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While wartime literature and popular culture frequently casts US soldiers as icons of fitness, few return from combat physically or mentally unscathed. This essay explores the cultural history of American warfare through the lens of disability studies (DS). Framed as a series of test cases, this essay shows how American culture (novels, poetry, film) both highlights and masks the experiences of disabled combatants, during wartime and after. Writers, filmmakers, and others have used tropes of disability to criticize American society and foreign policy. This essay highlights related topics, from the use of disability in wartime propaganda to the ways American culture fosters a hierarchical understanding of disability – celebrating some types of injury (e.g., physical wounds) while denigrating others (e.g., mental injuries). A DS approach allows us to see war in a new way – less as a singular event and more as a series of interwoven processes that affect combatants long after ceasefire.
The effect of minor orthopaedic day surgery (MiODS) on patient’s mood.
A prospective population-based cohort study of 148 consecutive patients with age above 18 and less than 65, an American Society of Anaesthesiology (ASA) score of 1, and the requirement of general anaesthesia (GA) were included. The Medical Outcomes Study – Short Form 36 (SF-36), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used pre- and post-operatively.
The mean physical component score of SF-36 before surgery was 45.3 (SD = ±10.1) and 8 weeks following surgery was 44.9 (SD = ±11.04) [n = 148, p = 0.51, 95% CI = (−1.03 to 1.52)]. For the measurement of the changes in mood using BDI, BAI and SF-36, latent construct modelling was employed to increase validity. The covariance between mood pre- and post-operatively (cov = 69.44) corresponded to a correlation coefficient, r = 0.88 indicating that patients suffering a greater number of mood symptoms before surgery continue to have a greater number of symptoms following surgery. When the latent mood constructs were permitted to have different means the model fitted well with χ2 (df = 1) = 0.86 for which p = 0.77, thus the null hypothesis that MiODS has no effect on patient mood was rejected.
MiODS affects patient mood which deteriorates at 8 weeks post-operatively regardless of the pre-operative patient mood state. More importantly patients suffering a greater number of mood symptoms before MiODS continue to have a greater number of symptoms following surgery.
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