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The thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) is a vital design parameter for reducing the thermal-stress-induced structural failure of electronic chips/devices. At the micro- and nano-scale, the typical size range of the components in chips/devices, the CTEs are probably different from that of the bulk materials, but an easy and accurate measurement method is still lacking. In this paper, we present a simple but effective method for determining linear CTEs of micro-scale materials only using the prevalent nanoindentation system equipped with a heating stage for precise temperature control. By holding a constant force on the sample surface, while heating the sample at a constant rate, we measure two height–temperature curves at two positions, respectively, which are close to each other but at different heights. The linear CTE is obtained by analyzing the difference of height change during heating. This method can be applied to study the size effect or surface effect of CTE of embedded micro-scale structures, aiding the failure analysis and structural design in the semiconductor industry.
Quasicrystalline alloys and their composites have been extensively studied due to their complex atomic structures, mechanical properties, and their unique tribological and thermal behaviors. However, technological applications of these materials have not yet come of age and still require additional developments. In this review, we discuss the recent advances that have been made in the last years toward optimizing fabrication processes and properties of Al-matrix composites reinforced with quasicrystals. We discuss in detail the high-strength rapid-solidified nanoquasicrystalline composites, the challenges involved in their manufacturing processes and their properties. We also bring the latest findings on the fabrication of Al-matrix composites reinforced with quasicrystals by powder metallurgy and by conventional metallurgical processes. We show that substantial developments were made over the last decade and discuss possible future studies that may result from these recent findings.
In this article, Al75Cu25 (at.%) ribbons were dealloyed by HCl, H2C2O4, H3PO4, and NaOH solutions, respectively, to prepare nanoporous copper (NPC). The dealloying behavior is varied with dealloying solutions, allowing modulating the microstructure and porosity of the NPC. Al75Cu25 ribbons are fully dealloyed in HCl, H2C2O4, and NaOH solutions, whereas they are partially dealloyed in H3PO4 solution. Except the NPC prepared in the NaOH solution, no obvious cracks are traced in other samples. The surface diffusivity (Ds) of Cu atoms along the alloy/solution interfaces is varied with solutions, producing the NPC with different microstructure. NPC with higher specific surface area can be obtained by dealloying the Al75Cu25 ribbons in the HCl solution. Compared with the dealloying in H2C2O4, H3PO4, and NaOH solutions, the dealloying in 10 wt% HCl solution for 25 min at 90 ± 1 °C facilitates the best NPC in this work.
Hybrid coatings for cavitation erosion protection of aluminum alloys, have been developed, based on a sol-gel process and applied by the dip coating technique. This work aims to investigate established hybrid sol-gel coatings synthesized using organically modified silicon precursor 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MAPTMS) mixed with zirconium (IV) propoxide. In the present research, the established baseline coatings were modified by adding different concentrations (1%, 1.5% and 2%) of cross-linkable hexamethylenediisocyanate (HMDI) diluted in 60% ethanol. The influences of the amount of crosslinker incorporated into the coatings on abrasion, corrosion and cavitation erosion protection were studied. The hydrophobic nature, thermal and electrochemical properties of the coatings were evaluated using Water Contact Angle (WCA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Open Circuit Potential (OCP) and Potentiodynamic polarization (PDS) techniques. Furthermore, cavitation erosion and abrasion tests were completed on all coatings and rankings of these were produced based on mass loss measurements and derived mean depth of erosion.
A hollow γ-TNB turbine blade was 3D printed in this studying using the –R Optomec LENS machine from the elemental powders of aluminium, niobium and titanium making use of the laser “in situ” alloying approaching. The printed blade was characterised of a nearly lamellar β microstructure in the As-built state. The microstructure of the blade post heat treated was characterised of grain growth and coarsening and the formation of the γ phase which was of the result of the transformation of β. This transformation was also observed in the As-built state and is reported here for the first time. A massive crack that was observed half-way through in the built was attributed to the thermal shocks that are experienced by the almost immediately after manufacturing. The EDS and Map taken on the As-built and heat treated samples conclude that there was no segregation in the alloying element during manufacturing and that the blade was of the dual phase. Hardness results indicated the heat treated sample was 91 HV0.5 lower in hardness when compared to the As-built component. The successful print of this hollow blade indicate that γ-TNB and other Ti-Al alloys can be printed with the LENS but if a crack free sample was to be achieved the set-up had to be manipulated or addition resources must be added to adapt the set-up. Meanwhile the successes of this study show that LENS is going to be considered as a cost-effective manufacturing tool in the future for 3D printing Ti-Al and other metallic structure that would have improved properties when compared to traditional manufacturing technique such as casting and the powder bed systems.
