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Unipolar mania is not included in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-5 (DSM-5) as a separate diagnosis, although it is defined by widely accepted diagnostic criteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between unipolar mania and bipolar disorder in terms of clinical and inflammatory parameters.
The data of 495 hospitalised patients with bipolar disorder diagnoses were analysed retrospectively. Forty met the diagnostic criteria for unipolar mania. Two patients refused to participate in the study. Thirty-eight unipolar mania patients and 42 randomly selected patients with bipolar disorder diagnosis were included in the study. The two groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic, clinical characteristics, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, C-reactive protein (CRP), leucocyte and cytokine levels.
A total of 40 (8.08%) of 495 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder met the unipolar mania diagnostic criteria. The number of manic episodes and the number of hospitalisations were statistically higher in the unipolar mania group than in the bipolar disorder group. Among all the manic symptoms, the incidence of symptoms such as euphoria, increased sexual interest, grandiosity and delusions were found to be statistically higher in the unipolar mania group. Interleukin (IL)-6 and CRP levels were significantly higher in the unipolar mania group than in the bipolar disorder group.
Unipolar mania differs from bipolar disorder in terms of clinical features and serum IL-6 and CRP levels.
Determining the parameters that can predict the requirement of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions among the COVID-19 patients presented to the emergency departments (EDs).
In adult consecutive patients admitted (March 15 - April 15, 2020) to the ED of a state hospital for COVID-19, we retrospectively analyzed demographic data, symptoms, laboratory tests and chest computed tomography (CT) on arrival.
We included 458 patients [213 (46.5%) females, median age 48 years]. Body temperature, respiration rate, CRP, D-dimer, ferritin values and the number of comorbidities were significantly higher in patients admitted to the ICU than others. Also, diffuse infiltration in chest CT is more common in patients who need ICU follow-up. As a result of the binary regression analysis, a statistically significant correlation was found between the presence of dyspnea (OR: 12.55), tachypnea (RR≥18) (OR: 14.54), multiple comorbidities (≥2) (OR: 23.39), diffuse infiltration in CT (OR: 14.52), and CRP (≥45 mg/L) (OR: 4.71); and the need for ICU admission.
It has been concluded that the presence of dyspnea and tachypnea, elevated CRP, presence of multiple comorbidities, and diffuse infiltration in CT may predict the need for ICU admissions of the patients, who presented to the EDs.
Dysregulated proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to be associated with suicidal behavior. Cognitive deficits in working memory and inhibitory control have been demonstrated in depressed patients and people with suicidal ideation (SI). However, the association between proinflammatory cytokines, SI, and cognitive deficits in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unclear.
A total of 77 patients with MDD and age-/sex-matched 60 healthy individuals were recruited. MDD patients were divided into two groups: with SI (n = 36) and no SI (n = 41). SI was defined by a score of ≥2 in item 3 of the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including soluble interleukin-6 receptor, soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor type 1, and C-reactive protein (CRP), were measured, and cognitive function was assessed using 2-back task and Go/No-Go task.
Patients with SI had higher levels of CRP than those without SI and controls (P = .007). CRP was positively associated with SI (β = 0.21, P = .037), independent of cognitive function and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, SI was associated with cognitive deficits in working memory and inhibitory control after adjusting for confounding factors (P < .05).
Our findings suggest that higher levels of serum CRP and deficits in working memory and inhibitory control may be associated with higher SI among patients with MDD.
There is no clinical difference between depressive episodes in bipolar disorder compared to major depressive disorder, which is why bipolar disorder remains unrecognized. Correctly distinguishing these disorders is of great importance because the therapeutic approach differs significantly. According to previous research, zinc, albumin, C reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6(IL-6) seem to play a role in differentiating these two types of depressive episodes.
To determine zinc, albumin, CRP and IL-6 serum concentrations in patients with major depressive disorder and depressive episode of bipolar disorder.
Research involved 60 participants. Participants signed informed consent prior to inclusion in the study. Sociodemographic data have been collected using a previously structured questionnaire. The severity of depressive symptoms has been measured by the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D-17). Blood samples were obtained from each study participant’s brachial vein, to determine zinc, albumin, C reactive protein and interleukin-6 serum concentrations.
Statistically significant difference was found in zinc serum levels between the two analysed groups. In the overall sample, there is a significant positive correlation between the results on the rating scales and the serum level of CRP.
