To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Previous studies that contrasting bilinguals with monolinguals on Theory of Mind (ToM) have shown mixed results. We present a relatively large (N = 102) study comparing Polish–English sequential bilinguals living in the UK with Polish monolinguals living in Poland. Going beyond a simple group comparison, we explored the role of language proficiency and input in ToM abilities. A battery of eight tasks was used to measure ToM, and the groups were matched on age, gender, SES, IQ and L1 word comprehension. Although bilinguals did not differ from monolinguals in accuracy in ToM tasks, they demonstrated better reasoning abilities when providing justification for ToM responses. ToM accuracy scores were best predicted by L1 proficiency, but the justification scores were best predicted by both L1 and L2 proficiency. The findings suggest that the nuances of bilingual experience provide an important scaffolding context for ToM development.
Emotional disorders in children are often associated with low self-concept and problems with peers, and in many cases externalizing symptoms. Super Skills for Life (SSL) is a transdiagnostic treatment for emotional problems in children that has also shown benefits in other comorbid symptoms. This study aimed to examine, for the first time, the effect of SSL on a clinical sample of Spanish children aged 8–12 years with a major emotional disorder and comorbid externalizing symptoms and low self-concept. A quasi-experimental design with two groups, pretest and posttest, was carried out. Thirty-eight children received the SSL intervention, and 36 children were assigned to a wait-list control (WLC) group. Children in SSL showed statistically fewer posttest emotional symptoms (p < .001), peer problems (p = .002), and overall internalizing and externalizing difficulties (p = .005) compared to children in WLC, in addition to higher posttest self-concept (p = .002). There were no differences in the postinterventional changes between boys and girls in internalizing and externalizing symptoms. However, significant differences were found in some facets of self-concept. The results of this study suggest that the SSL protocol may be useful in Spanish clinical contexts. Still, more research is needed to overcome some of the inherent limitations.
Aligning with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, amplification of children’s voice in food practice research aims to inform initiatives that cater to children’s needs and thus improve nutritional outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe children’s (aged 6–11 years) involvement across qualitative research investigating their food practice perspectives.
A scoping review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). Six electronic databases were searched up until March 2023 (Cochrane, CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, Medline and PsychInfo). The Wellcome Framework for young people’s involvement in health research guided data extraction. Data were described according to inclusiveness, geography, food-related study topic, research stage and method, and child involvement.
The search identified 120 peer-reviewed studies (134 papers). Active participation was only seen within research implementation stages (i.e. data collection (n 134), analysis (n 31), dissemination (n 9) and re-design (n 7)). More passive forms of participation were identified in research design stages (i.e. agenda setting, resourcing and design). Studies that utilised participatory research methodologies and developmentally appropriate and engaging methods (e.g. PhotoVoice) saw more active participation by children.
This review identified a lack of opportunities for children’s active participation in all stages of food practice research. Without a radical shift towards providing these opportunities, food and nutrition initiatives, policies or further research that do not meet the needs of children’s food-related worlds will continue to be developed. Instead, researchers and their institutions need to advocate for and, where possible, provide voluntary opportunities for children to actively participate in food practice research.
In this chapter, the authors shift attention to younger BFRB clients and to modifications to ComB treatment when children, family members, and other caretakers are involved in therapy. Managing these additional people presents added complexity for the therapist to manage. Ideas for helping create a supportive, therapeutic social context for younger clients are presented throughout. Commonly occurring misconceptions, anxieties and problematic relationship issues are described, explored, and addressed throughout, with an emphasis placed on coaching caregivers into positive and supportive roles in the therapeutic endeavor. Also addressed is the importance of setting realistic expectations for therapy and coaching caregivers to deal with the inevitable motivational issues that will have to be addressed for effective treatment of younger clients. Different recommendations, reflecting the varying needs of clients of different ages – infants, younger and older children, and adolescents, are provided – as are approaches for dealing with children with sensory dysregulation issues.
I read with interest the article by Haddad et al concerning the bench testing of BeSmooth peripheral tests, and I would like to share some thoughts and highlight few points.
