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This study investigates how the transition to remote work during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is experienced by employees. We investigate to what extent perceived work stressors relate to psychological strain through perceptions of social support, work–life conflict, and adjustment to remote work. The findings expound the mechanisms underlying psychological strain in the context of sudden organizational change. Specifically, this study shows that both challenge stressors and hindrance stressors have negative impact on adjustment to remote work, whereas hindrance stressors are more strongly negatively related to social support. The study further demonstrates that there is hardly any buffering impact of job control, work structuring, and communication technology use on the implications of these work stressors. These findings contribute to our theoretical understanding and provide actionable implications for organizational policies in facilitating employees' adaptation to remote work.
How does representative government function when public administration has the authority to reshape democracy? This chapter sets up the problem of value reinforcement as an additional element to the traditional narrative of control and capability for legitimating public administration.
The last chapter takes an in-depth look at body politics and sexuality and aims to do two things: first, to unpack the often sidelined aspect of the fighters’ desexualisation. How is this part of the subjectivity produced, believed, maintained and policed? What are the tensions that emerge from creating a desexualised guerrilla army that comes down from the mountains to liberate society? Second, this chapter discusses what I call ‘party bargains’. I argue that women break out of their particular societal constellations by joining the party and enter a new bargain, this time with the party. It discusses three sites of party bargains: the fighter, the civil activist or politician, and the mother, whereas the three categories are overlapping. I demonstrate that in each case these party bargains hold great emancipatory power and that chosen abstinence (for the guerrillas) can be seen as one of the main tools of female resistance that strengthens the female ranks. However, this process goes hand in hand with a strict process of discipline and coercion, and I ask whether the sex ban is in fact at the heart of the new gender norms and relations in the making and key to the party’s ability to control its revolutionaries.
How does representative government function when public administration can reshape democracy? The traditional narrative of public administration balances the accountability of managers, a problem of control, with the need for effective administration, a problem of capability. The discretion modern governments give to administrators allows them to make tradeoffs among democratic values. This book challenges the traditional view with its argument that the democratic values of administration should complement the democratic values of the representative government within which they operate. Control, capability and value reinforcement can render public administration into democracy administered. This book offers a novel framework for empirically and normatively understanding how democratic values have, and should be, reinforced by public administration. Bertelli's theoretical framework provides a guide for managers and reformers alike to chart a path toward democracy administered.
As we have seen so far in this book, the IoT comprises various connected devices, services, and systems. Connecting regular devices to the Internet has made it much easier for companies to protect their interests in consumer transactions. New technologies allow companies to continue to wield significant control over us and our devices beyond the point of sale, license, or lease. As Aaron Perzanowski and Jason Schultz have observed, the IoT “threatens our sense of control over the devices we purchase.”1 Of chief concern is companies’ use of technology to control our devices and actions and digitally restrain our activities in lending transactions.
The utility of a norm is central to its adoption and this utility is generative of a norm’s adherents: the ‘norm circle’. Regional organisations provide excellent arenas to witness normative contestation between norm circles, as well as to understand how a ‘successful’ norm is selected. Within a regional organisation, specific domain rules apply, and these provide the criteria for the successful passage of a normative proposal. The three broad criteria suggested are the control of the initiative, the mastery of existing shared norms, and ‘metis’, the ability to identify opportunities for influence and expand the norm circle. The chapter ends with a review of suitable cases in the OAU/AU and ASEAN.
This chapter reviews the model set out in the theoretical framework to examine the degree of congruence the six cases had with the relevant factors of controlling the initiative, the mastery of shared norms, and opportunities for influence, particularly the ability to bring other states into the favoured norm circle. It also examines the model’s inferences against the observed outcomes to examine the degree of significance each factor had in the respective regional organisation.
Prebiotic supplements and high-protein (HP) diets reduce body weight and modulate intestinal microbiota. Our aim was to elucidate the combined effect of an inulin/oligofructose (FOS) and HP diet on body weight gain, energy metabolism and faecal microbiota. Forty male C57BL/6NCrl mice were fed a control (C) diet for 2 weeks and allocated to a C or HP (40 % protein) diet including no or 10 % inulin/FOS (C + I and HP + I) for 4 weeks. Inulin/FOS was added in place of starch and cellulose. Body weight, food intake, faecal energy and nitrogen were determined. Indirect calorimetry and faecal microbiota analysis were performed after 3 weeks on diets. Body weight gain of HP-fed mice was 36 % lower than HP + I- and C-fed mice (P < 0⋅05). Diet digestibility and food conversion efficiency were higher in HP + I- than HP-fed mice (P < 0⋅01), while food intake was comparable between groups. Total energy expenditure (heat production) was 25 % lower in HP + I- than in C-, HP- and C + I-fed mice (P < 0⋅001). Carbohydrate oxidation tended to be 24 % higher in HP- than in HP + I-fed mice (P < 0⋅05). Faecal nitrogen excretion was 31–45 % lower in C-, C + I- and HP + I- than in HP-fed mice (P < 0⋅05). Faecal Bacteroides–Prevotella DNA was 2⋅3-fold higher in C + I- and HP + I- relative to C-fed mice (P < 0⋅05), but Clostridium leptum DNA abundances was 79 % lower in HP + I- than in HP-fed mice (P < 0⋅05). We suggest that the higher conversion efficiency of dietary energy of HP + I but not C + I-fed mice is caused by higher digestibility and lower heat production, resulting in increased body mass.
