtaining the CSF antibodies results in 160 consecutive cases, 100 patients were positive and classified as having definite ANMDARE. The most frequent neuropsychiatric patterns were psychosis (81%), delirium (75%), catatonia (69%), anxiety-depression (65%), and mania (27%). Cognition was significantly impaired. A total of 34% of the patients had a predominantly neuropsychiatric presentation without seizures. After multivariate analysis, the clinical hallmarks of ANMDARE consisted of a catatonia–delirium comorbidity, tonic-clonic seizures, and orolingual dyskinesia.
Our study supports the notion of a neurobehavioral phenotype of ANMDARE characterized by a fluctuating course with psychotic and affective symptoms, catatonic signs, and global cognitive dysfunction, often accompanied by seizures and dyskinesia. The catatonia–delirium comorbidity could be a distinctive neurobehavioral phenotype of ANMDARE.
With an increasing global ageing population, the psychiatry of old age has become increasingly important. This revised second edition remains a succinct manual on the practice of psychiatry of old age, providing an up-to-date summary of existing knowledge, best practice and future challenges for the specialty, from a global perspective. Written by four leading clinicians, teachers and researchers, the book offers a much-needed international focus and is designed for use in a wide variety of countries and settings. Chapters are presented in a clear and practical way, enhanced by current and comprehensive further reading sections as well as tables and diagrams for quick assimilation and reference. The new edition is updated to incorporate new developments in assessment, investigation, classification, treatment and care since the publication of the first edition, including the ICD-11 and DSM-5. Essential reading for practising psychiatrists and geriatricians, as well as trainees, nurses and medical students.
Defines protocol, policy, and process and their importance in creating the Geriatric ED. Presents nearly 30 different processes that you can adopt or adapt to move towards geriatric-focussed ED care. Screening; enhanced assessments; workflow changes; transitions of care; physical comfort. Encourages EDs to consider which are going to be both easiest to implement and which are going be highest impact.
This study seeks to identify Alzheimer’s and related dementias (ADRD) biomarkers associated with postoperative delirium (POD) via meta-analysis.
A comprehensive search was conducted. Studies met the following inclusion criteria: >18 years of age, identified POD with standardized assessment, and biomarker measured in the AT(N)-X (A = amyloid, T = tau, (N)=neurodegeneration, X-Other) framework. Exclusion criteria: focus on prediction of delirium, delirium superimposed on dementia, other neurologic or psychiatric disorders, or terminal delirium. Reviewers extracted and synthesized data for the meta-analysis.
Patients with POD.
Primary outcome: association between POD and ATN-X biomarkers. Secondary outcomes involved sample heterogeneity.
28 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Studies focused on inflammatory and neuronal injury biomarkers; there were an insufficient number of studies for amyloid and tau biomarker analysis. Two inflammatory biomarkers (IL-6, and CRP) showed a significant relationship with POD (IL-6 n = 10, standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.53, 95% CI: 0.36–0.70; CRP n = 14, SMD: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.33–0.74). Two neuronal injury biomarkers (blood-based S100B and NfL) were positively associated with POD (S100B n = 5, SMD: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.11–0.69; NFL n = 2, SMD: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.28–1.57). Of note, many analyses were impacted by significant study heterogeneity.
This meta-analysis identified an association between certain inflammatory and neuronal injury biomarkers and POD. Future studies will need to corroborate these relationships and include amyloid and tau biomarkers in order to better understand the relationship between POD and ADRD.
Naldemedine, an oral peripheral μ-opioid receptor antagonist, was developed for the treatment of constipation, a side effect of opioid use. Naldemedine is not generally recognized as causing opioid withdrawal in which associated symptoms affecting the central nervous system.
From the series of cancer patients undergoing symptom management, we report a case treated with naldemedine for constipation in relation to the use of opioids for cancer pain and who displayed severe psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal immediately after the use of naldemedine.
The patient was a 36-year-old woman diagnosed with cervical cancer Stage IIB, PS3. When the patient, who was using oxycodone hydrochloride hydrate (80 mg/day) for ileal pain, was started on naldemedine for constipation, she complained of sweating after just 5 min and hallucinations after 1 h. The patient also displayed physical/behavioral abnormalities such as diarrhea and hyperactivity, and psychological abnormalities such as aggression toward staff.
Despite the psychiatric symptoms worsening over time, there were no abnormalities in terms of blood biochemical data, and no brain metastasis was observed on MRI. Based on the Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale, these symptoms were judged to indicate opioid withdrawal. Naldemedine was discontinued due to naldemedine-related opioid withdrawal syndrome and, thereafter, the psychiatric symptoms diminished, with no recurrence of similar symptoms observed to date.
