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In this chapter, I compare the characterization of Thecla in the Latin translation of the Acts of Paul and Thecla (henceforth APT) and of Eugenia in two Latin versions of the Passion of Eugenia (BHL 2667 and 2666). As scholars have already noted, the two Passions of Eugenia differ remarkably: the references to the APT in the oldest version (BHL 2667, second half of the fifth century) are removed in the later rewriting (BHL 2666, sixth or seventh century). Based on earlier scholarship, I contextualize this rewriting as a signal of the wider tendency to use Thecla as a model of virtue, while the APT is rejected for its problematic canonicity; I do so by delving deeper into the wider Latin literature of the late antique and medieval periods. I then demonstrate the ways in which both Passions of Eugenia engage with the figure of Thecla as a model to imitate even as Eugenia surpasses her in terms of rhetoric.
A detailed study of rice genetic resources in Bangladesh's coastal areas is necessary. This understanding is a necessary requirement for its utilization in selective breeding. The study reports on the qualitative morphological trait-based assessment of 150 local rice samples collected from Bangladesh's coastal zone, including 50 advanced lines developed from coastal germplasm. Six of the thirteen analysed characters had a substantial gene contribution, whereas the average was 0.694. The most impressive diversity was in leaf blade intensity of green colour (LBIGC: 0.705). The total morpho-qualitative diversity was calculated to be 0.412. The character efficiency content ranged from 0.655 (LBIGC) to 0.136 (Leaf Sheath: Anthocyanin colouration, Leaf Blade: Presence/Absence, and Leaf Blade: Anthocyanin. Colouration). As per the morphological variance study, 93% of morphological changes were detected within individuals, whereas 7% were found in populations. The 150 germplasm samples were divided into four subpopulations using STRUCTURE-based population analysis. A moderate genotypic difference was detected amongst all groups, with an Fst value of 0.111. The G statistic backed up the record as well. The Shannon mutual information index reached a value of 1.252 between populations 2 and 3. In terms of gene exchange, the highest value was found between populations 3 and 4. Our data indicate a high degree of diversity in Bangladesh's coastline rice germplasm. The findings will aid in conferring the farmers' Intellectual Property Rights on the investigated rice germplasm.
Chapter 23 focuses on the translation of literary prose, a broad genre that ranges across children’s literature, genre fiction, and literary and lyrical fiction, each of which presents different primary foci, from style to plot, but tends towards a narrative core of characters, setting and process. Translators of literary prose face textual and contextual practical challenges in catching the cadence, rhythm and music of a text, since stylistic variation can be crucial in characterization and plot development. Figurative language, selectional restrictions, humour, allusions and quotations tend to be culturally specific and to add to the challenges presented by indeterminacy, ambiguity, inference and implicatures, all of which rely on contextual understanding and may need to be explicitated in a translation.
Suetonius’ Lives of the Caesars usually begin with a family tree. These family trees are often rhetorical, foreshadowing in the ancestors character traits that will be themes of the rest of the Life. This particular rhetorical strategy relies upon an older phenomenon of ‘family identity’—namely, the literary application of similar characteristics to people in the same family—such as the one that tells us that the Claudii are proud and the Domitii Ahenobarbi are ferocious. Gary Farney studied ‘family identity’ as a phenomenon of the Republic. There, it was the association of a family with a certain characteristic, a kind of ‘branding’. It would be perfectly obvious for Suetonius to use the family identities already in use for well-known families, but, as I show here, Suetonius’ selection of ancestors creates different family identities rather than simply using the traditional ones he would have found in other sources. In this study I concentrate on Nero and Tiberius. I focus on these two emperors because they are individuals where there is a known family identity in other sources and they also have the most detailed and elaborate ancestry sections in Suetonius’ Caesars. Family identity seems to be most interesting to Suetonius when it goes against expectations, and that is when Suetonius’ family trees are most elaborate.
This paper presents an investigation on micropipe evolution from hexagonal voids in physical vapor transport-grown 4H-SiC single crystals using the cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging technique. Complementary techniques optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are also used to understand the formation mechanism of hexagonal voids along with the origin of pipes from these voids. The ability of CL to image variations along the depth of the sample provides new insights on how micropipes are attached to hexagonal voids that lie deep within the bulk single crystals. CL imaging confirms that multiple micropipes can originate from a single hexagonal void. EDS mapping shows that the inside of the micropipe walls exhibits higher levels of carbon. Investigation of the seed region by optical imaging shows that improper fixing of the seed to the crucible lid is the root cause for the formation of hexagonal voids that subsequently lead to micropipe formation.
