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To investigate hearing and the take rate of crushed cartilage grafts in tympanoplasty.
In this double-blinded, randomised, controlled trial, 46 patients with tympanic membrane perforation were enrolled. A conchal cartilage graft was used for reconstruction in both intervention and control groups. In the intervention group, crushed cartilage was used. The success rate and hearing results were ascertained every four months over a one-year follow-up period.
A total of 36 patients – 20 in the intervention group and 16 in the control group – completed one year of follow up. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in mean air–bone gap, bone conduction threshold, speech discrimination score or speech reception threshold.
The reduction in living cells after crushed cartilage tympanoplasty may decrease the rigidity and the volume of the graft, but may not necessarily improve the hearing results.
Anteriorly located tympanic membrane perforations can negatively affect surgical success rates. This study aimed to present, using our case series results, endoscopic triple-C (composite chondroperichondrial clip) tympanoplasty as an alternative method in the repair of tympanic membrane anterior quadrant perforations.
This study included patients with a perforation sized greater than 3 mm, who had an anterior quadrant dominant perforation where the anterior portion could not be seen during microscopic examination; all underwent endoscopic triple-C tympanoplasty.
Operating time was 30–79 minutes (mean, 46.6 minutes). The post-operative graft success rate at six months was 92 per cent (23 out of 25). Mean post-operative follow-up duration was 21.5 ± 7.3 months (range, 11–40 months), and no intratympanic cholesteatoma was observed.
Endoscopic triple-C tympanoplasty is a comfortable, minimally invasive alternative method to repair anterior tympanic membrane perforations. The graft success rate and the degree of recovery from hearing loss were in accordance with the literature. However, more reliable results may be obtained in a larger series with longer follow-up times.
To validate a newly introduced cartilage rim augmented temporalis fascia tympanoplasty technique by statistically comparing it with the morphological and audiological outcomes of traditional temporalis fascia tympanoplasty.
A retrospective comparative study was conducted on 115 patients who underwent tympanoplasty during 2013 and 2015. Fifty-eight patients underwent temporalis fascia tympanoplasty and 57 underwent cartilage rim augmented fascia tympanoplasty.
In the cartilage fascia group, graft healing was achieved in 94.7 per cent of cases; in the temporalis fascia group, the graft take-up rate was 70 per cent. In those with a normal ossicular chain, the post-operative air–bone gap was within 20 dB in 92.6 per cent of cartilage fascia group cases and in 69.7 per cent of the temporalis fascia group cases, which was a statistically significant difference. Among the defective ossicular chain cases, the post-operative air–bone gap was within 20 dB in 76.9 per cent in the cartilage fascia group, as against 57.1 per cent in the temporalis fascia group.
Cartilage rim augmented temporalis fascia tympanoplasty has a definite advantage over the temporalis fascia technique in terms of superior graft take up and statistically significant hearing gain in those with normal ossicular mobility.
Few studies have compared bilateral same-day with staged tympanoplasty using cartilage graft materials.
A prospective randomised observational study was performed of 38 chronic suppurative otitis media patients (76 ears) who were assigned to undergo bilateral sequential same-day tympanoplasty (18 patients, 36 ears) or bilateral sequential tympanoplasty performed 3 months apart (20 patients, 40 ears). Disease duration, intra-operative findings, combined duration of surgery, post-operative graft appearance at 6 weeks, post-operative complications, re-do rate and relative cost of surgery were recorded.
Tympanic membrane perforations were predominantly subtotal (p = 0.36, odds ratio = 0.75). Most grafts were harvested from the conchal cartilage and fewer from the tragus (p = 0.59, odds ratio = 1.016). Types of complication, post-operative hearing gain and revision rates were similar in both patient groups.
Surgical outcomes are not significantly different for same-day and bilateral cartilage tympanoplasty, but same-day surgery has the added benefit of a lower cost.
This study aimed to evaluate the results of revision radical cavity surgery with mastoid obliteration using a standardised grading scheme.
A retrospective study was performed of 121 patients (122 ears) with chronically draining ears who underwent revision radical cavity surgery with mastoid obliteration between 2007 and 2013. Surgical indications, patient characteristics, pre- and post-operative Merchant grade, and surgical outcomes were recorded. The main outcome measures were presence of a dry ear, time for complete re-epithelialisation, presence of residual or recurrent disease, and need for revision surgery.
In the 5-year follow-up group (n = 31), dry ears were found in 97 per cent after 6 minor revisions and cholesteatoma-free ears were found in 97 per cent. In the total cohort, dry ears were found in 93 per cent after nine revisions and cholesteatoma-free ears were found in 98 per cent. The median time for complete re-epithelialisation was eight weeks. There were no major complications.