Hot extrusion experiments were conducted on Al–5.50Zn–2.35Mg–1.36Cu (wt%) alloy under various temperatures and extrusion speeds. Results indicated that dynamic recovery occurred at low temperature and then dynamic recrystallization was triggered at higher temperature or speed. High billet temperature reduced the grain size and increased the volume fraction of Al23CuFe4 and AlMgZn. When the extrusion speed was enhanced to 0.5 mm/s, the peak of MgZn2 phase diminished in the results of X-ray diffraction. The strong brass and S components appeared in all the extruded specimens. Texture intensity gradually decreased with increasing temperature and the fraction of texture components was also significantly affected by the extrusion parameters. The extruded alloy exhibited the highest ultimate tensile strength of 350.2 MPa at 480 °C and 0.5 mm/s and the best elongation of 16.78% at 520 °C and 0.1 mm/s. Moreover, the extrusion speed had more significant effects on the tensile properties than that of the temperature.
Vaporizing foil actuator welding is a form of impact welding, which can be carried out without the use of chemical explosives. Operating at smaller length scales, but with similar driving pressures as explosive welding, vaporizing foil actuator welding is capable of welding a wide variety of advanced and dissimilar metal combinations. With negligible heating developing during the process, thermal distortion does not occur, and the base-metal properties are retained in the weld. In this article, vaporizing foil actuator welding of an automotive grade aluminum and steel pair is discussed. A currently functional and complete welding system that can be used for research as well as low volume production is also discussed.
The transportation sector is the largest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. One method being used to reduce greenhouse emissions related to the transportation sector is improving vehicle fuel efficiency through mass reduction. Reducing the mass of on-highway passenger vehicles by 10% can result in vehicle fuel economy improvements of as much as 6–8% if the powertrain is downsized to maintain equivalent performance. Some of the materials being investigated and implemented to reduce passenger vehicle mass include advanced high-strength steel, aluminum, magnesium, and polymer composites. Additionally, multimaterial structures that allow for optimal combinations of lightweight materials to achieve maximum weight reduction with lowest cost and best structural performance have recently become of particular interest. However, assembling multimaterial structures can be challenging due to differences in melting temperature and coefficient of thermal expansion of different materials, as well as formation of intermetallic compounds and galvanic corrosion potential. Joining technologies for lightweight multimaterial structures must address these challenges to be successful. This article highlights advances made in five different joining techniques: nondestructive evaluation of resistance spot-welded aluminum to steel, modeling of structural adhesives, temperature control of friction stir welds, ultrasonic welding of magnesium, and vapor foil actuation welding.
This article mainly focuses on stabilization treatments that influence stress corrosion resistance of an AA5383-H15 alloy after undergoing sensitization treatment at 100 °C/168 h. The results show that without stabilization of the sensitized AA5383-H15 alloy, the β precipitates are distributed continuously like a mesh at grain boundary, and this is the main cause of intergranular corrosion failure. However, applying 3 different stabilization treatments (220 °C/3 h, 250 °C/3 h, and 280 °C/3 h) to the AA5383-H15 alloy shows a dramatic decrease in the β phase precipitation routes along the grain boundaries after the sensitization treatment, and thus an effective improvement in the corrosion resistance performance of AA5383-H15 alloys. Of all the stabilization treatments, the application of 250 °C/3 h stabilization treatment is found to be most effective. Applying 250 °C/3 h stabilization treatment facilitated partial recrystallization of the matrix, leading to suppress the continuous precipitation of the β phase along the grain boundaries during sensitization but instead precipitate in discontinuous mesh-like distribution, which can decrease its sensitivity to stress corrosion.
We highlight the current understanding of mechanisms of phase transformation, strengthening, and the role of alloying elements in aluminum, magnesium, and titanium alloys, including nucleation and growth of precipitates, precipitate–dislocation interactions, solute segregation at precipitate–matrix interfaces and planar defects, and the development of strengthening models that account for the real particle shape. Future directions such as atomic-scale elemental mapping and computation, and the influence of particle shape on mechanical properties are discussed. With the combination of advanced characterization and computational tools, it is anticipated that much less time will be needed to develop the next generation of light alloys.
