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Marie Roué, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Paris,Douglas Nakashima, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), France,Igor Krupnik, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC
As an Indigenous herder and President of the Association of Traditional Herders of the Sahel, the author describes the difficulties experienced by herders due to the series of severe droughts that they have endured in recent decades due to climatic change. Having suffered huge losses of animals, some have drastically changed their way of life, becoming increasingly nomadic, migrating far beyond traditional teritories or taking up agriculture to help feed their herds.
In the Sahel, host communities are among those most affected by recurrent internal displacement, but they are often ignored in responses to displacement. Furthermore, their situation has attracted little attention from researchers or other observers. The present article will argue that it is essential to provide these communities with adequate protection, especially as they play a leading role in providing humanitarian protection and assistance to internally displaced persons (IDPs). The article begins by examining the legal instruments that protect populations affected by forced displacement, in order to identify and present the legal protection they offer to IDP host communities. The article will then analyze and highlight the advantages of fully applying this protection. It will show that the recurrent violence and breaches of the law that these communities suffer are impeding the full realization of those advantages. Finally, the article shall propose solutions that would overcome the deficiencies noted and hence ensure enhanced protection for IDP host communities in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger.
Recent efforts to improve attitudes toward outgroups and reduce support for extremists in violent settings report mixed results. Donors and aid organizations have spent millions of dollars to amplify the voices of moderate religious figures to counter violent extremism in West Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia. Despite this investment, we know little about whether such messaging persuades the primary recruits of violent extremist organizations: at-risk youth in fragile settings. In this paper, we consider whether pro-peace religious messaging can promote social cohesion among school-age respondents in Burkina Faso. Using a survey experiment, we find little evidence that such messages affect reported attitudes or behaviors toward religious extremism and find instead that it can have the unintended effect of increasing intolerance toward ethnic others. Our findings carry lessons about the inadvertent priming of ethnic identities that can result in a backlash effect among certain societal segments.
Lazare W. Zoungrana has been doing humanitarian work for the Burkinabe Red Cross Society for more than twenty years and has been its secretary-general since 2010.
Trained in sociology, with a research master's degree in information and communication science, Mr Zoungrana has brought his skills to a range of humanitarian activities, from development and emergency programmes to the organizational development and capacity-building of the Burkinabe Red Cross. He is specialized in project management, gender and education, international humanitarian law and training trainers in various aspects of humanitarian action.
Mr Zoungrana has coordinated several operations led by the Burkinabe Red Cross, including: providing assistance to victims of the Ouagadougou floods in 2009, victims of terrorist attacks in Ouagadougou, Malian refugees and people affected by armed violence in the country; and carrying out activities in response to meningitis epidemics and, most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic.
At the international level, Mr Zoungrana has sat as a committee chairman or a panellist on various round tables. He was a member of the multinational team charged with assessing and coordinating the humanitarian response to the earthquake in Haiti and has been a member of several multinational working groups, including one tasked with developing the restoring family links strategy for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.
Rather than exploring peacekeeping as a largely external phenomenon, the chapter examines how it has become, in some African states, a core mechanism for the consolidation and maintenance of political power. Peacekeeping operations, often funded by international actors and linked to increased salaries, training and status, provide an opportunity for African governments to prefer or circulate elites, enhance and augment the discipline and capacity of security forces, and socialise the cost of an expanding security state. The authors examine a number of states, including Uganda and Burundi, where peacekeeping has become a semi-permanent element of – largely illiberal - statebuilding in recent decades. They also highlight the delicate balance African governments must strike in building peacekeeping into the management of domestic political and military actors without sowing the seeds of resentment and rebellion, examining the cases of Burkina Faso and Gambia in particular.
With the phase-out of the polio campaigns, Burkina Faso has developed a new strategy for routine community-based vitamin A supplementation (VAS) by institutionalising community-based health workers (CBHW) to sustain the gain of two decades of successful programming. Formative research was conducted soon after the strategy was introduced to solicit feedback on the acceptability of the new approach by the implementing actors while identifying the main implementation challenges for improving its effectiveness and sustainability.