In terms of the dry ear rate, residual cholesteatoma and time to complete epithelialisation, revision radical cavity surgery with mastoid obliteration produces very good results in concordance with published results, despite most patients suffering from very troublesome cavities prior to surgery.
Considering the negative effects of glucocorticoid treatment, especially during fetal development it is important to investigate effectors decreasing such disadvantages. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prenatally administered dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic glucocorticoid, on the histomorphometry of the femur in the offspring of spiny mice. The study was performed on 24 pregnant spiny mice. The time of the experiment included the prenatal period between the 20th day of gestation until birth (pregnancy lasts on average of 36–38 days). The mice from the experimental group received dexamethasone per os in a dose of 125 mg/kg birth weight daily. At the end, the newborns from the experimental and control group were weighted and euthanized. Maternal Dex treatment resulted in a 17% decrease in birth weight in newborns. Dex administration significantly reduced the thickness of the hypertrophy zone of the growth plate by 34% and total thickness by 8,7%. In addition, Dex decreased the number of cells in the articular cartilage by 27% and significantly decreased their diameter by 5%. Dex also affected the structure and spatial distribution of thick and thin collagen fibers, lowering the proportion of thin fibers compared with the control group. Moreover, Dex treatment considerably lowered the amount of proteoglycans in articular and growth cartilages. Exposure to glucocorticoids in pregnant spiny mice affects cartilage development by accelerating maturity of collagen fibers and growth plate, presumably along with further disruption of longitudinal growth of long bones.
The use of endoscopic techniques is becoming more widespread in otological and neuro-otological surgery. One such procedure, endoscopic tympanoplasty, is used in chronic otitis media treatment. This study aimed to analyse the results of endoscopic transcanal cartilage tympanoplasty.
Data of tubotympanic chronic otitis media patients who underwent transcanal endoscopic type I cartilage tympanoplasty between June 2012 and May 2013 were analysed. The main outcome measures were graft success and hearing improvement.
Graft success rates were 94.3 per cent and 92.5 per cent at post-operative months one and six, respectively. Post-operative air–bone gap values were significantly improved over pre-operative values (p < 0.01).
Transcanal endoscopic type I cartilage tympanoplasty is a minimally invasive, effective and reliable surgical treatment option for chronic otitis media.
This paper presents a novel method for spreader graft placement without dorsum resection in patients who have a deviated septum with a narrow internal nasal valve angle.
A Killian incision was used for the endonasal septoplasty, and all spreader grafts were harvested from excised deviated septal cartilages. Procedures were conducted under general anaesthesia at the same centre by the same surgical team that performed the endonasal procedure. Successful placement of spreader grafts was achieved endonasally.
Although the endonasal placement of spreader grafts seems to be more difficult than placement conducted by an open approach technique, an endonasal procedure has many advantages. Our technique provides surgeons with the opportunity to shorten operation time, obtain autologous septal graft material and secure the columellar architecture. Surgeons familiar with the classical (endonasal) septoplasty procedure can easily apply this technique to widen a narrow internal nasal valve angle, without corrupting nasal integrity.
To develop an autologous total ossicular replacement prosthesis with sustainable hearing results.
The ears of 40 patients, who had chronic otitis media with absent suprastructure of the stapes and long process of the incus, were repaired using the autologous total ossicular replacement technique. Post-operative results were evaluated after 6 and 12 months on the basis of average pure tone air conduction and average air–bone gap measured at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kHz.
Successful rehabilitation of pure tone average to 30 dB or less was achieved in 75 per cent of patients, and air–bone gap to 20 dB or less was attained in 82.5 per cent of patients. Overall mean improvement in air–bone gap was 23.9 ± 8.5 dB (p < 0.001). Mean improvements in air–bone gap were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the tympanoplasty only group (27.3 ± 6.6 dB) and the intact canal wall tympanoplasty group (25.9 ± 6.3 dB) than in the canal wall down tympanoplasty group (16.3 ± 8.9 dB).
This paper describes an autologous total ossicular replacement prosthesis that is biocompatible, stable, magnetic resonance imaging compatible and, above all, results in sustainable hearing improvement.
Ear cartilage piercing is increasingly popular and has a significant complication rate. Contrary to popular belief, there are no minimum qualifications required to practice ear piercing. This study evaluated ear cartilage piercing practices in London, UK.
Practitioners at 25 piercing parlours completed a telephone questionnaire assessing piercing practice.