This study focuses on the characterization, thermal behaviour and firing properties of clays from Cap Bon Basin, Tunisia. Chemical (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy) and mineralogical (X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy) characterization of the clays was carried out. Physical properties were identified using particle-size distribution and Atterberg limits tests. Differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetry, dilatometry, XRD and FTIR analyses were conducted to assess the thermal behaviour, transformations and crystalline phase development during firing. The clays studied show large proportions of silt and clay fractions. They are rich in SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 and mostly consist of illite, kaolinite, smectite and minor mixed-layer illite-smectite. Associated minerals are mainly quartz, calcite and feldspar. To monitor the firing properties, three clay mixtures referred to as M1, M2 and M3 were prepared according to the physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the raw clays. These were sintered at 900°C, 1000°C and 1100°C and tested for firing shrinkage, flexural strength and water absorption. As a result, various mineralogical transformations occurred at 900–1100°C associated with the crystallization of new phases. The main transformations identified at >1000°C resulted in the formation of anorthite and mullite, causing significant densification of the fired ceramic materials. Sintering at 1100°C increased the densification and thus improved the flexural strength. At this temperature, the sintered ceramic tiles exhibited excellent properties, namely water absorption of 2–3% and flexural strength of 30–41 MPa, indicating that these studied clays might be used as raw materials for the production of stoneware tile ceramics.
Cotton is one of the most important crops among natural fibres. Fibre quality determines the spinning ability, which is negatively correlated with yield and yield-contributing traits. Limited efforts have been made to improve fibre quality and yield in diploid cotton. Therefore, screening a large panel of germplasm lines can help identify genotypes with better fibre quality and yield. We evaluated 712 desi cotton genotypes for fibre quality traits. The genotypes showed a significant difference for all the traits, suggesting considerable variability for fibre quality improvement. Fibre length and strength showed high phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation. Heritability was high for fibre strength, length, and elongation. Fibre length and strength were positively correlated; however, micronaire was negatively correlated with these two traits. Superior accessions were identified for fibre length (11), strength (20), uniformity (7), and elongation (25) among genotypes. Most of the desi lines (71%) had medium micronaire values. Twenty accessions identified were ideal for spinning, showing the fibre strength-to-length ratio of one. Cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance grouped all 712 accessions into four major clusters. Principal component analysis biplot revealed that accessions AC3418, 360-SP1, AC3522B, Kanpur A, Gao16CB-9, and AC3370 were genetically diverse. The superior accessions for fibre quality identified in this study are potential lines for the diploid cotton improvement programme.
The men and women we meet in the Ring, via words, music, and stage gesture, span two generations, various rungs in the cosmic hierarchy (god to human, or vice versa), and four dramas. Every character appearing onstage – and most mentioned in the text – receives attention in this chapter. Opening with roots in the natural world, from which each character in one way or another emerges, context, personality, relationships, motivations, and acts are examined, always bearing in mind that, in the Ring, such issues are explored musically as much as verbally, one sometimes in contradiction with the other, and that Wagner’s broader intellectual framework – philosophical, literary, musical, political, religious – also has much to tell us. We must start and end somewhere, of course, but what becomes quickly apparent is that it is the connections between characters – how their deeds, their words, their music shape and affect one another – that propel Wagner’s drama. As we progress, in Wagner’s conception, from Wotan to Brünnhilde; from male patriarch to female rebel; from power politics, through revolution, to renunciation; from Das Rheingold to Götterdämmerung, none of those categories, none of those characters, remains unchanged.
This study reports on the effects of dielectric barrier discharge-like (DBD-like) plasma jet treatment at atmospheric pressure on Ag cation-exchanged clinoptilolite. In the plasma treatment process, argon plasma was applied to the surface of pellet samples prepared with Ag-clinoptilolite. After DBD-like plasma jet treatment for 30 and 60 min, remarkable colour changes were observed in the pellet samples. These changes indicate that the DBD-like plasma jet application led to the successful reduction of Ag+ to its metallic forms, which was further confirmed by the results of ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The structural, composition and morphological properties of the DBD-like plasma jet-treated samples were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses, and they were compared to the untreated Ag-clinoptilolite. The DBD-like plasma jet treatment caused no detectable structural changes in clinoptilolite within the analytical limitations of the methods used. The FTIR spectra show that the plasma treatment causes discharge-induced functional changes in the hydroxyl stretching region. The peaks appearing in the XRD patterns confirmed the reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 after exposure to the plasma. The present study indicates that the reduction of Ag+ cations to their metallic forms can be performed successfully using the proposed method without collapsing the crystal structure of the Ag-clinoptilolite.