We confirmed an association between serum levels of CRP and the severity of the illness. Regardless, these are preliminary results of the research. Sufficient final conclusion cannot yet be drawn because it is being limited by the sample size and further investigation is needed.
This work aims to examine the interaction between apo A2 (Apo A-II) –265T > C SNP and dietary total antioxidant capacity (DTAC) on inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present cross-sectional study included 180 patients (35–65 years) with identified Apo A-II genotype. Dietary intakes were assessed by a FFQ. DTAC was computed using the international databases. IL-18 (IL18), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), pentraxin (PTX3), serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and 8-isoprostaneF2α (PGF2α) markers were obtained according to standard protocols. General linear model was used to evaluate the interaction. The interaction of gene and DTAC (PFRAP = 0·039 and PORAC = 0·042) on PGF2α level was significant after adjusting for confounders. A significant interaction was observed on IL18 level (PORAC = 0·018 and PFRAP = 0·048) and SOD (PTEAC = 0·037) in obese patients. Among patients whose DTAC was higher than the median intake, the levels of hs-CRP and PGF2α were significantly higher only in individuals with CC genotype. Serum TAC (PFRAP = 0·030, PORAC = 0·049) and SOD were significantly lower in the CC genotype. There was a favourable relationship between the high-DTAC and SOD (obese: PTEAC = 0·034, non-obese: PFRAP = 0·001, PTRAP < 0·0001, PTEAC = 0·003 and PORAC = 0·001) and PGF2α (non-obese: PORAC = 0·024) in T-allele carriers. The rs5082 SNP interacts with DTAC to influence several cardiometabolic risk factors. Also, we found dietary recommendations for antioxidant-rich foods intake might be useful in the prevention of diabetes complications in the T carrier more effectively than the CC genotype. Future large studies are required to confirm these results.
Differentiation between post-operative inflammation and bacterial infection remains an important issue in infants following congenital heart surgery. We primarily assessed kinetics and predictive value of C-reactive protein for bacterial infection in the early (days 0–4) and late (days 5–28) period after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Secondary objectives were frequency, type, and timing of post-operative infection related to the risk adjustment for congenital heart surgery score.
This 3-year single-centre retrospective cohort study in a paediatric cardiac ICU analysed 191 infants accounting for 235 episodes of CPBP surgery. Primary outcome was kinetics of CRP in the first 28 days after CPBP surgery in infected and non-infected patients.
We observed 22 infectious episodes in the early and 34 in the late post-operative period. CRP kinetics in the early post-operative period did not accurately differentiate between infected and non-infected patients. In the late post-operative period, infected infants displayed significantly higher CRP values with a median of 7.91 (1.64–22.02) and 6.92 mg/dl (1.92–19.65) on days 2 and 3 compared to 4.02 (1.99–15.9) and 3.72 mg/dl (1.08–9.72) in the non-infection group. Combining CRP on days 2 and 3 after suspicion of infection revealed a cut-off of 9.47 mg/L with an acceptable predictive accuracy of 76%.
In neonates and infants, CRP kinetics is not useful to predict infection in the first 72 hours after CPBP surgery due to the inflammatory response. However, in the late post-operative period, CRP is a valuable adjunctive diagnostic test in conjunction with clinical presentation and microbiological diagnostics.
Inflammation is a central mechanism in metabolic disorders associated with morbidity and mortality and dietary factors can modulate inflammation. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between an empirically developed, food-based dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score and the risk of overall and cause-specific mortality, using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2014. EDIP score was derived by entering thirty-nine predefined commonly consumed food groups into the reduced rank regression models followed by stepwise linear regression, which was most predictive of two plasma inflammation biomarkers including C-reactive protein and leucocyte count among 25 500 US adults. This score was further validated in a testing set of 9466 adults. Deaths from baseline until 31 December 2015 were identified through record linkage to the National Death Index. During a median follow-up of 7·8 years among 40 074 participants, we documented 4904 deaths. Compared with participants in the lowest quintile of EDIP score, those in the highest quintile had a higher risk of overall death (hazard ratio (HR) = 1·19, 95 % CI 1·08, 1·32, Ptrend = 0·002), and deaths from cancer (HR = 1·41, 95 % CI 1·14, 1·74, Ptrend = 0·017) and CVD (HR = 1·22, 95 % CI 0·98, 1·53, Ptrend = 0·211). When stratified by age, the association of EDIP with overall mortality was stronger among individuals under 65 years of age (Pinteraction = 0·001). Diets with a higher inflammatory potential were associated with increased risk of overall and cancer-specific mortality. Interventions to reduce the adverse effect of pro-inflammatory diets may potentially promote health and longevity.