BeSmooth stent is behaving like any pre-mounted stent available on the market. None can achieve the Holy Grail of being dilatable to adult size without losing their integrity. Until dedicated stents are available, pre-mounted stents are preferred to unmounted stents because of their better profile and deliverability. Technically, proper post-dilatation should be performed in order to avoid and extensive foreshortening and the formation of a ring that would limit further expansion of the stent. BeSmooth stent like other pre-mounted stents can also be used without restriction in situations where overexpansion is not required.
BeSmooth stent platform with the knowledge of its intrinsic properties is, in our opinion, a good add-on to the armamentarium of pre-mounted stents used in paediatric cardiology.
This study reports on the feasibility of using the Test of Complex Syntax- Electronic (TECS-E), as a self-directed app, to measure sentence comprehension in children aged 4 to 5 ½ years old; how testing apps might be adapted for effective independent use; and agreement levels between face-to-face supported computerized and independent computerized testing with this cohort. A pilot phase was completed with 4 to 4;06-year-old children, to determine the appropriate functional app features required to facilitate independent test completion. Following the integration of identified features, children completed the app independently or with adult support (4–4;05 (n = 22) 4;06–4;11 months (n = 55) and 5 to 5;05 (n = 113)) and test re-test reliability was examined. Independent test completion posed problems for children under 5 years but for those over 5, TECS-E is a reliable method to assess children’s understanding of complex sentences, when used independently.
Sleep problems are common amongst children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this study was to investigate sleep problems in children and adolescents attending a specialist ADHD service.
This was a cross-sectional online survey combined with a retrospective chart review, conducted in the ADHD Assessment, Diagnosis, Management, initiation, Research and Education (ADMiRE) service, the first public specialist ADHD service for young people in Ireland. Participants were caregivers of children and adolescents with ADHD attending ADMiRE. Sleep was assessed using The Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and ADHD symptoms were assessed using an abbreviated version of the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Teacher and Parent Rating Scale (SNAP-IV). Details regarding patient demographics, co-morbidities and medication were collected from patient records.
Eighty-four percent of young people scored above the clinical cut-off for a sleep disorder. The most frequently reported sleep problems were related to sleep onset and sleep duration, and 64% of respondents met the criteria for two or more sleep problems. ADHD severity was associated with greater sleep problems. Co-morbid physical, neurodevelopmental, and mental health disorders as well as stimulant use were not associated with greater sleep problems.
Sleep problems are very common amongst children and adolescents with ADHD. This study has demonstrated an association between more sleep problems and ADHD severity. These findings highlight the need for both effective ADHD treatment to ensure optional sleep in young people as well as effective interventions for sleep problems to prevent worsening of ADHD symptoms.
An understanding of child psychopathology and resilience requires attention to the nested and interconnected systems and contexts that shape children’s experiences and health outcomes. In this study, we draw on data from the National Survey of Children’s Health, 2016 to 2021 (n = 182,375 children, ages 3– to 17 years) to examine associations between community social capital and neighborhood resources and children’s internalizing and externalizing problems, and whether these associations were moderated by experiences of racial discrimination. Study outcomes were caregiver-report of current internalizing and externalizing problems. Using logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics of the child and household, higher levels of community social capital were associated with a lower risk of children’s depression, anxiety, and behaviors. Notably, we observed similar associations between neighborhood resources and child mental health for depression only. In models stratified by the child’s experience of racial/ethnic discrimination, the protective benefits of community social capital were specific to those children who did not experience racial discrimination. Our results illustrate heterogeneous associations between community social capital and children’s mental health that differ based on interpersonal experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination, illustrating the importance of a multilevel framework to promote child wellbeing.
The purpose of this study was to clarify whether the support activities of dietitians during disasters were able to address the problems faced by mothers with regard to their children’s diet and nutrition.
Dietitians (7) and mothers (8) were selected by snowball sampling method. Semi-structured interviews were used to conduct focus group interviews about children’s diet and nutrition. Verbatim data were generated and inductively qualitative descriptive analysis was conducted.
Six categories were generated for each group. Dietitians responded to problems that mothers had regarding their children’s diet and nutrition via two activities: [dealing with allergy food shortages] and [school lunch support].
It is important for dietitians to recommend stockpiling allergy-friendly foods to accommodate children with allergies and achieve early resumption of school lunches to meet children’s nutritional needs.
