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Let p be a prime with
$p\equiv 1\pmod {4}$
. Gauss first proved that
$2$
is a quartic residue modulo p if and only if
$p=x^2+64y^2$
for some
$x,y\in \Bbb Z$
and various expressions for the quartic residue symbol
$(\frac {2}{p})_4$
are known. We give a new characterisation via a permutation, the sign of which is determined by
$(\frac {2}{p})_4$
. The permutation is induced by the rule
$x \mapsto y-x$
on the
$(p-1)/4$
solutions
$(x,y)$
to
$x^2+y^2\equiv 0 \pmod {p}$
satisfying
$1\leq x < y \leq (p-1)/2$
.
We investigate random minimal factorizations of the n-cycle, that is, factorizations of the permutation
$(1 \, 2 \cdots n)$
into a product of cycles
$\tau_1, \ldots, \tau_k$
whose lengths
$\ell(\tau_1), \ldots, \ell(\tau_k)$
satisfy the minimality condition
$\sum_{i=1}^k(\ell(\tau_i)-1)=n-1$
. By associating to a cycle of the factorization a black polygon inscribed in the unit disk, and reading the cycles one after another, we code a minimal factorization by a process of colored laminations of the disk. These new objects are compact subsets made of red noncrossing chords delimiting faces that are either black or white. Our main result is the convergence of this process as
$n \rightarrow \infty$
, when the factorization is randomly chosen according to Boltzmann weights in the domain of attraction of an
$\alpha$
-stable law, for some
$\alpha \in (1,2]$
. The limiting process interpolates between the unit circle and a colored version of Kortchemski’s
$\alpha$
-stable lamination. Our principal tool in the study of this process is a new bijection between minimal factorizations and a model of size-conditioned labeled random trees whose vertices are colored black or white, as well as the investigation of the asymptotic properties of these trees.
A classical result for the simple symmetric random walk with 2n steps is that the number of steps above the origin, the time of the last visit to the origin, and the time of the maximum height all have exactly the same distribution and converge when scaled to the arcsine law. Motivated by applications in genomics, we study the distributions of these statistics for the non-Markovian random walk generated from the ascents and descents of a uniform random permutation and a Mallows(q) permutation and show that they have the same asymptotic distributions as for the simple random walk. We also give an unexpected conjecture, along with numerical evidence and a partial proof in special cases, for the result that the number of steps above the origin by step 2n for the uniform permutation generated walk has exactly the same discrete arcsine distribution as for the simple random walk, even though the other statistics for these walks have very different laws. We also give explicit error bounds to the limit theorems using Stein’s method for the arcsine distribution, as well as functional central limit theorems and a strong embedding of the Mallows(q) permutation which is of independent interest.
A set S of permutations is forcing if for any sequence
$\{\Pi_i\}_{i \in \mathbb{N}}$
of permutations where the density
$d(\pi,\Pi_i)$
converges to
$\frac{1}{|\pi|!}$
for every permutation
$\pi \in S$
, it holds that
$\{\Pi_i\}_{i \in \mathbb{N}}$
is quasirandom. Graham asked whether there exists an integer k such that the set of all permutations of order k is forcing; this has been shown to be true for any
$k\ge 4$
. In particular, the set of all 24 permutations of order 4 is forcing. We provide the first non-trivial lower bound on the size of a forcing set of permutations: every forcing set of permutations (with arbitrary orders) contains at least four permutations.
Let
$p=3n+1$
be a prime with
$n\in \mathbb {N}=\{0,1,2,\ldots \}$
and let
$g\in \mathbb {Z}$
be a primitive root modulo p. Let
$0<a_1<\cdots <a_n<p$
be all the cubic residues modulo p in the interval
$(0,p)$
. Then clearly the sequence
$a_1 \bmod p,\, a_2 \bmod p,\ldots , a_n \bmod p$
is a permutation of the sequence
$g^3 \bmod p,\,g^6 \bmod p,\ldots , g^{3n} \bmod p$
. We determine the sign of this permutation.
We prove that most permutations of degree $n$ have some power which is a cycle of prime length approximately $\log n$. Explicitly, we show that for $n$ sufficiently large, the proportion of such elements is at least $1-5/\log \log n$ with the prime between $\log n$ and $(\log n)^{\log \log n}$. The proportion of even permutations with this property is at least $1-7/\log \log n$.
Necklaces are the equivalence classes of words under the action of the cyclic group. Let a transition in a word be any change between two adjacent letters modulo the word’s length. We present a closed-form solution for the enumeration of necklaces in n beads, k colours and t transitions. We show that our result provides a more general solution to the problem of counting alternating (proper) colourings of the vertices of a regular n-gon.
