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We say that a subgroup H is isolated in a group G if for each
$x\in G$
either
$x\in H$
or
$\langle x\rangle \cap H={1}$
. We determine the structure of finite p-groups with isolated minimal nonabelian subgroups and finite p-groups with an isolated metacyclic subgroup.
In this paper, we study the relation of the size of the class two quotients of a linear group and the size of the vector space. We answer a question raised in Keller and Yang [Class 2 quotients of solvable linear groups, J. Algebra 509 (2018), 386-396].
It is shown that, for every prime number p, the complete lattice of all semidirectly closed pseudovarieties of finite monoids whose intersection with the pseudovariety G of all finite groups is equal to the pseudovariety Gp of all finite p-groups has the cardinality of the continuum. Furthermore, it is shown, in addition, that the complete lattice of all semidirectly closed pseudovarieties of finite monoids whose intersection with the pseudovariety G of all finite groups is equal to the pseudovariety Gsol of all finite solvable groups has also the cardinality of the continuum.
It is known that there exists a first-order sentence that holds in a finite group if and only if the group is soluble. Here it is shown that the corresponding statements with ‘solubility’ replaced by ‘nilpotence’ and ‘perfectness’, among others, are false.
These facts present difficulties for the study of pseudofinite groups. However, a very weak form of Frattini’s theorem on the nilpotence of the Frattini subgroup of a finite group is proved for pseudofinite groups.
For a finite group $G$, define $l(G)=(\prod _{g\in G}o(g))^{1/|G|}/|G|$, where $o(g)$ denotes the order of $g\in G$. We prove that if $l(G)>l(A_{5}),l(G)>l(A_{4}),l(G)>l(S_{3}),l(G)>l(Q_{8})$ or $l(G)>l(C_{2}\times C_{2})$, then $G$ is solvable, supersolvable, nilpotent, abelian or cyclic, respectively.
Let $C(G)$ be the poset of cyclic subgroups of a finite group $G$ and let $\mathscr{P}$ be the class of $p$-groups of order $p^{n}$ ($n\geq 3$). Consider the function $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}:\mathscr{P}\longrightarrow (0,1]$ given by $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}(G)=|C(G)|/|G|$. In this paper, we determine the second minimum value of $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}$, as well as the corresponding minimum points. Since the problem of finding the second maximum value of $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}$ has been solved for $p=2$, we focus on the case of odd primes in determining the second maximum.
Let G be a finite group and σ = {σi| i ∈ I} some partition of the set of all primes
$\Bbb{P}$
. Then G is said to be: σ-primary if G is a σi-group for some i; σ-nilpotent if G = G1× … × Gt for some σ-primary groups G1, … , Gt; σ-soluble if every chief factor of G is σ-primary. We use
$G^{{\mathfrak{N}}_{\sigma}}$
to denote the σ-nilpotent residual of G, that is, the intersection of all normal subgroups N of G with σ-nilpotent quotient G/N. If G is σ-soluble, then the σ-nilpotent length (denoted by lσ (G)) of G is the length of the shortest normal chain of G with σ-nilpotent factors. Let Nσ (G) be the intersection of the normalizers of the σ-nilpotent residuals of all subgroups of G, that is,
Then the subgroup Nσ (G) is called the σ-nilpotent norm of G. We study the relationship of the σ-nilpotent length with the σ-nilpotent norm of G. In particular, we prove that the σ-nilpotent length of a σ-soluble group G is at most r (r > 1) if and only if lσ (G/ Nσ (G)) ≤ r.
We enumerate the number of isoclinism classes of semi-extraspecial p-groups with derived subgroup of order p2. To do this, we enumerate GL (2, p)-orbits of sets of irreducible, monic polynomials in 𝔽p[x]. Along the way, we also provide a new construction of an infinite family of semi-extraspecial groups as central quotients of Heisenberg groups over local algebras.
The class of all monolithic (that is, subdirectly irreducible) groups belonging to a variety generated by a finite nilpotent group can be axiomatised by a finite set of elementary sentences.