Significance of results
If mental and behavioral abnormalities occur in patients receiving naldemedine, it is necessary to consider the possibility of opioid withdrawal syndrome as a differential diagnosis.
It is well known that the burden on the families of cancer patient extends across many aspects, but there have been no reports of family members developing delirium due to the burden of caring for a cancer patient.
We reported a caregiver who developed Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) while caring for a family member with advanced cancer.
The subject was a 71-year-old woman who had been caring for her husband, diagnosed with gastric cancer and liver metastases, for 5 months. She visited the “caregivers’ clinic” after referral by an oncologist who was worried about a deterioration in her mental condition that had appeared several weeks previously. The woman had a history of diabetes mellitus. Some giddiness was observed and, based on her inability to answer questions, her level of consciousness was checked and some disorientation was observed. She was diagnosed with delirium. A blood sample was collected to investigate the cause of the delirium, but the test data showed no hypoglycemia. Her appetite had declined since her husband was diagnosed with cancer. Thiamine deficiency was suspected as thiamine stores in the body are depleted within about 18 days and her loss of appetite had continued for 5 months. On intravenous injection of 100 mg of thiamine, her consciousness level was returned to normal in 1 h. A diagnosis of WE was supported by the patient's abnormally low serum thiamine level.
Significance of the results
The family members of cancer patients may develop a loss of appetite due to the burden of caring, resulting in WE. When providing care for signs of distress in family members, it is necessary to pay attention not only to the psychological aspects but also to their level of consciousness and physical aspects, particularly the possibility of serious illness resulting from reduced nutritional status.
We examined whether preadmission history of depression is associated with less delirium/coma-free (DCF) days, worse 1-year depression severity and cognitive impairment.
Design and measurements:
A health proxy reported history of depression. Separate models examined the effect of preadmission history of depression on: (a) intensive care unit (ICU) course, measured as DCF days; (b) depression symptom severity at 3 and 12 months, measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II); and (c) cognitive performance at 3 and 12 months, measured by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) global score.
Setting and participants:
Patients admitted to the medical/surgical ICU services were eligible.
Of 821 subjects eligible at enrollment, 261 (33%) had preadmission history of depression. After adjusting for covariates, preadmission history of depression was not associated with less DCF days (OR 0.78, 95% CI, 0.59–1.03 p = 0.077). A prior history of depression was associated with higher BDI-II scores at 3 and 12 months (3 months OR 2.15, 95% CI, 1.42–3.24 p = <0.001; 12 months OR 1.89, 95% CI, 1.24–2.87 p = 0.003). We did not observe an association between preadmission history of depression and cognitive performance at either 3 or 12 months (3 months beta coefficient −0.04, 95% CI, −2.70–2.62 p = 0.97; 12 months 1.5, 95% CI, −1.26–4.26 p = 0.28).
Patients with a depression history prior to ICU stay exhibit a greater severity of depressive symptoms in the year after hospitalization.
There is no widely used prognostic model for delirium in patients with advanced cancer. The present study aimed to develop a decision tree prediction model for a short-term outcome.
This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter and prospective observational study conducted at 9 psycho-oncology consultation services and 14 inpatient palliative care units in Japan. We used records of patients with advanced cancer receiving pharmacological interventions with a baseline Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R98) severity score of ≥10. A DRS-R98 severity score of <10 on day 3 was defined as the study outcome. The dataset was randomly split into the training and test dataset. A decision tree model was developed using the training dataset and potential predictors. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curve was measured both in 5-fold cross-validation and in the independent test dataset. Finally, the model was visualized using the whole dataset.
Altogether, 668 records were included, of which 141 had a DRS-R98 severity score of <10 on day 3. The model achieved an average AUC of 0.698 in 5-fold cross-validation and 0.718 (95% confidence interval, 0.627–0.810) in the test dataset. The baseline DRS-R98 severity score (cutoff of 15), hypoxia, and dehydration were the important predictors, in this order.
Significance of results
We developed an easy-to-use prediction model for the short-term outcome of delirium in patients with advanced cancer receiving pharmacological interventions. The baseline severity of delirium and precipitating factors of delirium were important for prediction.
Delirium is reported to be one of the manifestations of coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. COVID-19 hospitalized patients are at a higher risk of delirium. Pathophysiology behind the association of delirium and COVID-19 is uncertain. We analyzed the association of delirium occurrence with outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, across all age groups, at Mayo Clinic hospitals.