For an indifference graph G, we define a symmetric function of increasing spanning forests of G. We prove that this symmetric function satisfies certain linear relations, which are also satisfied by the chromatic quasisymmetric function and unicellular $\textrm {LLT}$ polynomials. As a consequence, we give a combinatorial interpretation of the coefficients of the $\textrm {LLT}$ polynomial in the elementary basis (up to a factor of a power of $(q-1)$), strengthening the description given in [4].
We show that the Mallows measure on permutations of
$1,\dots ,n$
arises as the law of the unique Gale–Shapley stable matching of the random bipartite graph with vertex set conditioned to be perfect, where preferences arise from the natural total ordering of the vertices of each gender but are restricted to the (random) edges of the graph. We extend this correspondence to infinite intervals, for which the situation is more intricate. We prove that almost surely, every stable matching of the random bipartite graph obtained by performing Bernoulli percolation on the complete bipartite graph
$K_{{\mathbb Z},{\mathbb Z}}$
falls into one of two classes: a countable family
$(\sigma _n)_{n\in {\mathbb Z}}$
of tame stable matchings, in which the length of the longest edge crossing k is
$O(\log |k|)$
as
$k\to \pm \infty $
, and an uncountable family of wild stable matchings, in which this length is
$\exp \Omega (k)$
as
$k\to +\infty $
. The tame stable matching
$\sigma _n$
has the law of the Mallows permutation of
${\mathbb Z}$
(as constructed by Gnedin and Olshanski) composed with the shift
$k\mapsto k+n$
. The permutation
$\sigma _{n+1}$
dominates
$\sigma _{n}$
pointwise, and the two permutations are related by a shift along a random strictly increasing sequence.
The Brownian separable permuton is a random probability measure on the unit square, which was introduced by Bassino, Bouvel, Féray, Gerin and Pierrot (2016) as the scaling limit of the diagram of the uniform separable permutation as size grows to infinity. We show that, almost surely, the permuton is the pushforward of the Lebesgue measure on the graph of a random measure-preserving function associated to a Brownian excursion whose strict local minima are decorated with independent and identically distributed signs. As a consequence, its support is almost surely totally disconnected, has Hausdorff dimension one, and enjoys self-similarity properties inherited from those of the Brownian excursion. The density function of the averaged permuton is computed and a connection with the shuffling of the Brownian continuum random tree is explored.
For $$\tau \in {S_3}$$, let $$\mu _n^\tau $$ denote the uniformly random probability measure on the set of $$\tau $$-avoiding permutations in $${S_n}$$. Let $${\mathbb {N}^*} = {\mathbb {N}} \cup \{ \infty \} $$ with an appropriate metric and denote by $$S({\mathbb{N}},{\mathbb{N}^*})$$ the compact metric space consisting of functions $$\sigma {\rm{ = }}\{ {\sigma _i}\} _{i = 1}^\infty {\rm{ }}$$ from $$\mathbb {N}$$ to $${\mathbb {N}^ * }$$ which are injections when restricted to $${\sigma ^{ - 1}}(\mathbb {N})$$; that is, if $${\sigma _i}{\rm{ = }}{\sigma _j}$$, $$i \ne j$$, then $${\sigma _i} = \infty $$. Extending permutations $$\sigma \in {S_n}$$ by defining $${\sigma _j} = j$$, for $$j \gt n$$, we have $${S_n} \subset S({\mathbb{N}},{{\mathbb{N}}^*})$$. For each $$\tau \in {S_3}$$, we study the limiting behaviour of the measures $$\{ \mu _n^\tau \} _{n = 1}^\infty $$ on $$S({\mathbb{N}},{\mathbb{N}^*})$$. We obtain partial results for the permutation $$\tau = 321$$ and complete results for the other five permutations $$\tau \in {S_3}$$.
Let $n$ be a positive integer and $a$ an integer prime to $n$. Multiplication by $a$ induces a permutation over $\mathbb{Z}/n\mathbb{Z}=\{\overline{0},\overline{1},\ldots ,\overline{n-1}\}$. Lerch’s theorem gives the sign of this permutation. We explore some applications of Lerch’s result to permutation problems involving quadratic residues modulo $p$ and confirm some conjectures posed by Sun [‘Quadratic residues and related permutations and identities’, Preprint, 2018, arXiv:1809.07766]. We also study permutations involving arbitrary $k$th power residues modulo $p$ and primitive roots modulo a power of $p$.