Let $p$ be an odd prime. We construct a $p$-group $P$ of nilpotency class two, rank seven and exponent $p$, such that $\text{Aut}(P)$ induces $N_{\text{GL}(7,p)}(G_{2}(p))=Z(\text{GL}(7,p))G_{2}(p)$ on the Frattini quotient $P/\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F7}(P)$. The constructed group $P$ is the smallest $p$-group with these properties, having order $p^{14}$, and when $p=3$ our construction gives two nonisomorphic $p$-groups. To show that $P$ satisfies the specified properties, we study the action of $G_{2}(q)$ on the octonion algebra over $\mathbb{F}_{q}$, for each power $q$ of $p$, and explore the reducibility of the exterior square of each irreducible seven-dimensional $\mathbb{F}_{q}[G_{2}(q)]$-module.
Let $G$ be a $p$-group and let $\unicode[STIX]{x1D712}$ be an irreducible character of $G$. The codegree of $\unicode[STIX]{x1D712}$ is given by $|G:\,\text{ker}(\unicode[STIX]{x1D712})|/\unicode[STIX]{x1D712}(1)$. If $G$ is a maximal class $p$-group that is normally monomial or has at most three character degrees, then the codegrees of $G$ are consecutive powers of $p$. If $|G|=p^{n}$ and $G$ has consecutive $p$-power codegrees up to $p^{n-1}$, then the nilpotence class of $G$ is at most 2 or $G$ has maximal class.
In this manuscript, we generalize Lewis’s result about a central series associated with the vanishing off subgroup. We write $V_{1}=V(G)$ for the vanishing off subgroup of $G$, and $V_{i}=[V_{i-1},G]$ for the terms in this central series. Lewis proved that there exists a positive integer $n$ such that if $V_{3}<G_{3}$, then $|G\,:\,V_{1}|=|G^{\prime }\,:\,V_{2}|^{2}=p^{2n}$. Let $D_{3}/V_{3}=C_{G/V_{3}}(G^{\prime }/V_{3})$. He also showed that if $V_{3}<G_{3}$, then either $|G\,:\,D_{3}|=p^{n}$ or $D_{3}=V_{1}$. We show that if $V_{i}<G_{i}$ for $i\geqslant 4$, where $G_{i}$ is the $i$-th term in the lower central series of $G$, then $|G_{i-1}\,:\,V_{i-1}|=|G\,:\,D_{3}|$.
Given a positive integer $m$, a finite $p$-group $G$ is called a $BC(p^{m})$-group if $|H_{G}|\leq p^{m}$ for every nonnormal subgroup $H$ of $G$, where $H_{G}$ is the normal core of $H$ in $G$. We show that $m+2$ is an upper bound for the nilpotent class of a finite $BC(p^{m})$-group and obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for a $p$-group to be of maximal class. We also classify the $BC(p)$-groups.
Let $\mathfrak{F}$ be a class of finite groups and $G$ a finite group. Let ${\mathcal{L}}_{\mathfrak{F}}(G)$ be the set of all subgroups $A$ of $G$ with $A^{G}/A_{G}\in \mathfrak{F}$. A chief factor $H/K$ of $G$ is $\mathfrak{F}$-central in $G$ if $(H/K)\rtimes (G/C_{G}(H/K))\in \mathfrak{F}$. We study the structure of $G$ under the hypothesis that every chief factor of $G$ between $A_{G}$ and $A^{G}$ is $\mathfrak{F}$-central in $G$ for every subgroup $A\in {\mathcal{L}}_{\mathfrak{F}}(G)$. As an application, we prove that a finite soluble group $G$ is a PST-group if and only if $A^{G}/A_{G}\leq Z_{\infty }(G/A_{G})$ for every subgroup $A\in {\mathcal{L}}_{\mathfrak{N}}(G)$, where $\mathfrak{N}$ is the class of all nilpotent groups.