This qualitative study was conducted in 2018 through (i) document review, (ii) individual interviews with key informants at the central, regional and district levels, and (iii) focus groups with CBHW and caregivers.
Data collection was carried out at six levels of sites covering the entire country and selected based on VAS coverage rates with the community routine. A total of six health districts were selected.
We conducted 46 individual interviews with health workers and 20 focus groups with 59 CBHW and 108 caregivers.
The study showed good acceptability of the strategy by all stakeholders. In the first 2 years of implementation, the national coverage of VAS was maintained at a high level (above 90 %) and there was a reduction in operational costs. The main challenges included delayed CBHW remuneration and weak communication and supervision
The acceptability of the community-based routine VAS was good and was perceived to have a high potential for sustainability. Addressing identified challenges will allow us to better manage the expectations of community stakeholders and maintain the initial results
To explore the relationships between dental problems and underweight status among rural women in Burkina Faso by using nationally representative data.
This was a cross-sectional secondary study of primary data obtained by the 2013 WHO Stepwise Approach to Surveillance survey conducted in Burkina Faso. Descriptive and analytical analyses were performed using Student’s t test, ANOVA, the χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test and logistic regression.
All thirteen Burkinabè regions were categorised using quartiles of urbanisation rates.
The participants were 1730 rural women aged 25–64 years.
The prevalence of underweight was 16·0 %, and 24·1 % of participants experienced dental problems during the 12-month period. The women with dental problems were more frequently underweight (19·9 % and 14·7 %; P < 0·05) and had a lower mean BMI (21·1 ± 3·2 and 21·6 ± 3·7 kg/m2, P < 0·01) than those without dental problems. More risk factors for underweight were observed in less urbanised regions among elderly individuals (> 49 years old) and smokeless tobacco users. Age > 49 years, professions with inconsistent income, a lack of education, smokeless tobacco use and low BMI were factors that were significantly associated with dental problems, while residency in a low-urbanisation area was a protective factor.
The prevalence of underweight in rural Burkinabè women is among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa, and women with dental problems are more frequently affected than those without dental problems. Public health measures for the prevention of these disorders should specifically target women aged over 49 years and smokeless tobacco users.
Coup leaders often purport to restore constitutional order. During Burkina Faso's 2014 ‘insurrection', however, Blaise Compaoré's opponents advanced detailed (international) legal arguments that significantly constrained their subsequent conduct. Theirs was to be a legal revolution. This article situates this stance within Burkina Faso's distinctive history of urban protest, whilst emphasising under-analysed international sources for the insurrection. ‘Insurgent’ lawyers, it argues, used international instruments to reinvigorate longstanding activist attempts to reconcile constitutional rights with a language of popular justice promoted by the revolutionary regime of Thomas Sankara (1983–7). After the insurrection, however, their emphasis on legality was used by Compaoré's supporters to expose the transitional authorities’ double-standards. Meanwhile, insurgent lawyers working for the transition had to work hard to reconcile (international) legal justifications for the insurrection with the expedient politics needed to defend the new dispensation.
The chapter tests the theory derived from the empirical chapters. It provides additional empirrical evidence that countries with organizational gatekeepers are capable of undermining homegrown jihadi Salafism. It also shows that countries lacking institutional regulatory mechanisms in the Islamic sphere become radicalizers of their domestic Salafi communities.
The Northern Territories Protectorate and its people were located on the economic and political margins of Britain's Gold Coast Crown Colony (now Ghana) throughout the colonial period. The article examines how the region's peripherality allowed the Gold Coast Tsetse Control Department to carry out an extensive campaign of bush clearing and resettlement along northern river valleys from the 1930s to 1950s, with little supervision by the Gold Coast Medical Department or northern officials. Intended to control human and animal sleeping sickness and to meet the economic preferences of the colony's central administration, this campaign had the effect of greatly increasing the exposure of northern communities to another disease, onchocerciasis, causing widespread blindness and contributing to a serious public health crisis in the early independence era.
To examine the effect of an intervention combining user fees removal with community-based management of undernutrition on the nutrition status in children under 5 years of age in Burkina Faso.