Nowadays the different industries is searching continuous improvements in the welding processes of the components of its products, in order to avoid the disadvantages obtained in the past by joining their parts through conventional fusion welding processes, affecting their microstructural development and consequently decreasing the principal mechanical properties. The friction-stir welding process is a solid state technique which does not reach the melting point of the material, promoting the plasticization of the metal by controlling its microstructure and mechanical behavior. However, the after mentioned advantages are the result of an adequate control of the process parameters, so that the aim of the present investigation is to study the microstructural and mechanical development of 5052-H32 butt joints welded by FSW process using a high wear resistance tool (PCBN tool) as well as the mechanical behavior suffered.
The constant search for the improvement of the performance of materials of industrial application, evaluated under aspects of weight reduction, greater resistance, greater resistance to wear and better thermal stability, among others, associated with the search for the development of ecologically viable products, that convert the context of environmental degradation in preservation and sustainability, reflects the need to conduct research that results in new materials. The objective of this work is to obtain composites of the AA6061 aluminum alloy reinforced with different contents of coke coal blast-furnace slag by powder metallurgy. The processing of these materials was done by sieving, mixing and compacting powders of reinforced aluminum alloy with 5, 10 and 15% of blast-furnace slag. The cold uniaxial compaction was realized at a pressure of 500MPa. The obtained materials were sintered at 580°C for 3h under inert atmosphere. Unreinforced aluminum alloy samples were also produced. The characterization of the materials was realized by density and hardness measurements and three-point bending tests. The analysis of its microstructure was realized by scanning electron microscopy. As results, the composites presented a homogeneous distribution of the reinforcing particles and also a progressive improvement of the hardness and the bending strength with the increase of the slag content, producing an increase of 79% in hardness and 128% in flexural strength, when compared to the material without reinforcement obtained by the same process. Such results give the coke coal blast-furnace slag a new possibility of exploitation in the metal-mechanical sector, besides contributing with the environmental issue.
In energy storage systems, every component that makes up an electrode can greatly affect the electrochemical performance. One example includes the so-called “binders” used in secondary batteries. Herein, we compare the influence of using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on the electrochemical performance of an aluminium chloride battery (ACB) system. The active material of the cathode was a reduced graphene oxide dried under supercritical conditions (RGOCPD). Interestingly, while PVDF enabled one of the highest capacities reported for ACBs, the CMC resulted in a significant degradation of the cell’s performance.
This work describes exploration of mitigating the parasitic amorphous alumina (Al2O3) shell of aluminum nanoparticles (n-Al) and modifying the surface using different plasmas, leading to n-Al with thinner shell and different coatings including carbons and oxidizing salt called aluminum iodate hexahydrate (AIH), respectively. The approach exploits a prototype atmospheric non-thermal plasma reactor with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) configuration for nanoparticle surface modifications using n-Al of 80 nm average diameter as an example. Preliminary results indicate that the amorphous Al2O3 shell surrounding the active aluminum core can be mitigated with inert plasmas by as much as 40% using either helium (He) or argon (Ar). The particle surface becomes carbon-rich with carbon monoxide (CO) / He plasmas. By immersing the plasma-treated n-Al in an iodic acid (HIO3) solution, AIH crystals can be formed on the n-Al surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used as a major tool to study the details of the modified surface morphologies, diffraction patterns, and chemical composition of the modified n-Al. The results demonstrate effective surface passivation of n-Al via atmospheric plasma techniques.
We have examined tensile properties of a novel heat-resistant aluminium (Al)-based alloy (with a composition of Al-5Mg-3.5Zn (at%)) strengthened by the T-Al6Mg11Zn11 (cubic) intermetallic phase at various temperatures. The tested specimens of the present alloy were solution-treated at 450°C for 24 h and subsequently aged at 200 or 300 oC for 1 h. The granular precipitates of the T phase were dispersed rather homogenously in the grain interior in the specimen aged at 300°C. In the specimen aged at 200°C, numerous fine precipitates with a mean size of ∼20 nm were observed in the α-Al matrix. The specimen pre-aged at 200°C for 1 h exhibited a superior strength to the conventional Al alloys at elevated temperatures ranging from 150 to 200°C (corresponding to service temperatures for compressor impellers in turbochargers).
Even though AA 7075 is an aluminum alloy with high mechanical properties, it is not often applied in manufacturing. This is so, because it is considered as very difficult to produce defect free welded joints. This is so, because this alloy has a tendency to hot cracking. The metallurgical problems that appear during welding of AA 7075 have not been fully solved but they have been reduced by applying alloys such as: 4043 and 5356 as filler metals. However, in literature there is little information about the metallurgical effects of these types of filler metals applied in arc welded joints of AA7075. This is especially true for Tungsten Inert gas welding. Therefore, this work is focused in comparing the microstructure and Vickers microhardness in weldments of AA 7075 with ER4043, ER5356 and AA7075 as filler metals. Besides, a set of welded joints with the three different filler metals were quenched after welding in order to modify the final microstructure. The results were evaluated by microstructural analysis focused on the Heat Affected Zone and Vickers microhardness and they were compared among them.
