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The fifth chapter reexamines boundaries, roads, and changing geographical epistemes in the context of the multiple categories of “trans-frontier men” that emerged in the late nineteenth century. These multiple categories–groups threatening the security of empire or those protecting it–reveal the anxieties and aspirations tied to the frontier and to the imperial policy surrounding it. Growing security concerns pushed imperial administrators to better define and “close” the frontier, in large part by restricting access to information about it.
This chapter describes and analyzes the medieval Mongol origins of the dynasty of the Great Mughals that ruled much of the subcontinent in the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries. It was the successful development of the institution of the corporate Turko-Mongol clan and the Mongol imperial heritage that went with it that allowed the Great Mughals to overcome the normal limitations of nomad tribes in a way their Afghan opponents and medieval predecessors could not.
Injuries are a public health problem in developing countries resulting in major financial and productivity losses. Injuries in vulnerable populations, such as refugees, make an even greater impact on loss of life. Afghan refugees in Pakistan continue to form one of the world's largest refugee populations. This study systemically reviews the literature to estimate the magnitude and prevalence of intentional and unintentional injuries in Afghan refugees, and explores the implications of the findings for refugee healthcare policy and development of potential interventions specifically for Afghan refugees.
Electronic databases of MEDLINE, POPLINE, Refworld, and Winspirs were searched. In addition, a web search was conducted and specific organizational websites were reviewed. The search in developing countries was limited to studies in English or with an English abstract for the years 1966–2001.
The literature review identified patients with reported war injuries who presented to hospitals. Injuries to extremities (45%) were more frequent than injuries to the head or neck (36%, p <0.001), and thorax/abdomen (14%, p <0.001) regions. A majority of the injuries were caused by explosives, which included landmines (32.5%), fragmentations, such as shrapnel (33%), and firearms (27%). The mean incidence of mortality in these studies was 11%.
Despite such an extensive search, limited information was found pertinent to injuries in Afghan refugees residing in refugee camps. This dearth of literature on the prevalence of injuries, risk factors, and outcomes among this vulnerable group is a research and policy gap for public health. Specific quantitive and qualitative studies in this field are required to shape refugee healthcare policies and develop intervention programs.
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