To analyse the correlations between olfactory psychophysical scores and the serum levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in coronavirus disease 2019 patients.
Patients underwent psychophysical olfactory assessment with the Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center test, and determination of blood serum levels of the inflammatory markers D-dimer, C-reactive protein, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio within 10 days of the clinical onset of coronavirus disease 2019 and 60 days after.
Seventy-seven patients were included in this study. D-dimer, procalcitonin, ferritin and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio correlated significantly with severe coronavirus disease 2019. No significant correlations were found between baseline and 60-day Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center test scores and the inflammatory markers assessed.
Olfactory disturbances appear to have little prognostic value in predicting the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 compared to D-dimer, ferritin, procalcitonin and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. The lack of correlation between the severity and duration of olfactory disturbances and serum levels of inflammatory markers seems to further suggest that the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the loss of smell in coronavirus disease 2019 patients are related to local rather than systemic inflammatory factors.
COVID-19 pandemic continues to be a global health crisis. The gut microbiome critically affects the immune system, and some respiratory infections are associated with changes in the gut microbiome; here, we evaluated the role of nutritional and lifestyle habits that modulate gut microbiota on COVID-19 outcomes in a longitudinal cohort study that included 200 patients infected with COVID-19. Of these, 122 cases were mild and seventy-eight were moderate, according to WHO classification. After detailed explanation by a consultant in clinical nutrition, participants responded to a written questionnaire on daily sugar, prebiotic intake in food, sleeping hours, exercise duration and antibiotic prescription, during the past 1 year before infection. Daily consumption of prebiotic-containing foods, less sugar, regular exercise, adequate sleep and fewer antibiotic prescriptions led to a milder disease and rapid virus clearance. Additionally, data on these factors were compiled into a single score, the ESSAP score (Exercise, Sugar consumption, Sleeping hours, Antibiotics taken, and Prebiotics consumption; 0–11 points), median ESSAP score was 5 for both mild and moderate cases; however, the range was 4–8 in mild cases, but 1–6 in moderate (P = 0·001, OR: 4·2, 95 % CI 1·9, 9·1); our results showed a negative correlation between regular consumption of yogurt containing probiotics and disease severity (P = 0·007, OR: 1·6, 95 % CI 1·1, 2·1). Mild COVID-19 disease was associated with 10–20 min of daily exercise (P = 0·016), sleeping at least 8 h daily, prescribed antibiotics less than 5 times per year (P = 0·077) and ate plenty of prebiotic-containing food.
The consumption of nuts and extra-virgin olive oil has been associated with suppression of inflammatory pathways that contribute to atherosclerosis, but its role on the modulation of the inflammatory profile in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding pecan nuts or extra-virgin olive oil to a healthy diet on inflammatory markers in patients with stable CAD. In this randomised clinical trial, 204 patients were enrolled to three study groups: sixty seven to control group (CG: healthy diet), sixty eight to pecan nuts group (PNG: 30 g/d of pecans + healthy diet) and sixty nine to extra-virgin olive oil group (OOG: 30 ml/d of extra-virgin olive oil + healthy diet). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, in mg/l), fibrinogen (mg/dl), IL 2, 4, 6, 10 (pg/ml) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ, in pg/ml), IL-6/IL-10, IL-2/IL-4 and IFN-/γIL-4 ratios were evaluated at baseline and after the follow-up (12 weeks). As main results, after adjustment for sex, statin used and relative body weight variation, there were no differences between groups regarding inflammatory markers at the end of the study. IL-6 levels (primary outcome) were reduced in 12 weeks when compared with baseline in all study groups (CG: difference: −0·593 (se = 0·159) pg/dL; PNG: difference: −0·335 (se = 0·143) pg/dl; OOG: IL-6 difference: −0·325 (se = 0·143) pg/dl). In conclusion, there was no significant effect of including pecan nuts or extra virgin olive oil to a healthy diet on inflammatory markers in individuals with CAD.