The flow softening behavior caused by deformation heating of the 6063 aluminum alloy was investigated employing uniaxial compression tests. The adiabatic correction factor (η) and mechanical work partitioning factor (φ), commonly considered to be constant, were found to be highly variable at medium strain rates, namely from 0.01 to 10 s−1. η decreased with increasing strain and decreasing strain rate, but it was relatively not sensitive to temperature. φ, traditionally taken to be a constant of 0–10%, was found to vary from 2.8% at a temperature of 623 K and a strain rate of 10 s−1 to 26.8% at a temperature of 773 K with a strain rate of 0.01 s−1. An expression for temperature rise involving these two variable factors was optimized. FEM simulation using the corrected and uncorrected true stress–strain curves and corresponding extrusion experiment were carried out. Comparisons between the simulated and experimental results confirmed the temperature compensation was trustable.
The effects of the thermal cyclic aging treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 2060 Al–Li alloy laser beam welded joints were investigated. Aging treatments were conducted at different temperatures and for different cycles. Test results showed that the tensile strength of the weld joints increased and the elongation slightly decreased after the thermal cycling treatment. It was also found that the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the welds exhibited a significant increase in microhardness, whilst the microhardness variation of the nondendrite equiaxed zone (EQZ) can be neglected. The strengthening effect of the thermal cycling became more obvious as the temperature and cycles increased. The highest strength of around 513 MPa (96% of the base metal) was obtained at the temperature of 180 °C. Reprecipitation of strengthening phases such as T1 in the HAZ at 180 °C was observed by TEM, which can be considered as the main reason for the strengthening effect of the aging treatment.
Some soils from the western Amazon region contain KCl-extractable Al contents 5 to 10 times greater than is typical for highly weathered soils containing predominantly kaolinite and gibbsite. We studied a soil sequence from the Brazilian western Amazon consisting of two Typic Udifluvents on the levee of the Javari River, one Aeric Endoaquent in the backswamp, and two Typic Hapludults on an adjacent terrace. We used wet chemical and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis to characterize several size fractions of the 0 to 0.2 m layer of the soils. The exchangeable Al content was very high in the Aquent and Udults (up to 180 mmolc kg–1), but the ‘total’ Fe content was low in all samples (<60 g kg–1). Smectite, vermiculite, hydroxy-interlayered smectite and kaolinite dominate the fine silt and clay fractions of all soils. The Fluvents contain illite in all size fractions and chlorite in the coarse clay and fine silt fractions. The Aquent and Udults have no chlorite, and small amounts of illite occur only in the coarse clay and fine silt fractions. Lepidocrocite was identified in the Aquent. Chlorite, which occurs in the sand, fine silt, and coarse clay fractions of the Fluvents, and pyrophyllite, which occurs in the fine silt fractions of all soils and in the coarse clay of the two Ultisols, appears to be inherited from the parent sediments. The hydroxy-interlayered 2:1 phyllosilicates that form as a result of weathering are the cause of the very high exchangeable Al contents.
The [AlO4/M+]0 (where M = H, Li, Na and K) defects in α-quartz have been investigated by ab initio calculations at the density functional theory (DFT) level, using the CRYSTAL06 code, 72-atom supercells, and all-electron basis sets. Our DFT calculations yielded substantially improved results than previous cluster calculations with minimal basis sets. For example, the [AlO4/M+(a<)]0 defects with M = H, Li and Na have been shown to be more stable than their [AlO4/M+(a>)]0 structural analogues (where a> and a< denote the location of the charge-compensating ion on the long-bond and short-bond side respectively), correctly predicting the common occurrence of paramagnetic [AlO4/M+(a>)]+ centres. In addition, the [AlO4/K+]0 defects have been investigated for the first time and are shown to be stable in quartz. Moreover, our calculations confirm previous suggestions that incorporation of the [AlO4/M+]0 defects results in significant structural relaxations that extend at least to the nearest Si atoms and give Li—O and Na—O bond distances in better agreement with the experimentally obtained values. The present theoretical results on the [AlO4/M+]0 defects provide a more complete picture for the coupled Al3+—M+ substitutions and hence new insights into crystal-chemical controls on the uptake of Al in quartz.