Let k be a divisor of a finite group G and Lk(G) = {x ∈ G | xk =1}. Frobenius proved that the number |Lk(G)| is always divisible by k. The following inverse problem is considered: for a given integer n, find all groups G such that max{k-1|Lk(G)| | k ∈ Div(G)} = n, where Div(G) denotes the set of all divisors of |G|. A procedure beginning with (in a sense) minimal members and deducing the remaining ones is outlined and executed for n=8.
Let p be an odd prime and let G be a non-abelian finite p-group of exponent p2 with three distinct characteristic subgroups, namely 1, Gp and G. The quotient group G/Gp gives rise to an anti-commutative 𝔽p-algebra L such that the action of Aut (L) is irreducible on L; we call such an algebra IAC. This paper establishes a duality G ↔ L between such groups and such IAC algebras. We prove that IAC algebras are semisimple and we classify the simple IAC algebras of dimension at most 4 over certain fields. We also give other examples of simple IAC algebras, including a family related to the m-th symmetric power of the natural module of SL(2, 𝔽).
Let $G$ be a finite group and $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}=\{\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}_{i}\mid i\in I\}$ some partition of the set of all primes $\mathbb{P}$, that is, $\mathbb{P}=\bigcup _{i\in I}\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}_{i}$ and $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}_{i}\cap \unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}_{j}=\emptyset$ for all $i\neq j$. We say that $G$ is $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$-primary if $G$ is a $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}_{i}$-group for some $i$. A subgroup $A$ of $G$ is said to be: $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$-subnormal in$G$ if there is a subgroup chain $A=A_{0}\leq A_{1}\leq \cdots \leq A_{n}=G$ such that either $A_{i-1}\unlhd A_{i}$ or $A_{i}/(A_{i-1})_{A_{i}}$ is $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$-primary for all $i=1,\ldots ,n$; modular in$G$ if the following conditions hold: (i) $\langle X,A\cap Z\rangle =\langle X,A\rangle \cap Z$ for all $X\leq G,Z\leq G$ such that $X\leq Z$ and (ii) $\langle A,Y\cap Z\rangle =\langle A,Y\rangle \cap Z$ for all $Y\leq G,Z\leq G$ such that $A\leq Z$; and $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$-quasinormal in$G$ if $A$ is modular and $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$-subnormal in $G$. We study $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$-quasinormal subgroups of $G$. In particular, we prove that if a subgroup $H$ of $G$ is $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$-quasinormal in $G$, then every chief factor $H/K$ of $G$ between $H^{G}$ and $H_{G}$ is $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$-central in$G$, that is, the semidirect product $(H/K)\rtimes (G/C_{G}(H/K))$ is $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$-primary.
Let A and G be finite groups and suppose that A acts via automorphisms on G with $(|A|, |G|)=1$. We study how certain conditions on the Sylow 2-subgroups of the fixed point subgroup of the action $C_G(A)$ may imply the non-simplicity or solubility of G.
Let $G$ be a group and $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}=\{\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}_{i}\mid i\in I\}$ some partition of the set of all primes. A subgroup $A$ of $G$ is $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$-subnormal in $G$ if there is a subgroup chain $A=A_{0}\leq A_{1}\leq \cdots \leq A_{m}=G$ such that either $A_{i-1}\unlhd A_{i}$ or $A_{i}/(A_{i-1})_{A_{i}}$ is a finite $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}_{j}$-group for some $j=j(i)$ for $i=1,\ldots ,m$, and it is modular in $G$ if $\langle X,A\cap Z\rangle =\langle X,A\rangle \cap Z$ when $X\leq Z\leq G$ and $\langle A,Y\cap Z\rangle =\langle A,Y\rangle \cap Z$ when $Y\leq G$ and $A\leq Z\leq G$. The group $G$ is called $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$-soluble if every chief factor $H/K$ of $G$ is a finite $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}_{i}$-group for some $i=i(H/K)$. In this paper, we describe finite $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$-soluble groups in which every $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$-subnormal subgroup is modular.