Healthy Nordic diet has been beneficially associated with CHD risk factors, but few studies have investigated risk of developing CHD. We investigated the associations of healthy Nordic diet with major CHD risk factors, carotid atherosclerosis and incident CHD in middle-aged and older men from eastern Finland. A total of 1981 men aged 42–60 years and free of CHD at baseline in 1984–1989 were investigated. Diet was assessed with 4-d food recording and the healthy Nordic diet score was calculated based on the Baltic Sea Diet Score. Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by ultrasonography of the common carotid artery intima–media thickness in 1053 men. ANCOVA and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used for analyses. Healthy Nordic diet score was associated with lower serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations (multivariable-adjusted extreme-quartile difference 0·66 mg/l, 95 % CI 0·11, 1·21 mg/l) but not with serum lipid concentrations, blood pressure or carotid atherosclerosis. During the average follow-up of 21·6 years (sd 8·3 years), 407 men had a CHD event, of which 277 were fatal. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios in the lowest v. the highest quartile of the healthy Nordic diet score were 1·15 (95 % CI 0·87, 1·51) for any CHD event (Ptrend 0·361) and 1·44 (95 % CI 0·99, 2·08) (Ptrend 0·087) for fatal CHD event. We did not find evidence that adherence to a healthy Nordic diet would be associated with a lower risk of CHD or with carotid atherosclerosis or major CHD risk factors, except for an inverse association with serum CRP concentrations.
Depression and overweight are each associated with abnormal immune system activation. We sought to disentangle the extent to which depressive symptoms and overweight status contributed to increased inflammation and abnormal cortisol levels.
Participants were recruited through the Wellcome Trust NIMA Consortium. The sample of 216 participants consisted of 69 overweight patients with depression; 35 overweight controls; 55 normal-weight patients with depression and 57 normal-weight controls. Peripheral inflammation was measured as high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP) in serum. Salivary cortisol was collected at multiple points throughout the day to measure cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol levels.
Overweight patients with depression had significantly higher hsCRP compared with overweight controls (p = 0.042), normal-weight depressed patients (p < 0.001) and normal-weight controls (p < 0.001), after controlling for age and gender. Multivariable logistic regression showed that comorbid depression and overweight significantly increased the risk of clinically elevated hsCRP levels ⩾3 mg/L (OR 2.44, 1.28–3.94). In a separate multivariable logistic regression model, overweight status contributed most to the risk of having hsCRP levels ⩾3 mg/L (OR 1.52, 0.7–2.41), while depression also contributed a significant risk (OR 1.09, 0.27–2). There were no significant differences between groups in cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol levels.
Comorbid depression and overweight status are associated with increased hsCRP, and the coexistence of these conditions amplified the risk of clinically elevated hsCRP levels. Overweight status contributed most to the risk of clinically elevated hsCRP levels, but depression also contributed to a significant risk. We observed no differences in cortisol levels between groups.
Although the intake of specific flavonoid-rich foods may reduce C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, the association between dietary flavonoid intakes and CRP is inconsistent. We aim to describe dietary flavonoid intakes in a Taiwanese nationally representative sample and to investigate the association between flavonoid intakes and CRP. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 2592 adults from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2005–8. Flavonoid intakes were estimated by linking the 24-h dietary recall with the U.S. Department of Agriculture flavonoid database and divided into quartiles. Adjusted estimates of the flavonoid intakes for the continuous and binary (elevated CRP: >0⋅3 mg/dl) variables were performed by using general linear and logistic regression. We found that tea, orange, tofu and sweet potato leaves/water spinach constituted the major food items of the total flavonoid intake. The total flavonoid intake was lower among women and elderly. Compared with the lowest total flavonoid intake quartile, participants in higher quartiles were associated with a lower CRP status (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 0⋅61, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0⋅44–0⋅86 for the highest quartiles). The trends were similar for flavonol and flavan-3-ol intakes. Compared with non-consumers, tea consumers were likely to have a lower CRP status (adjusted OR: 0⋅74, 95 % CI: 0⋅57–0⋅97). In brief, a higher total flavonoid intake and tea consumption were inversely associated with CRP levels, indicating that a high-flavonoid diet may contribute to anti-inflammatory effects. A Taiwanese flavonoid content table is necessary for conducting further studies related to flavonoids in Taiwan.