To inform a package of initiatives to increase children’s vegetable intake while in long day care (LDC) by evaluating the independent and combined effects of three initiatives targeting food provision, the mealtime environment and the curriculum.
Using the Multiphase Optimisation Strategy (MOST) framework, a 12-week, eight-condition (n 7 intervention, n 1 control) randomised factorial experiment was conducted. Children’s dietary intake data were measured pre- and post-initiative implementation using the weighed plate waste method (1× meal and 2× between-meal snacks). Vegetable intake (g/d) was calculated from vegetable provision and waste. The optimal combination of initiatives was determined using a linear mixed-effects model comparing between-group vegetable intake at follow-up, while considering initiative fidelity and acceptability.
LDC centres in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia.
32 centres, 276 staff and 1039 children aged 2–5 years.
There were no statistically significant differences between any of the intervention groups and the control group for vegetable intake (all P > 0·05). The curriculum with mealtime environment group consumed 26·7 g more vegetables/child/day than control (ratio of geometric mean 3·29 (95 % CI 0·96, 11·27), P = 0·06). Completion rates for the curriculum (> 93 %) and mealtime environment (61 %) initiatives were high, and acceptability was good (4/5 would recommend), compared with the food provision initiative (0–50 % completed the menu assessment, 3/5 would recommend).
A programme targeting the curriculum and mealtime environment in LDC may be useful to increase children’s vegetable intake. Determining the effectiveness of this optimised package in a randomised controlled trial is required, as per the evaluation phase of the MOST framework.
To conduct a systematic review of obesity prevention interventions in Latinx children ages birth to 6 years published in any language from 2010–2020.
We used PubMed, ERIC, PsycINFO, Scopus, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and Google Scholar databases to conduct a search on May 1 2020, January 1 2021 and November 1 2022. We included randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies and non-randomised interventions with a control or comparison group that reported measures of adiposity.
Interventions taking place in the United States, Latin America or the Caribbean.
Latinx children ages birth to 6 years.
Of 8601 unique records identified, forty manuscripts about thirty-nine unique studies describing thirty distinct interventions in the United States and nine interventions in Latin America and the Caribbean met our inclusion criteria. Interventions were primarily based in early care and education centres (n 13) or combined home settings, for example home and community (n 7). Randomised interventions taking place in community or home settings were more likely to report significant reductions in adiposity or weight-related outcomes compared to other settings. Using the Cochrane risk of bias tools for randomised and non-randomised studies, we judged thirty-eight randomised trials and nine non-randomised interventions to have a high or unclear risk of bias.
The results highlight a need for more rigorous designs and more effective intervention strategies in Latinx children at risk for having overweight and obesity. Registered with the PROSPERO database for systematic reviews under registration number CRD42020161339.
Socially assistive robots (SARs) are a promising tool to manage children’s pain and distress related to medical procedures, but current options lack autonomous adaptability. The aim of this study was to understand children’s and caregivers' perceptions surrounding the use of an artificial intelligence (AI)-enhanced SAR to provide personalized procedural support to children during intravenous insertion (IVI) to inform the design of such a system following a user-centric approach.
This study presents a descriptive qualitative needs assessment of children and caregivers. Data were collected via semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups. Participants were recruited from two Canadian pediatric emergency departments (EDs) between April 2021 and January 2022.
Eleven caregivers and 19 children completed 27 individual interviews and one focus group. Three main themes were identified: A. Experience in the clinical setting, B. Acceptance of and concerns surrounding SARs, and C. Features that support child engagement with SARs. Most participants expressed comfort with robot technology, however, concerns were raised about sharing personal information, photographing/videotaping, and the possibility of technical failure. Suggestions for feature enhancements included increasing movement to engage a child’s attention and tailoring language to developmental age. To enhance the overall ED experience, participants also identified a role for the SAR in the waiting room.
Artificial intelligence-enhanced SARs were perceived by children and caregivers as a promising tool for distraction during IVIs and to enhance the overall ED experience. Insights collected will be used to inform the design of an AI-enhanced SAR.
