Difficult airway management represents a challenge in anaesthesia. In the last decades airway difficulty awareness has improved as a result of better anticipation and decision-making. Airway algorithms and protocols have a more prominent role in training and in clinical anaesthesia practice. In addition, several new instruments and therefore new techniques have been developed. These have improved possibilities for the clinician to secure the airway. Clinicians should become familiar with this equipment and techniques by using them on a regular basis in elective cases. The instruments available must be selected by the characteristics of the patient population, the local circumstances and the experience of the anaesthesiologist. The aim of this paper is to provide some practical guidelines with respect to airway difficulty predictors and airway instrument choice.