Historically, there are inconsistencies in the calculation of whole-grain intake, particularly through use of highly variable whole-grain food definitions. The current study aimed to determine the impact of using a whole-grain food definition on whole-grain intake estimation in Australian and Swedish national cohorts and investigate impacts on apparent associations with CVD risk factors. This utilised the Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011–2012, the Swedish Riksmaten adults 2010–2011 and relevant food composition databases. Whole-grain intakes and associations with CVD risk factors were determined based on consumption of foods complying with the Healthgrain definition (≥30 % whole grain (dry weight), more whole than refined grain and meeting accepted standards for ‘healthy foods’ based on local regulations) and compared with absolute whole-grain intake. Compliance of whole-grain containing foods with the Healthgrain definition was low in both Sweden (twenty-nine of 155 foods) and Australia (214 of 609 foods). Significant mean differences of up to 24·6 g/10 MJ per d of whole-grain intake were highlighted using Swedish data. Despite these large differences, application of a whole-grain food definition altered very few associations with CVD risk factors, specifically, changes with body weight and blood glucose associations in Australian adults where a whole-grain food definition was applied, and some anthropometric measures in Swedish data where a high percentage of whole-grain content was included. Use of whole-grain food definitions appears to have limited impact on measuring whole-grain health benefits but may have greater relevance in public health messaging.
Systemic inflammation has been linked with mood disorder and cognitive impairment. The extent of this relationship remains uncertain, with the effects of serum inflammatory biomarkers compared to genetic predisposition toward inflammation yet to be clearly established.
We investigated the magnitude of associations between C-reactive protein (CRP) measures, lifetime history of bipolar disorder or major depression, and cognitive function (reaction time and visuospatial memory) in 84,268 UK Biobank participants. CRP was measured in serum and a polygenic risk score for CRP was calculated, based on a published genome-wide association study. Multiple regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical confounders.
Increased serum CRP was significantly associated with mood disorder history (Kruskal–Wallis H = 196.06, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.002) but increased polygenic risk for CRP was not (F = 0.668, p = 0.648, η2 < 0.001). Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest serum CRP quintile was significantly associated with both negative and positive differences in cognitive performance (fully adjusted models: reaction time B = −0.030, 95% CI = −0.052, −0.008; visuospatial memory B = 0.066, 95% CI = 0.042, 0.089). More severe mood disorder categories were significantly associated with worse cognitive performance and this was not moderated by serum or genetic CRP level.
In this large cohort study, we found that measured inflammation was associated with mood disorder history, but genetic predisposition to inflammation was not. The association between mood disorder and worse cognitive performance was very small and did not vary by CRP level. The inconsistent relationship between CRP measures and cognitive performance warrants further study.
Adequate iron supply in pregnancy is important for both the woman and the fetus, but iron status is often assessed late in first trimester, if assessed at all. Therefore, identification of factors associated with iron status is important to target vulnerable groups with increased risk of deficiency. Our objectives were to (1) describe iron status in mid-pregnancy and (2) identify sociodemographic and lifestyle predictors of pregnancy iron status. This cross-sectional study uses data from The Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (collected 2002–2008) and The Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Iron status was measured as non-fasting plasma ferritin (P-Fe) and transferrin in gestational week (GW) 18 (n 2990), and by lowest reported Hb in GW 0–30 (n 39 322). We explored predictors of iron status with elastic net, linear and log-binomial regression models. Median P-Fe was 33 μg/l, and 14 % had depleted iron stores (P-Fe <15 μg/l). P-Fe below 30 μg/l was associated with reduced Hb. We identified eleven predictors, with interpregnancy interval (IPI) and parity among the most important. Depleted iron stores was more common among women with IPI < 6 months (56 %) and 6–11 months (33 %) than among those with IPI 24–59 months (19 %) and among nulliparous women (5 %). Positively associated factors with iron status included hormonal contraceptives, age, BMI, smoking, meat consumption and multi-supplement use. Our results highlight the importance of ferritin measurements in women of childbearing age, especially among women not using hormonal contraceptives and women with previous and recent childbirths.
High fibre intake is associated with reduced mortality risk in both general and chronic kidney disease populations. However, in dialysis patients, such data are limited. Therefore, the association between dietary fibre intake (DFI) and the risk of all-cause and CVD mortality was examined in this study. A total of 1044 maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients from eight outpatient dialysis centres in China were included in this study. Data on DFI were collected using 24-h dietary recalls for 3 d in a week and were normalised to actual dry weight. The study outcomes included all-cause and CVD mortality. Over a median of 46 months of follow-up, 354 deaths were recorded, of which 210 (59 %) were due to CVD. On assessing DFI as tertiles, the CVD mortality risk was significantly lower in patients in tertiles 2–3 (≥0·13 g/kg per d; hazard ratio (HR) 0·71; 95 % CI 0·51, 0·97) compared with those in tertile 1 (<0·13 g/kg per d). A similar but non-significant trend was found for the association between DFI (tertiles 2–3 v. tertile 1; HR 0·83; 95 % CI 0·64, 1·07) and all-cause mortality. In summary, higher DFI was associated with lower CVD mortality risk among Chinese MHD patients. This study emphasises the significance of DFI in MHD patients and provides information that is critical for the improvement of dietary guidelines for dialysis patients.