Ninety-six per cent of practitioners were aware of the risk of infection post-piercing. Four per cent, 12 per cent and 0 per cent of practitioners were aware of keloid scarring, hypertrophic scarring and cauliflower ear respectively. No practitioners were aware of any other complications. Their consent forms did not document any ear cartilage complications. Twenty-eight per cent of participants advised clients to seek medical attention following a complication. Forty per cent did not provide written post-piercing guidance.
Piercing practitioners were insufficiently aware of ear cartilage piercing complications. It is unlikely that informed consent was obtained prior to piercing. The post-piercing practice of the majority of parlours did not follow published national guidance.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease for which there are no disease-modifying drugs. It is a leading cause of disability in the UK. Increasing age and obesity are both major risk factors for OA and the health and economic burden of this disease will increase in the future. Focusing on compounds from the habitual diet that may prevent the onset or slow the progression of OA is a strategy that has been under-investigated to date. An approach that relies on dietary modification is clearly attractive in terms of risk/benefit and more likely to be implementable at the population level. However, before undertaking a full clinical trial to examine potential efficacy, detailed molecular studies are required in order to optimise the design. This review focuses on potential dietary factors that may reduce the risk or progression of OA, including micronutrients, fatty acids, flavonoids and other phytochemicals. It therefore ignores data coming from classical inflammatory arthritides and nutraceuticals such as glucosamine and chondroitin. In conclusion, diet offers a route by which the health of the joint can be protected and OA incidence or progression decreased. In a chronic disease, with risk factors increasing in the population and with no pharmaceutical cure, an understanding of this will be crucial.
This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the recently described chondroperichondrial clip myringoplasty technique, and make comparisons with conventional myringoplasty techniques.
The study comprised a select group of patients with chronic otitis media (mucosal disease only), with central tympanic membrane perforations affecting less than 50 per cent of the pars tensa, and an air–bone gap below 35 dB. A modified custom-made cartilage perichondrial graft was placed using the recently described ‘clip’ technique.
The graft success rate was 91.3 per cent. Post-operatively, the air–bone gap was within 10 dB in 52 per cent of cases and within 10–20 dB in 48 per cent of cases. There were few minor complications.
Chondroperichondrial clip myringoplasty can be considered as an alternative minimally invasive technique for the repair of select cases of tympanic membrane perforations. This technique, which showed impressive results, was associated with minimum morbidity and reduced operative time.
This retrospective, comparative study aimed to assess anatomical and functional results in a group of adults undergoing type I tympanoplasty for subtotal tympanic membrane perforation, using two different types of graft.
Subjects and methods:
The study included 106 patients affected by chronic otitis media, who underwent underlay type I tympanoplasty, 53 using an autologous chondro-perichondral tragal graft and 53 using temporalis fascia. Anatomical and functional outcomes were evaluated over time.
Audiometric results comparing the cartilage and fascia groups at six months and one year after surgery showed no statistically significant differences. Assessment of anatomical outcomes indicated a greater number of complications in the fascia group.
Functional results indicate the validity of the cartilage tympanoplasty, while anatomical results indicate a slightly better outcome in terms of graft re-perforation and retraction, compared with temporalis fascia at one-year follow up. These results suggest that the cartilage technique is preferable for type I tympanoplasty.
Chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis is a common benign condition of the pinna. It presents as a painful, well demarcated nodule on the pinna that may be associated with surrounding erythema or an overlying crust.
This paper describes techniques for the excision of chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis on both the helix and anti-helix, and reconstruction of the defect.
Both methods give an excellent cosmetic result and can be performed under local anaesthetic. Excising and smoothing down the cartilage decreases the likelihood of recurrence as a smooth contour to the ear is achieved.
To assess the clinical and radiological characteristics of the posterior prolongation of the cartilaginous nasal septum, an under-utilised source of autologous cartilage for nasal reconstruction.
Materials and methods:
Consecutive patients undergoing primary, external approach rhinoplasty were included. The septal cartilage was assessed intra-operatively prior to routine harvest. Cartilage use was recorded and post-operative cosmesis noted. Computed tomography scans from a separate patient group, with no septal surgery, were used to assess septal cartilage dimensions.
Of the 25 rhinoplasty patients studied, 24 had harvestable septal cartilage, with a posterior prolongation mean length ± standard deviation of 24.3 ± 8.40 mm, mean height of 4.33 ± 0.34 mm and mean width of 1.1 ± 0.35 mm. The mean post-operative cosmesis score was +2.41 ± 0.71 at a mean follow up of 45 ± 8.7 weeks. All 25 radiology patients had visible posterior prolongations on computed tomography (mean length, 18.1 ± 5.1 mm; mean height, 4.2 ± 1.1 mm; mean width 1.5 ± 0.63 mm).