The development of crop varieties with enhanced economic value requires considerable resources, time and intellectual input. The individual/agencies/institutions other than the originator/developers can easily multiply and commercialize pure-line varieties which are the only cultivar option in predominantly self-pollinated crops like dolichos bean and derive economic benefits from them. Seeking legal rights on crop varieties is the best and the only way to protect them from unlawful claim of their origin/development and deriving economic benefits from them. Seeking legal protection from unauthorized commercialization of crop varieties under Indian PPV & FR Act requires establishment of their distinctness (D), uniformity (U) and stability (S). DUS of crop varieties are established predominantly using morphological descriptors. Five genotypes which include two released varieties (HA 3 and HA 4) (referred to as reference varieties) and one advanced breeding line, HA 11–3 and two elite germplasm accessions, Kadalavare and GL 66 (referred to as candidate varieties) were characterized for 25 morphological descriptors to establish their DUS. All the candidate varieties differed from reference varieties for at least one characterization descriptors, indicating their distinctness. The absence of off-types indicated the uniformity of reference and candidate varieties and hence was deemed stable. Thus, the study demonstrated the utility of morphological descriptors for establishing DUS dolichos bean genotypes.
The essay explores the contribution of a literary analysis to interpretation of the canonical Gospels – Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. The author begins by analyzing historical tendencies to read the biographies of Jesus atomistically, before moving to describe recent narrative approaches that focus greater attention on the overarching picture of how each story is told by means of plotting, characterization, and thematic development. The body of the essay involves two close, narrative readings, the first focused on Matt 4:23-9:38, which highlights the role of the Sermon on the Mount (Matt 5-7) and the miracle chapters (Matt 8-9) in this part of the first Gospel. The second reading addresses John’s Gospel and the ways that author deploys allusions and echoes from Gen 1-2 to accent the theme of the renewal of creation in the person and ministry of Jesus of Nazareth.
A selection of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotypes with diverse origin and breeding history including 33 landraces, eight modern varieties and two commercial hybrids has been characterized using a set of 25 qualitative descriptors and six quantitative traits. A wide range of variation was evident for the majority of traits, highlighting their utility for characterizing tomato germplasm collections. A plethora of qualitative traits including type of leaf blade, depression and ribbing at peduncle end, fruit shape at blossom end, number of locules and flowering time, as well as measured traits with economic importance such as fruit fresh weight, firmness and total yield per plant, were found to be highly variable within the collection, with a diversity index greater than 0.8. Strong correlations were detected among several traits related to fruit yield and quality. Two-dimensional principal component analysis as well as the unsupervised hierarchical clustering grouped genotypes according to their phenotypic resemblance and morphological characteristics to a great extent. Landraces from different origins were scattered across the whole variation spectrum of PC1 and PC2. A set of six qualitative traits could efficiently discriminate cultivars in PCA (explaining 75% of total variation), suggesting that it can serve as a valuable breeding tool for the germplasm characterization. The evaluation of the phenotypic diversity in the collection as well as the identification of traits that contribute most to heterogeneity have important implications for establishing core collections with high diversity, as well as designing breeding schemes across the Mediterranean basin.
Chapter 1 introduces key observational constraints for the theory of planet formation. It reviews the properties of the Solar System's planets and minor bodies, explains the principle of radioactive dating of primitive meteorites, and defines the minimum mass Solar Nebula. The main methods used to detect extrasolar planets - radial velocity monitoring, transits, direct imaging, microlensing, and astrometry - are introduced and compared. Observed properties of extrasolar planetary systems are reviewed, including the orbital distribution of planets, their mass-radius relation, and the dependence of planet frequency on stellar host properties. The concept of the habitable zone and the factors that influence planetary habitability are described.