Looking at core features of child and family related spending and policy design, and covering five domains of policy, the paper offers new empirical evidence and an original perspective for better understanding how EU countries and the UK responded to the needs of children and families during the pandemic and how to classify responses in terms of child-centredness. The paper is driven by a concept of child-centredness to examine developments from March to December 2020 in five policy fields: income support, food assistance, early childcare and education services, school opening and support for parental care-giving. The analysis shows strong variation across countries in terms of how active they were and what fields they were active in. One very striking commonality, though, is that the most popular field of policy action was in resourcing parental care of children at home, through paid leaves usually. A related finding is that there was little prioritising of children for most kinds of actions. Thirdly, in terms of national patterning those countries that were generous spenders on this field of policy prior to the pandemic were most child-centred in their response and there are few if any exceptions to this.
Understanding the factors associated with companion animal relinquishment is key in safeguarding animal welfare and human well-being. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of demographic variables on risk of relinquishment of cats and dogs during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to report characteristics of those that relinquished a cat or dog, and the experience of said relinquishment process. A series of surveys were administered to pet owners (n = 3,945) across several countries including the UK, USA, Canada, Italy, Spain and France. In total, n = 1,324 reported having acquired their cat or dog via online means. There was no association between online source (search engines, breeder websites, rescue websites, online ad sites and social media) and relinquishment status (NCR1 [Never Considered Relinquishment] compared to CR_R [Considering Relinquishment or already Relinquished]. More participants from the USA considered or already had relinquished their cat or dog compared to the UK and Italy. Of those that have already given up their pet, 76.2% agreed that it was an emotionally difficult decision, while 100% agreed that it was, logically, the correct decision. Demographic characteristics in those that reported considering relinquishment or that had already relinquished (CR_R; n = 146) were compared to a comparison group that had never considered relinquishing their pet (NCR2; n = 193). Being a male-gendered pet-owner and a younger pet age increased the risk of relinquishment. Cats and dogs from households with children were 4.6 times more likely to consider or have already relinquished a cat or dog compared to those from households without children. Further research is needed to explore risk of relinquishment of cats and dogs when children are present in the home.
To analyse the association of socio-demographic and health factors with vitamin D insufficiency and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in Brazilian children aged 6–59 months. Data from 8145 children from the Brazilian National Survey on Child Nutrition (ENANI-2019) were analysed. The serum concentration of 25(OHD)D was measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l) and 95 % CI was calculated. Logistic and linear regression models were used to identify the variables associated with vitamin D insufficiency and serum 25(OH)D concentrations, respectively. The mean 25(OH)D concentration was 98·6 ± 36·0 nmol/l, and 4·3 % of the children presented vitamin D insufficiency. Children aged 6–23 months (OR = 2·23; 95 % CI 1·52, 3·26); belonging to Southeast (OR = 5·55; 95 % CI 2·34, 13·17) and South (OR = 4·57; 95 % CI 1·77, 11·84) regions; the second tertile of the National Wealth Score (OR = 2·14; 95 % CI 1·16, 3·91) and winter (OR = 5·82; 95 % CI 2·67, 12·71) and spring (OR = 4·84; 95 % CI 2·17, 10·80) seasons of blood collection were associated with a higher chance of vitamin D insufficiency. Female sex (β = −5·66, 95 % CI − 7·81, −3·51), urban location (β = −14·19, 95 % CI −21·0, −7·22) and no vitamin D supplement use (β = −6·01, 95 % CI −9·64, −2·39) were inversely associated with serum 25(OH)D concentration. The age of children and the Brazilian geographical region of household location were the main predictors of vitamin D insufficiency. In Brazil, vitamin D insufficiency among children aged 6–59 months is low and is not a relevant public health problem.
In a between-language lexical priming study, we examined to what extent the two languages in a simultaneous bilingual child's lexicon interact, while taking individual differences in language exposure into account. Primary-school-aged Dutch–Greek bilinguals performed a primed picture selection task combined with eye-tracking. They matched pictures to auditorily presented Dutch target words preceded by Greek prime words. Their reaction times and eye movements were recorded. We tested for effects of between-language phonological priming, translation priming, and phonological priming through translation. Priming effects emerged in reaction times and eye movements in all three conditions, at different stages of processing, and unaffected by language exposure. These results extend previous findings for bilingual toddlers and bilingual adults. Processing similarities between these populations indicate that, across different stages of development, bilinguals have an integrated lexicon that is accessed in a language-nonselective way and is susceptible to interactions within and between different types of lexical representation.