Personal autonomy and control are major concepts for people with life-limiting conditions. Patients who express a wish to die (WTD) are often thought of wanting it because of loss of autonomy or control. The research conducted so far has not focused on personal beliefs and perspectives; and little is known about patients’ understanding of autonomy and control in this context. The aim of this review was to analyze what role autonomy and control may play in relation to the WTD expressed by people with life-limiting conditions.
A systematic integrative review was conducted. The search strategy used MeSH terms in combination with free-text searching of the EBSCO Discovery Service (which provides access to multiple academic library literature databases, including PubMed and CINAHL), as well as the large PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science library literature databases from their inception until February 2019. The search was updated to January 2021.
After the screening process, 85 full texts were included for the final analysis. Twenty-seven studies, recording the experiences of 1,824 participants, were identified. The studies were conducted in Australia (n = 5), Canada (n = 5), USA (n = 5), The Netherlands (n = 3), Spain (n = 2), Sweden (n = 2), Switzerland (n = 2), Finland (n = 1), Germany (n = 1), and the UK (n = 1). Three themes were identified: (1) the presence of autonomy for the WTD, (2) the different ways in which autonomy is conceptualized, and (3) the socio-cultural context of research participants.
Significance of results
Despite the importance given to the concept of autonomy in the WTD discourse, only a few empirical studies have focused on personal interests. Comprehending the context is crucial because personal understandings of autonomy are shaped by socio-cultural–ethical backgrounds and these impact personal WTD attitudes.
This chapter begins by explaining the pleading requirements of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Next, this chapter explores how Supreme Court caselaw has shaped those rules, emphasizing the Court’s recent decisions in Twombly and Iqbal. Then, this chapter outlines the results of numerous research studies that examine the current state of employment discrimination in our society. Building on this research, this book proposes a unified analytical framework for pleading intent in employment discrimination claims brought under Title VII. The chapter then explains how the proposed pleading model comports with the federal rules, as interpreted by Twombly and Iqbal. The chapter further explores the best approach to pleading claims arising in the technology-sector context.
This chapter argues that the classification of workers as independent contractors or employees should be shaped by an overarching question: How much flexibility do individuals have in determining the time, place, price, manner, and frequency of their work? Those who have more control of these variables are more independent than those who must conform to a business owner’s schedule. This approach provides an objective basis for resolving classification disputes, particularly those that arise in the context of the technology-based economy. By minimizing legal uncertainty, a focus on worker flexibility would ensure both that workers receive appropriate protections under existing law and that companies are able to innovate without fear of unknown liabilities.
An introduction to the theory and engineering practice that underpins the component design and analysis of radial flow turbocompressors. Drawing upon an extensive theoretical background and years of practical experience, the authors provide descriptions of applications, concepts, component design, analysis tools, performance maps, flow stability, and structural integrity, with illustrative examples. Features wide coverage of all types of radial compressor over many applications unified by the consistent use of dimensional analysis. Discusses the methods needed to analyse the performance, flow, and mechanical integrity that underpin the design of efficient centrifugal compressors with good flow range and stability. Includes explanation of the design of all radial compressor components, including inlet guide vanes, impellers, diffusers, volutes, return channels, de-swirl vanes and side-streams. Suitable as a reference for advanced students of turbomachinery, and a perfect tool for practising mechanical and aerospace engineers already within the field and those just entering it.
This chapter explores the various responses of enslaved individuals to slavery, ranging from accommodation to full scale rebellion and everything in-between. It also examines the ways that slave-owners attempted to control their slaves, including brutal mistreatment (whipping) and positive incentives to loyal service such as the promise of liberation.
Sentences like They tricked him into believing them and They charged him with abandoning them raise interesting issues for selection and control. We show that these two sentences exemplify two distinct classes, subsuming P-gerund constructions that are formed with seven distinct prepositions: implicative vs. nonimplicative constructions. The first class displays a cluster of restrictions, both syntactic and semantic, which are absent from the second class: It resists partial control or embedded lexical subjects, and it bans object drop and movement of the P-gerund phrase. The existence of these two classes, as well as their empirical profiles, follow from Landau’s (2015) theory of control and challenge alternative approaches.
At one point or another, most of us have been accused of not trying our hardest, and most of us have leveled similar accusations at others. The disputes that result are often intractable and raise difficult questions about effort, ability, and will. This essay addresses some of these questions by examining six representative cases in which the accusation is leveled. The questions discussed include (1) what trying one's hardest involves, and (2) the conditions under which complaints about lack of effort are true, and (3) how much their truth matters. One conclusion that emerges is that both the relevant form of effort and the impediments to making it can vary greatly, while another is that trying one's hardest is less important than trying as hard as one could reasonably be expected to try.