The study was a non-equivalent control group post-test-only design based on household survey data collected 4 years after the intervention onset in the intervention and comparison districts. Additionally, we used propensity score weighting to achieve balance on covariates between the two districts, followed by logistic multilevel modelling.
Two health districts in the Sahel region.
Totally, 1116 children under 5 years of age residing in 41 intervention communities and 1305 from 51 control communities.
When comparing children living in the intervention district to children living in a non-intervention district, we determined no differences in terms of stunting (OR = 1·13; 95 % CI 0·83, 1·54) and wasting (OR = 1·21; 95 % CI 0·90, 1·64), nor in severely wasted (OR = 1·27; 95 % CI 0·79, 2·04) and severely stunted (OR = 0·99; 95 % CI 0·76, 1·26). However, we determined that 3 % of the variance of wasting (95 % CI 1·25, 10·42) and 9·4 % of the variance of stunting (95 % CI 6·45, 13·38) were due to systematic differences between communities of residence. The presence of the intervention in the communities explained 2 % of the community-level variance of stunting and 3 % of the community-level variance of wasting.
With the scaling-up of the national free health policy in Africa, we stress the need for rigorous evaluations and the means to measure expected changes in order to better inform health interventions.
This chapter investigates the political career of a small Islamic State affiliate operating in this border zone. These jihadists have benefited not just from the stereotypical “porous border” but also from the way that complex conflicts in this region exacerbate animosity between ethnic groups and between civilian populations and national states. This animosity creates openings for jihadists to implicate themselves in local politics and for local communities to use jihadism as a weapon in local politics. The chapter argues, however, that the “Islamic State in the Greater Sahara (ISGS)” exemplifies the case of a coalition whose horizons are limited precisely because its religious messaging is highly underdeveloped. Even as ISGS finds some recruits and achieves some military and propaganda victories, such as ambushing a patrol of American and Nigerien soldiers in 2017, ISGS has struggled to build a serious political coalition and therefore may remain, ironically, a partial satellite of its ostensible rival al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).
Jihadist movements have claimed that they are merely vehicles for the application of God's word, distancing themselves from politics, which they call dirty and manmade. Yet on closer examination, jihadist movements are immersed in politics, negotiating political relationships not just with the forces surrounding them, but also within their own ranks. Drawing on case studies from North Africa and the Sahel - including Algeria, Libya, Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso, and Mauritania - this study examines jihadist movements from the inside, uncovering their activities and internal struggles over the past three decades. Highlighting the calculations that jihadist field commanders and clerics make, Alexander Thurston shows how leaders improvise, both politically and religiously, as they adjust to fast-moving conflicts. Featuring critical analysis of Arabic-language jihadist statements, this book offers unique insights into the inner workings of jihadist organisations and sheds new light on the phenomenon of mass-based jihadist movements and proto-states.
Several studies report norovirus as the new leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children after the global introduction of rotavirus vaccines. Burkina Faso introduced general rotavirus vaccination with the oral pentavalent vaccine RotaTeq in November 2013 and quickly reached a vaccine coverage of >90%. This study describes detection rates, clinical profiles and the molecular epidemiology of norovirus and rotavirus infections in 146 children aged <5 years with severe acute gastroenteritis in Ouagadougou, consecutively enrolled from a hospital between January 2015 and December 2015. Virus detection was performed with an antigen test or real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping was performed by nucleotide sequencing or multiplex PCR. Rotavirus was found in 14% and norovirus in 20% of faecal samples. Norovirus infection was significantly more associated with severe dehydration compared to rotavirus (P < 0.001). Among genotyped norovirus samples 48% (12/25) belonged to GII.4 which caused significantly more diarrhoeal episodes than non-GII.4 genotypes (P = 0.01). The most common rotavirus genotypes were G2P (30%), G12P (25%) and G12P (20%). Fifty percent of the rotavirus positive children were infected with fully or partly heterotypic strains. In conclusion, this study found a higher proportion of norovirus causing more severe symptoms in children with diarrhoea in Burkina Faso after the introduction of rotavirus vaccination.