Let (X, Y) = (Xn, Yn)n≥1 be the output process generated by a hidden chain Z = (Zn)n≥1, where Z is a finite-state, aperiodic, time homogeneous, and irreducible Markov chain. Let LCn be the length of the longest common subsequences of X1,..., Xn and Y1,..., Yn. Under a mixing hypothesis, a rate of convergence result is obtained for E[LCn]/n.
We construct a shifted version of the Turán sieve method developed by R. Murty and the second author and apply it to counting problems on tournaments. More precisely, we obtain upper bounds for the number of tournaments which contain a fixed number of restricted $r$-cycles. These are the first concrete results which count the number of cycles over “all tournaments”.
Bevan established that the growth rate of a monotone grid class of permutations is equal to the square of the spectral radius of a related bipartite graph. We give an elementary and self-contained proof of a generalization of this result using only Stirling's formula, the method of Lagrange multipliers, and the singular value decomposition of matrices. Our proof relies on showing that the maximum over the space of n × n matrices with non-negative entries summing to one of a certain function of those entries, parametrized by the entries of another matrix Γ of non-negative real numbers, is equal to the square of the largest singular value of Γ and that the maximizing point can be expressed as a Hadamard product of Γ with the tensor product of singular vectors for its greatest singular value.
We show that if a permutation $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}$ contains two intervals of length 2, where one interval is an ascent and the other a descent, then the Möbius function $\unicode[STIX]{x1D707}[1,\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}]$ of the interval $[1,\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}]$ is zero. As a consequence, we prove that the proportion of permutations of length $n$ with principal Möbius function equal to zero is asymptotically bounded below by $(1-1/e)^{2}\geqslant 0.3995$. This is the first result determining the value of $\unicode[STIX]{x1D707}[1,\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}]$ for an asymptotically positive proportion of permutations $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}$. We further establish other general conditions on a permutation $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}$ that ensure $\unicode[STIX]{x1D707}[1,\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}]=0$, including the occurrence in $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}$ of any interval of the form $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}\oplus 1\oplus \unicode[STIX]{x1D6FD}$.
The goal of property testing is to quickly distinguish between objects which satisfy a property and objects that are ε-far from satisfying the property. There are now several general results in this area which show that natural properties of combinatorial objects can be tested with ‘constant’ query complexity, depending only on ε and the property, and not on the size of the object being tested. The upper bound on the query complexity coming from the proof techniques is often enormous and impractical. It remains a major open problem if better bounds hold.
Maybe surprisingly, for testing with respect to the rectangular distance, we prove there is a universal (not depending on the property), polynomial in 1/ε query complexity bound for two-sided testing hereditary properties of sufficiently large permutations. We further give a nearly linear bound with respect to a closely related metric which also depends on the smallest forbidden subpermutation for the property. Finally, we show that several different permutation metrics of interest are related to the rectangular distance, yielding similar results for testing with respect to these metrics.
A random binary search tree grown from the uniformly random permutation of [n] is studied. We analyze the exact and asymptotic counts of vertices by rank, the distance from the set of leaves. The asymptotic fraction ck of vertices of a fixed rank k ≥ 0 is shown to decay exponentially with k. We prove that the ranks of the uniformly random, fixed size sample of vertices are asymptotically independent, each having the distribution {ck}. Notoriously hard to compute, the exact fractions ck have been determined for k ≤ 3 only. We present a shortcut enabling us to compute c4 and c5 as well; both are ratios of enormous integers, the denominator of c5 being 274 digits long. Prompted by the data, we prove that, in sharp contrast, the largest prime divisor of the denominator of ck is at most 2k+1 + 1. We conjecture that, in fact, the prime divisors of every denominator for k > 1 form a single interval, from 2 to the largest prime not exceeding 2k+1 + 1.
In this paper, we study the integer sequence $(E_{n})_{n\geq 1}$, where $E_{n}$ counts the number of possible dimensions for centralisers of $n\times n$ matrices. We give an example to show another combinatorial interpretation of $E_{n}$ and present an implicit recurrence formula for $E_{n}$, which may provide a fast algorithm for computing $E_{n}$. Based on the recurrence, we obtain the asymptotic formula $E_{n}=\frac{1}{2}n^{2}-\frac{2}{3}\sqrt{2}n^{3/2}+O(n^{5/4})$.
In a recent paper, Baxter and Zeilberger showed that the two most important Mahonian statistics, the inversion number and the major index, are asymptotically independently normally distributed on permutations. In another recent paper, Canfield, Janson and Zeilberger proved the result, already known to statisticians, that the Mahonian distribution is asymptotically normal on words. This leaves one question unanswered: What, asymptotically, is the joint distribution of the inversion number and the major index on words? We answer this question by establishing convergence to a bivariate normal distribution.