This study applied causal criteria in directed acyclic graphs for handling covariates in associations for prognosis of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. To identify non-specific blood tests and risk factors as predictors of hospitalisation due to COVID-19, one has to exclude noisy predictors by comparing the concordance statistics (area under the curve − AUC) for positive and negative cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Predictors with significant AUC at negative stratum should be either controlled for their confounders or eliminated (when confounders are unavailable). Models were classified according to the difference of AUC between strata. The framework was applied to an open database with 5644 patients from Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein in Brazil with SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription – polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) exam. C-reactive protein (CRP) was a noisy predictor: hospitalisation could have happened due to causes other than COVID-19 even when SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR is positive and CRP is reactive, as most cases are asymptomatic to mild. Candidates of characteristic response from moderate-to-severe inflammation of COVID-19 were: combinations of eosinophils, monocytes and neutrophils, with age as risk factor; and creatinine, as risk factor, sharpens the odds ratio of the model with monocytes, neutrophils and age.
The association between organic food consumption and biomarkers of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP) and cystatin C (CysC) was explored in this cross-sectional analysis of older adults.
Dietary data and organic food consumption was collected in 2013 from a FFQ. Alternative Mediterranean diet score (A-MedDiet) was calculated as a measure of healthy eating. Biomarkers CRP and CysC were collected in serum or plasma in 2016. We used linear regression models to assess the associations between organic food consumption and CRP and CysC.
This cross-sectional analysis uses data from the nationally representative, longitudinal panel study of Americans over 50, the Health and Retirement Study.
The mean age of the analytic sample (n 3815) was 64·3 (se 0·3) years with 54·4 % being female.
Log CRP and log CysC were inversely associated with consuming organic food after adjusting for potential confounders (CRP: β = –0·096, 95 % CI 0·159, –0·033; CysC: β = –0·033, 95 % CI –0·051, –0·015). Log CRP maintained statistical significance (β = –0·080; 95 % CI –0·144, –0·016) after additional adjustments for the A-MedDiet, while log CysC lost statistical significance (β = –0·019; 95 % CI –0·039, 0·000). The association between organic food consumption and log CRP was driven primarily by milk, fruit, vegetables and cereals, while log CysC was primarily driven by milk, eggs and meat after adjustments for A-MedDiet.
These findings support the hypothesis that organic food consumption is inversely associated with biomarkers of inflammation CRP and CysC, although residual confounding by healthy eating and socioeconomic status cannot be ruled out.
Mortality risk is known to be associated with many physiological or biochemical risk factors, and polygenic risk scores (PRSs) may offer an additional or alternative approach to risk stratification. We have compared the predictive value of common biochemical tests, PRSs and information on parental survival in a cohort of twins and their families. Common biochemical test results were available for up to 13,365 apparently healthy men and women, aged 17−93 years (mean 49.0, standard deviation [SD] 13.7) at blood collection. PRSs for longevity were available for 14,169 study participants and reported parental survival for 25,784 participants. A search for information on date and cause of death was conducted through the Australian National Death Index, with median follow-up of 11.3 years. Cox regression was used to evaluate associations with mortality from all causes, cancers, cardiovascular diseases and other causes. Linear relationships with all-cause mortality were strongest for C-reactive protein, gamma-glutamyl transferase, glucose and alkaline phosphatase, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.16 (95% CI [1.07, 1.24]), 1.15 (95% CI 1.04–1.21), 1.13 (95% CI [1.08, 1.19]) and 1.11 (95% CI [1.05, 1.88]) per SD difference, respectively. Significant nonlinear effects were found for urea, uric acid and butyrylcholinesterase. Lipid risk factors were not statistically significant for mortality in our cohort. Family history and PRS showed weaker but significant associations with survival, with HR in the range 1.05 to 1.09 per SD difference. In conclusion, biochemical tests currently predict long-term mortality more strongly than genetic scores based on genotyping or on reported parental survival.