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It is proven that, for a wide range of integers s (2 < s < p − 2), the existence of a single wildly ramified odd prime l ≠ p leads to either the alternating group or the full symmetric group as Galois group of any irreducible trinomial Xp + aXs + b of prime degree p.
We show that compatible systems of
$\ell$
-adic sheaves on a scheme of finite type over the ring of integers of a local field are compatible along the boundary up to stratification. This extends a theorem of Deligne on curves over a finite field. As an application, we deduce the equicharacteristic case of classical conjectures on
$\ell$
-independence for proper smooth varieties over complete discrete valuation fields. Moreover, we show that compatible systems have compatible ramification. We also prove an analogue for integrality along the boundary.
Let $F$ be a non-Archimedean locally compact field of residual characteristic $p$ with Weil group ${\mathcal{W}}_{F}$. Let $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$ be an irreducible smooth complex representation of ${\mathcal{W}}_{F}$, realized as the Langlands parameter of an irreducible cuspidal representation $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}$ of a general linear group over $F$. In an earlier paper we showed that the ramification structure of $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$ is determined by the fine structure of the endo-class $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E9}$ of the simple character contained in $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}$, in the sense of Bushnell and Kutzko. The connection is made via the Herbrand function $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F9}_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E9}}$ of $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E9}$. In this paper we concentrate on the fundamental Carayol case in which $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$ is totally wildly ramified with Swan exponent not divisible by $p$. We show that, for such $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$, the associated Herbrand function satisfies a certain functional equation, and that this property essentially characterizes this class of representations. We calculate $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F9}_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E9}}$ explicitly, in terms of a classical Herbrand function arising naturally from the classification of simple characters. We describe exactly the class of functions arising as Herbrand functions $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F9}_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D6EF}}$, as $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6EF}$ varies over the set of totally wild endo-classes of Carayol type. In a separate argument, we derive a complete description of the restriction of $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$ to any ramification subgroup and hence a detailed interpretation of the Herbrand function. This gives concrete information concerning the Langlands correspondence.
We describe the ramification in cyclic extensions arising from the Kummer theory of the Weil restriction of the multiplicative group. This generalises the classical theory of Hecke describing the ramification of Kummer extensions.
A conjectural generalization of the McKay correspondence in terms of stringy invariants to arbitrary characteristics, including the wild case, was recently formulated by the author in the case where the given finite group acts linearly on an affine space. In cases of very special groups and representations, the conjecture has been verified and related stringy invariants have been explicitly computed. In this paper, we try to generalize the conjecture and computations to more complicated situations such as nonlinear actions on possibly singular spaces and nonpermutation representations of nonabelian groups.
A generalization of Serre’s Conjecture asserts that if $F$ is a totally real field, then certain characteristic $p$ representations of Galois groups over $F$ arise from Hilbert modular forms. Moreover, it predicts the set of weights of such forms in terms of the local behaviour of the Galois representation at primes over $p$. This characterization of the weights, which is formulated using $p$-adic Hodge theory, is known under mild technical hypotheses if $p>2$. In this paper we give, under the assumption that $p$ is unramified in $F$, a conjectural alternative description for the set of weights. Our approach is to use the Artin–Hasse exponential and local class field theory to construct bases for local Galois cohomology spaces in terms of which we identify subspaces that should correspond to ones defined using $p$-adic Hodge theory. The resulting conjecture amounts to an explicit description of wild ramification in reductions of certain crystalline Galois representations. It enables the direct computation of the set of Serre weights of a Galois representation, which we illustrate with numerical examples. A proof of this conjecture has been announced by Calegari, Emerton, Gee and Mavrides.
We study ultrametric germs in one variable having an irrationally indifferent fixed point at the origin with a prescribed multiplier. We show that for many values of the multiplier, the cycles in the unit disk of the corresponding monic quadratic polynomial are ‘optimal’ in the following sense: they minimize the distance to the origin among cycles of the same minimal period of normalized germs having an irrationally indifferent fixed point at the origin with the same multiplier. We also give examples of multipliers for which the corresponding quadratic polynomial does not have optimal cycles. In those cases we exhibit a higher-degree polynomial such that all of its cycles are optimal. The proof of these results reveals a connection between the geometric location of periodic points of ultrametric power series and the lower ramification numbers of wildly ramified field automorphisms. We also give an extension of Sen’s theorem on wildly ramified field automorphisms, and a characterization of minimally ramified power series in terms of the iterative residue.
We study the McKay correspondence for representations of the cyclic group of order $p$ in characteristic $p$. The main tool is the motivic integration generalized to quotient stacks associated to representations. Our version of the change of variables formula leads to an explicit computation of the stringy invariant of the quotient variety. A consequence is that a crepant resolution of the quotient variety (if any) has topological Euler characteristic $p$ as in the tame case. Also, we link a crepant resolution with a count of Artin–Schreier extensions of the power series field with respect to weights determined by ramification jumps and the representation.
Let $K_1$ and $K_2$ be complete discrete valuation fields of residue characteristic $p>0$. Let $\pi _{K_1}$ and $\pi _{K_2}$ be their uniformizers. Let $L_1/K_1$ and $L_2/K_2$ be finite extensions with compatible isomorphisms of rings $\mathcal{O}_{K_1}/(\pi _{K_1}^m)\, {\simeq }\, \mathcal{O}_{K_2}/(\pi _{K_2}^m)$ and $\mathcal{O}_{L_1}/(\pi _{K_1}^m)\, {\simeq }\, \mathcal{O}_{L_2}/(\pi _{K_2}^m)$ for some positive integer $m$ which is no more than the absolute ramification indices of $K_1$ and $K_2$. Let $j\leq m$ be a positive rational number. In this paper, we prove that the ramification of $L_1/K_1$ is bounded by $j$ if and only if the ramification of $L_2/K_2$ is bounded by $j$. As an application, we prove that the categories of finite separable extensions of $K_1$ and $K_2$ whose ramifications are bounded by $j$ are equivalent to each other, which generalizes a theorem of Deligne to the case of imperfect residue fields. We also show the compatibility of Scholl’s theory of higher fields of norms with the ramification theory of Abbes–Saito, and the integrality of small Artin and Swan conductors of $p$-adic representations with finite local monodromy.