To identify the drivers and challenges of successful nutrition programme implementation in a multisectoral, community-level approach to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in northern Burkina Faso.
A qualitative study was conducted in 2019 through (i) individual interviews with key informants from five different sectors (health, agriculture, environment, livestock and education) and association staff, agents and community leaders and (ii) focus groups with mothers of children under the age of 2 years.
Three health districts in the northern region of Burkina Faso implemented a multisectoral community nutrition programme to improve IYCF practices.
Forty-seven implementing actors and twenty-four beneficiary mothers.
Factors influencing successful implementation include community participation; sector commitment and involvement; the existence of nutrition champions; capacity building; the integration of interventions; micronutrient powder distribution; the introduction of nutrition-sensitive interventions, such as the promotion of the consumption of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes; improved food production and small livestock rearing and the effective coordination of actors and complementary funding. The main challenges of the implementation of multisectorality are low participation among nutrition-sensitive sectors, a tendency for siloed work among sectors, scheduling conflicts, high actor mobility, differences in the target population by sector, a lack of technical skills among community workers, insufficient financial resources, low geographic convergence and coverage of beneficiaries, a lack of a multisectoral monitoring mechanism and accountability and insecurity.
Strengthening sector participation, identifying a common targeting strategy and mobilising financial resources have the potential to significantly reduce barriers and improve the quality of implementation.
Iron production has played a part in the history of Africa for more than 2,500 years. The study of this specific human activity has demonstrated its exceptional significance, its historical continuity and an astonishing variability of practice. In Sub-Saharan Africa, metallurgists developed different ways to produce the same material: iron. They multiplied the technical choices to a degree unequalled on other continents. But what is the significance of such extreme diversity? In this chapter, four case studies representing different situations are detailed: in Dendi Country/Benin, where the question of the nature of the raw materials is considered; in Dogon Country/Mali, seven contemporaneous smelting traditions in a limited geographical area; at the Korsimoro site/Burkina Faso, five successive smelting traditions in the same place; and in the Bassar region/Togo, the impact of ancient and intensive iron production on the environment and on the technology. Based on these examples the chapter discusses the interpretation of diversity in terms of the history of technology and population dynamics.
In this chapter the early history of weaving in West Africa is discussed in the light of archaeological evidence. The oldest preserved textiles in West Africa were discovered at Kissi in Burkina Faso and dated to the early first millennium AD. They add to the small corpus of first millennium AD textile finds and push back in time the evidence for the demand and use of cloth in sub-Saharan Africa. However, it is unclear whether these earliest textile finds mark the beginning of a weaving tradition south of the Sahara. Rather, archaeological and historical evidence seem to indicate that local woven textile production began relatively late in West Africa, towards the end of the first millennium AD, possibly accelerated by long-distance connections with the north or north-east and the spread of Islam.
In Western Burkina Faso, the host range of fruit flies was evaluated in three plant formations between May 2017 and April 2019. Samples of 61 potential hosts were collected and incubated for fruit fly emergence. Twenty-seven hosts including cultivated and wild fruit were identified. Among cultivated fruit species, mango, and guava were the most infested while high infestation incidences were observed in the fruit of the indigenous plants Vitellaria paradoxa, Annona senegalensis, Sarcocephalus latifolius, and Saba senegalensis. Low infestation rates were observed in Anacardium occidentale, Citrus species, Opilia celtidifolia, and Cissus populnea. The highest infestation index (1648.57 flies kg−1) was observed from V. paradoxa. Eleven new host fruit infested with many fruit fly species are reported in Burkina Faso. A total of 18 fruit fly species were reared; Bactrocera dorsalis (42.94%), Ceratitis cosyra (29.93%), and Ceratitis silvestrii (22.33%) dominated those that emerged. Four fruit fly species have been detected for the first time in Burkina Faso. The main suitable fruit hosts are abundant and available from May through August during the rainy season and become rare and have low infestation from November to April during the dry season. This is the first study of its kind in the region. This study shows that the three plant formations had an impact on population dynamics of the three tephritid species of economic importance in Western Burkina Faso. This information should be integrated into the development of a fruit fly pests management strategy.