Harvesting of the posterior prolongation would increase by 25 per cent the cartilage area available for autologous grafts. Endoscopic guidance aids this process. Cartilage is most commonly used for overlay grafts, with good cosmesis. The posterior prolongation is demonstrated on computed tomography, although dimensions may be underestimated.
Osteohistological characteristics of the large temnospondyl amphibian Metoposaurus diagnosticus from the Upper Triassic of Poland (Krasiejów locality) were determined using vertebral intercentra thin-sections from different regions and growth stages. The intercentra showed a trabecular structure in both the endochondral and periosteal domains. Endochondral ossification developed first, and the primary bone occurs near the periphery with a higher degree of remodelling in the centre. Periosteal bone deposition begins later; first on the ventral side, continuing laterally and finally onto the dorsal side. Periosteal growth rate was initially very rapid, and then subsequently decreased in rate. In all sections, numerous remains of calcified cartilage are visible, which may indicate a juvenile, paedomorphic or plesiomorphic character. The four histologic ontogenetic stages (HOS) of sampled vertebrae were determined based on growth marks. Most of the sampled bones belong to juvenile individuals (HOS 1 to 3), apart from one atlas and the largest anterior dorsal intercentrum, which represent the oldest described stage (HOS 4). Sharpey's fibres are preserved in ventro-lateral cortical regions, around parapophyses and on the posterior side of the neural arch.
Adipose-derived stem cells have been reported as a novel candidate for the repair of cartilage injuries in vivo.
In order to assess their differentiation ability, adipose-derived stem cells isolated from rabbit fat tissue were injected into the midportion of a surgically created rabbit ear auricle cartilage defect. After several months, the auricles were resected, histopathologically assessed and compared with a control group.
Histopathological examination of auricles removed three, four and five months after injection showed islands of new cartilage formation at the site of the surgically induced defect. Six months after injection, we observed well-formed, mature cartilaginous plates that completely filled the defect in the native cartilage. In the control group, there was no significant growth of new cartilage.
The results of this study suggest the great potential of adipose-derived stem cells to repair damaged cartilage tissue in vivo.
To compare the functional results of type I tympanoplasty performed with either temporalis fascia or a perichondrium and cartilage island flap, in patients with bilateral chronic otitis media.
The study included primary tympanoplasty cases with a subtotal perforation, an intact ossicular chain, a dry ear for at least one month and normal middle-ear mucosa, together with contralateral tympanic membrane perforation. Temporalis fascia tympanoplasty was undertaken in 41 patients, and cartilage tympanoplasty in 39 patients.
The graft success rate was 65.9 per cent for the fascia group and 92.3 per cent for the cartilage group. Post-operatively, the mean ± standard deviation air conduction threshold was 28.54 ± 14.20 dB for the fascia group and 22.97 ± 8.37 dB for the cartilage group, while the mean ± standard deviation bone conduction threshold was 11.71 ± 8.50 dB for the fascia group and 7.15 ± 5.56 dB for the cartilage group.
In patients with bilateral chronic otitis media, cartilage tympanoplasty seems to provide better hearing results and graft success rates.
To compare anatomical and audiological outcomes of ring versus ‘Mercedes-Benz’ cartilage-perichondrium graft tympanoplasty in patients with pars tensa cholesteatoma.
Prospective clinical study.
Otolaryngology department, Tanta University Hospital, Egypt.
Patients and methods: Over three years, 60 ears in 60 patients underwent surgery for either sinus or tensa retraction cholesteatoma, reconstructed using either a ring-shaped (30 ears) or Mercedes-Benz symbol shaped (30 ears) cartilage-perichondrium graft, with at least two years' follow up. Post-operative drum perforation and retraction, cholesteatoma residue and recurrence, middle-ear effusion, and hearing acuity were monitored.
Anatomical outcomes were equivalent in both groups, but slightly better in the Mercedes group. Hearing improved significantly in both groups (pre- vs post-operative results), but significantly more so in the ring group. Within-group hearing outcomes were unaffected by cholesteatoma type or tympanoplasty type.
The Mercedes-Benz technique may be superior to the ring technique in preventing neodrum retraction. However, the ring graft technique had better hearing outcomes, perhaps due to its more physiological design.
The aim of tympanoplasty graft preparation is to stiffen the fascia or perichondrium and thereby to optimise ease of manipulation. We report 39 cases utilising a novel technique in which the graft is prepared in ear drops containing polyethylene glycol, flumetasone pivalate (0.02 per cent) and clioquinol (1 per cent). This technique is useful in reducing the risk of desiccation if placement is delayed, and may pose less risk of infection and mechanical damage than alternative methods.