Let $N/ F$ be an odd-degree Galois extension of number fields with Galois group $G$ and rings of integers ${\mathfrak{O}}_{N} $ and ${\mathfrak{O}}_{F} = \mathfrak{O}$. Let $ \mathcal{A} $ be the unique fractional ${\mathfrak{O}}_{N} $-ideal with square equal to the inverse different of $N/ F$. B. Erez showed that $ \mathcal{A} $ is a locally free $\mathfrak{O}[G] $-module if and only if $N/ F$ is a so-called weakly ramified extension. Although a number of results have been proved regarding the freeness of $ \mathcal{A} $ as a $ \mathbb{Z} [G] $-module, the question remains open. In this paper we prove that $ \mathcal{A} $ is free as a $ \mathbb{Z} [G] $-module provided that $N/ F$ is weakly ramified and under the hypothesis that for every prime $\wp $ of $\mathfrak{O}$ which ramifies wildly in $N/ F$, the decomposition group is abelian, the ramification group is cyclic and $\wp $ is unramified in $F/ \mathbb{Q} $. We make crucial use of a construction due to the first author which uses Dwork’s exponential power series to describe self-dual integral normal bases in Lubin–Tate extensions of local fields. This yields a new and striking relationship between the local norm-resolvent and the Galois Gauss sum involved. Our results generalise work of the second author concerning the case of base field $ \mathbb{Q} $.
Let K be a complete discrete valuation field of mixed characteristic (0,p), with possibly imperfect residue field. We prove a Hasse–Arf theorem for the arithmetic ramification filtrations on GK, except possibly in the absolutely unramified and non-logarithmic case, or the p=2 and logarithmic case. As an application, we obtain a Hasse–Arf theorem for filtrations on finite flat group schemes over 𝒪K.
Laumon introduced the local Fourier transform for ℓ-adic Galois representations of local fields, of equal characteristic p different from ℓ, as a powerful tool for studying the Fourier–Deligne transform of ℓ-adic sheaves over the affine line. In this article, we compute explicitly the local Fourier transform of monomial representations satisfying a certain ramification condition, and deduce Laumon’s formula relating the ε-factor to the determinant of the local Fourier transform under the same condition.
Using a local construction from a previous paper, we exhibit a numerical invariant, the differential Swan conductor, for an isocrystal on a variety over a perfect field of positive characteristic overconvergent along a boundary divisor; this leads to an analogous construction for certain p-adic and l-adic representations of the étale fundamental group of a variety. We then demonstrate some variational properties of this definition for overconvergent isocrystals, paying special attention to the case of surfaces.
Let K be a local field of equal characteristic p>2, let XK/K be a smooth proper relative curve, and let ℱ be a rank 1 smooth l-adic sheaf (l≠p) on a dense open subset UK⊂XK. In this paper, under some assumptions on the wild ramification of ℱ, we prove a conductor formula that computes the Swan conductor of the etale cohomology of the vanishing cycles of ℱ. Our conductor formula is a generalization of the conductor formula of Bloch, but for non-constant coefficients.
We associate two almost Cp-representations to a (ϕ,Γ)-module, and we compute their dimensions and heights. As a corollary, we get a full faithfulness result for Be-representations.
We propose a geometric method to measure the wild ramification of a smooth étale sheaf along the boundary. Using the method, we study the graded quotients of the logarithmic ramification groups of a local field of characteristic p > 0 with arbitrary residue field. We also define the characteristic cycle of an ℓ-adic sheaf, satisfying certain conditions, as a cycle on the logarithmic cotangent bundle and prove that the intersection with the 0-section computes the characteristic class, and hence the Euler number.
We develop the theory of p-adic confluence of q-difference equations. The main result is the fact that, in the p-adic framework, a function is a (Taylor) solution of a differential equation if and only if it is a solution of a q-difference equation. This fact implies an equivalence, called confluence, between the category of differential equations and those of q-difference equations. We develop this theory by introducing a category of sheaves on the disk D−(1,1), for which the stalk at 1 is a differential equation, the stalk at q isa q-difference equation if q is not a root of unity, and the stalk at a root of unity ξ is a mixed object, formed by a differential equation and an action of σξ.
We develop and study the epsilon factor of a ‘local system’ of p-adic coefficients over the spectrum of a complete discrete valuation field K with finite residue field of characteristic p>0. In the equal characteristic case, we define the epsilon factor of an overconvergent F-isocrystal over Spec(K), using the p-adic monodromy theorem. We conjecture a global formula, the p-adic product formula, analogous to Deligne’s formula for étale ℓ-adic sheaves proved by Laumon, which explains the importance of this local invariant. Namely, for an overconvergent F-isocrystal over an open subset of a projective smooth curve X, the constant of the functional equation of the L-series is expressed as a product of the local epsilon factors at the points of X. We prove the conjecture for rank-one overconvergent F-isocrystals and for finite unit-root overconvergent F-isocrystals. In the mixed characteristic case, we study the behavior of the epsilon factor by deformation to the field of norms.
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