Primary schools contribute to promoting healthy eating behaviour and preventing overweight and obesity by providing nutrition education. Research highlights the importance of improving teachers’ programme implementation to enhance intervention effectiveness. An integrative approach has been suggested to reduce time barriers that teachers currently experience in teaching nutrition. This scoping review explores use and effectiveness of integrative teaching in primary-school-based nutrition education programmes. Six databases were searched for primary-school-based interventions on nutrition education. Papers reporting on integration of nutrition topics within core curriculum were included. Abstracts and full texts of potentially relevant articles were screened to determine eligibility. Next, data were extracted and tabulated. Findings were collated and summarised to describe intervention characteristics, subject integration and effectiveness of the included programmes. Data describing integration of nutrition into the primary school curriculum were extracted from 39 eligible papers. Nutrition education programmes often involve lessons about food groups and are frequently embedded within the mathematics, science or literacy syllabus. Although articles report on the integration of nutrition, the use of this approach was not commonly described in detail. Only seven papers discussed student outcomes related to the integration of nutrition education within core subjects. The ability to draw strong conclusions about school-based nutrition intervention effectiveness is limited by the current lack of programme description and methodological issues. Hence, more research is warranted to inform evidence on effectiveness of integrative nutrition education for both teacher and student outcomes. Future studies that include greater detail regarding the integrative approach are needed.
We began with the observation that technology law, as defined by this text, is now an important field in its own right. This importance will continue to grow as the progress of technology and its application in society continues to create gaps in the legal framework that require regulation. No-one can predict exactly what new technologies are coming, what their implications will be, or what laws will be needed, but by studying theoretical approaches to ethics and regulation and the legal problems that have arisen to date, and how these have been responded to, we are better prepared to deal with future challenges. The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 provides a stark reminder that unanticipated events can change the societal landscape in a matter of weeks and provide compelling reasons for technologies to be quickly applied in new ways. This concluding chapter will consider the future directions of technology law by reflecting on technology and society, noting the areas of law and regulation that have been covered, and reflecting on themes that have arisen.
Due to the high incidence of COVID-19 case numbers internationally, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a Public Health Emergency of global relevance, advising countries to follow protocols to combat pandemic advance through actions that can reduce spread and consequently avoid a collapse in the local health system. This study aimed to evaluate the dynamics of the evolution of new community cases, and mortality records of COVID-19 in the State of Pará, which has a subtropical climate with temperatures between 20 and 35 °C, after the implementation of social distancing by quarantine and adoption of lockdown. The follow-up was carried out by the daily data from the technical bulletins provided by the State of Pará Public Health Secretary (SESPA). On 18 March 2020, Pará notified the first case of COVID-19. After 7 weeks, the number of confirmed cases reached 4756 with 375 deaths. The results show it took 49 days for 81% of the 144 states municipalities, distributed over an area of approximately 1 248 000 km2 to register COVID-19 cases. Temperature variations between 24.5 and 33.1 °C did not promote the decline in the new infections curve. The association between social isolation, quarantine and lockdown as an action to contain the infection was effective in reducing the region's new cases registration of COVID-19 in the short-term. However, short periods of lockdown may have promoted the virus spread among peripheral municipalities of the capital, as well as to inland regions.
Research on purpose is based on the fact that the behavior of organisms is a control process. What we call “behavior” are controlled results of an organism's actions. Controlled results are consistent results produced in the face of disturbances that should prevent such consistency. The ability to produce controlled results is explained by control theory, which shows that the behavior of living systems is organized around the control of perceptual variables. Thus, the application of control theory to understanding the behavior of organisms has come to be called Perceptual Control Theory or PCT. PCT shows that in order to understand purposeful behavior it is necessary to determine the perceptual variables that organisms control: controlled variables. So the main goal of research on purpose is the discovery of the variables that organisms control. The next chapters explain how to do research on purpose.
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a parasite causing cyclosporiasis (an illness in humans). Produce (fruits, vegetables, herbs), water and soil contaminated with C. cayetanensis have been implicated in human infection. The objective was to conduct a scoping review of primary research in English on the detection, epidemiology and control of C. cayetanensis with an emphasis on produce, water and soil. MEDLINE® (Web of ScienceTM), Agricola (ProQuest), CABI Global Health, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts (EBSCOhost) were searched from 1979 to February 2020. Of the 349 relevant primary research studies identified, there were 75 detection-method studies, 40 molecular characterisation studies, 38 studies of Cyclospora in the environment (33 prevalence studies, 10 studies of factors associated with environmental contamination), 246 human infection studies (212 prevalence/incidence studies, 32 outbreak studies, 60 studies of environmental factors associated with non-outbreak human infection) and eight control studies. There appears to be sufficient literature for a systematic review of prevalence and factors associated with human infection with C. cayetanensis. There is a dearth of publicly available detection-method studies in soil (n = 0) and water (n = 2), prevalence studies on soil (n = 1) and studies of the control of Cyclospora (particularly on produce prior to retail (n = 0)).