Social media and other technologies are reshaping communication and health.
This review addresses the relationship between social media use, behavioural health conditions and psychological well-being for youth aged <25 years.
A scoping review of 11 literature databases from 2000 to 2020 explored research studies in youth in five areas: clinical depression and anxiety, quantitative use, social media mode, engagement and qualitative dimensions and health and well-being.
Out of 2820 potential literature references, 140 met the inclusion criteria. The foci were clinical depression and anxiety disorders (n = 78), clinical challenges (e.g. suicidal ideation, cyberbullying) (n = 34) and psychological well-being (n = 28). Most studies focused on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube. Few studies are longitudinal in design (n = 26), had comparison groups (n = 27), were randomised controlled trials (n = 3) or used structured assessments (n = 4). Few focused on different youth and sociodemographic populations, particularly for low-income, equity-seeking and deserving populations. Studies examined association (n = 120; 85.7%), mediating (n = 16; 11.4%) and causal (n = 4; 2.9%) relationships. Prospective, longitudinal studies of depression and anxiety appear to indicate that shorter use (≤3 h/day) and purposeful engagement is associated with better mood and psychological well-being. Depression may predict social media use and reduce perception of support. Findings provide families, teachers and providers ways to engage youth.
Research opportunities include clinical outcomes from functional perspective on a health continuum, diverse youth and sociodemographic populations, methodology, intervention and privacy issues. More longitudinal studies, comparison designs and effectiveness approaches are also needed. Health systems face clinical, training and professional development challenges.
The present study assessed dietary diversity and anthropometric status of children attending early development centres in South Africa. In the Vhembe District of Limpopo province, South Africa, 273 children were conveniently chosen from 8 randomly selected early childhood development centres for a cross-sectional study. Data were gathered via a questionnaire administered by the interviewer in June 2021. Height, body weight and mid-upper arm circumference were measured to assess anthropometric status. A 24-h dietary recall was obtained to provide information on dietary diversity. The prevalence of underweight, wasting and stunting was 9, 4 and 26 %, respectively. More than half of the children had a low dietary diversity score, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization scoring system for children. Grains, roots, tubers, dairy products, other fruits and vegetables, and flesh-based foods were the highest consumed food groups. The lowest consumption was for eggs, vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables, legumes and nuts. Height for age and weight for age were significantly associated with dietary diversity score, but not weight for height. Children who did not meet the reference value of greater than 4 for dietary diversity had a significant risk of being underweight (AOR 0⋅25, 95 % CI 0⋅08, 0⋅75) and stunted (AOR 0⋅32, 95 % CI 0⋅14, 0⋅74). The nutritional status of the children was impacted by a lack of adequate dietary diversity. Young children in rural areas need to receive a wide range of food to promote greater diversification of diets in order to diminish the risk of undernutrition.
We examined the association between food insecurity and positive childhood experiences (PCE).
Outcome measure was number of PCE and seven PCE constructs. Food insecurity was assessed with a three-category measure that ascertained whether the respondent could afford and choose to eat nutritious food. We then used bivariate and multivariable Poisson and logistic regressions to analyse the relationship between food insecurity and the outcome measures. The analyses were further stratified by age (≤ 5, 6–11 and 12–17 years).
The National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) from 2017 to 2020, a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents in the USA.
Parents/caregivers who reported on their children’s experiences of PCE and food insecurity from the 2017–2020 NSCH (n 114 709).
Descriptively, 22·13 % of respondents reported mild food insecurity, while 3·45 % of respondents reported moderate to severe food insecurity. On multivariable Poisson regression analyses, there was a lower rate of PCE among children who experienced mild (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0·93; 95 % CI 0·92, 0·94) or moderate/severe food insecurity (IRR = 0·84; 95 % CI 0·83, 0·86) compared with those who were food secure. We found an inverse relationship between food insecurity and rate of PCE across all age categories.
Our study finding lends evidence to support that interventions, public health programmes, as well as public health policies that reduce food insecurity among children and adolescents may be associated with an increase in PCE. Longitudinal and intervention research are needed to examine the mechanistic relationship between food insecurity and PCE across the life course.