A retrospective study of all hospitalized COVID-19 patients at Mayo Clinic between March 1, 2020 and December 31, 2020 was performed. Occurrence of delirium and outcomes of mortality, length of stay, readmission, and 30-day mortality after hospital discharge were measured. Chi-square test, student t-test, survival analysis, and logistic regression analysis were performed to measure and compare outcomes of delirium group adjusted for age, sex, Charlson comorbidity score, and COVID-19 severity with no-delirium group.
A total of 4351 COVID-19 patients were included in the study. Delirium occurrence in the overall study population was noted to be 22.4%. The highest occurrence of delirium was also noted in patients with critical COVID-19 illness severity. A statistically significant OR 4.35 (3.27–5.83) for in-hospital mortality and an OR 4.54 (3.25–6.38) for 30-day mortality after discharge in the delirium group were noted. Increased hospital length of stay, 30-day readmission, and need for skilled nursing facility on discharge were noted in the delirium group. Delirium in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is a marker for increased mortality and morbidity. In this group, outcomes appear to be much worse when patients are older and have a critical severity of COVID-19 illness.
Excited delirium, which has been defined as combativeness, agitation, and altered sensorium, requires immediate treatment in prehospital or emergency department (ED) settings for the safety of both patients and caregivers. Prehospital ketamine use is prevalent, although the evidence on safety and efficacy is limited. Many patients with excited delirium are intoxicated with illicit substances. This investigation explores whether patients treated with prehospital ketamine for excited delirium with concomitant substance intoxication have higher rates of subsequent intubation in the ED compared to those without confirmed substance usage.
Over 28 months at two large community hospitals, all medical records were retrospectively searched for all patients age 18 years or greater with prehospital ketamine intramuscular (IM) administration for excited delirium and identified illicit and prescription substance co-ingestions. Trained abstractors collected demographic characteristics, history of present illness (HPI), urine drug screens (UDS), alcohol levels, and noted additional sedative administrations. Substance intoxication was determined by UDS and alcohol positivity or negativity, as well as physician HPI. Patients without toxicological testing or documentation of substance intoxication, or who may have tested positive due to ED sedation, were excluded from relevant analyses. Subsequent ED intubation was the primary pre-specified outcome. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare variables.
Among 86 patients given prehospital ketamine IM for excited delirium, baseline characteristics including age, ketamine dose, and body mass index were similar between those who did or did not undergo intubation. Men had higher intubation rates. Patients testing positive for alcohol, amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, ecstasy, marijuana, opiates, and synthetic cathinones, both bath salts and flakka, had similar rates of intubation compared to those negative for these substances. Of 27 patients with excited delirium and concomitant cocaine intoxication, nine (33%) were intubated compared with four of 50 (8%) without cocaine intoxication, yielding a 5.75 OR (95%, CI 1.57 to 21.05; P = .009).
Patients treated with ketamine IM for excited delirium with concomitant cocaine intoxication had a statistically significant 5.75-fold increased rate of subsequent intubation in the ED. Amongst other substances, no other trends with intubation were noted, but further study is warranted.
While the respiratory complications of COVID-19 infection are now well known, psychiatric manifestations are an emerging issue. We report a case of prolonged encephalopathy secondary to COVID-19 which was associated with prominent neuropsychiatric features. The patient went on to develop sub-clinical seizures, a rare but recognised complication of SARS-CoV-2.
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) can affect mental health in different ways. There is little research about psychiatric complications in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.
The aim of the study was to describe the psychiatric clinical profile and pharmacological interactions in COVID-19 inpatients referred to a Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry (CLP) unit.
This is a cross-sectional retrospective study, carried out at a tertiary hospital in Spain, in inpatients admitted because of COVID-19 and referred to our CLP Unit from March 17,2020 to April 28,2020. Clinical data were extracted from electronic medical records. The patients were divided in three groups depending on psychiatric diagnosis: delirium, severe mental illness (SMI) and non-severe mental illness (NSMI).
Of 71 patients included (median [ICR] age 64 [54-73] years; 70.4% male), 35.2% had a delirium, 18.3% had a SMI, and 46.5% had a NSMI. Compared to patients with delirium and NSMI, patients with SMI were younger, more likely to be institutionalized and were administered less anti-COVID19 drugs. Mortality was higher among patients with delirium (21.7%) than those with SMI (0%) or NSMI (9.45%). The rate of side effects due to interactions between anti-COVID19 and psychiatric drugs was low, mainly drowsiness (4.3%) and borderline QTc prolongation (1.5%).
Patients affected by SMI were more often undertreated for COVID-19. However, the rate of interactions was very low, and avoidable with a proper evaluation and drug-dose adjustment. Half of the patients with SMI were institutionalized, suggesting that living conditions in residential facilities could make them more vulnerable to infection.