“Wharton and the Romance Plot” describes the relationship among three of Wharton’s novels that are heavily indebted to romance conventions – The House of Mirth, The Reef, and Summer. The failure of each narrative to reach the happy ending of a wished-for marriage provides readers with one means of questioning the actions of each pair of carefully drawn characters: is the absence of a fairy-tale ending the fault of Lily or Selden? Anna or George? Charity or Lucius? As Wharton changes the conventions of romance, she asks the reader to do a different kind of reading, a more socially based critique, one dependent on expectations by gender. Literary history seems to have prejudiced readers against Wharton’s early women characters, yet Henry James saw all too clearly how noble Anna Leathe was. With Lily Bart dead, and Charity Royall summarily wed, the fact that Anna wins the lover she desires breaks the often-cliched romance plot in her favor.
A family of generalized ageing intensity functions of univariate absolutely continuous lifetime random variables is introduced and studied. They allow the analysis and measurement of the ageing tendency from various points of view. Some of these generalized ageing intensities characterize families of distributions dependent on a single parameter, while others determine distributions uniquely. In particular, it is shown that the elasticity functions of various transformations of distributions that appear in lifetime analysis and reliability theory uniquely characterize the parent distribution. Moreover, the recognition of the shape of a properly chosen generalized ageing intensity estimate admits a simple identification of the data lifetime distribution.
In the present communication, we introduce quantile-based (dynamic) inaccuracy measures and study their properties. Such measures provide an alternative approach to evaluate inaccuracy contained in the assumed statistical models. There are several models for which quantile functions are available in tractable form, though their distribution functions are not available in explicit form. In such cases, the traditional distribution function approach fails to compute inaccuracy between two random variables. Various examples are provided for illustration purpose. Some bounds are obtained. Effect of monotone transformations and characterizations are provided.
A systematic method for determining colour descriptor states using image analysis is proposed using pili (Canarium ovatum) as a model. Kernel images of 52 pili accessions from the core collection of the Institute of Crop Science and National Plant Genetic Resources Laboratory, University of the Philippines Los Baños were captured using a calibrated VideometerLab 3 setup. Colour descriptor states were derived from the average International Commission on Illumination lightness (L*), green–red (a*) and blue–yellow (b*) colour component values. Cluster analysis and subsequent colour-parameter averaging per cluster were performed to produce representative colour values of descriptor states. The Euclidian distance (Delta E) of 3.5 was used to cut the cluster into readily distinguishable colour differences resulting to three descriptor states – light brown, brown and dark brown. Continuous colour variation of brown colour was observed indicating a possible quantitative nature of the trait. The use of delta E in elucidating the descriptor lists served as a gauge in successfully identifying distinguishable variations between colours. The method described can be applied to the elucidation of colour descriptor states of all parts of the plant of all crop species.
Sequential order statistics can be used to describe the ordered lifetimes of components of a system when the failure of a component may affect the reliability of the remaining components. After a reliability system consisting of n components fails, some of its components may still be alive. In this paper we first establish some univariate stochastic orderings and ageing properties of the residual lifetimes of the live components in a sequential (n-r+1)-out-of-n system. We also obtain a characterizing result for the exponential distribution based on uncorrelated residual lifetimes of live components. Finally, we provide some sufficient conditions for comparing vectors of residual lifetimes of the live components from two sequential (n-r+1)-out-of-n systems. The results established here extend some well-known results in the literature.
The adsorption capacities of nano-sized organoclays composed of a stevensite-rich clay (R), phosphorus dendrimers (GC1 and GC2) and Na+-saturated clay were evaluated for their capacity to adsorb chromate and methylene blue (MB) in the range of 298–318 K. The adsorption kinetics and the isotherms were analysed based on kinetic equations and isotherm models and by adopting a non-linear regression procedure. In addition, the organoclays and the Na+-saturated clays were characterized principally by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The pseudo-second-order rate equation described kinetics data well, and the adsorption rates were not limited by the intraparticle diffusion or by the liquid film diffusion. Both chemical species were adsorbed spontaneously (–31 < ΔG°T< –10 kJ/mol), but the adsorbents had a high affinity for MB species. The adsorption isotherms of chromate were fitted better by the Freundlich model, while those of MB followed the Langmuir model. Chromate adsorption took place at the edges and the free surfaces of stevensite, particularly at the protonated aluminols. MB was adsorbed as MBH2+ and MB+. The MB protonation occurred at the clay surfaces, and MB+ ions were located at the planar surfaces of stevensite as well as at the external surfaces of aggregates. Moreover, the tetrahedral sheet of stevensite involved in the formation of GC1-based organoclays was the subject of a partial chemical modification.