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Embolization of middle meningeal artery (EMMA) is a relatively new treatment for chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). To date, an objective method that assesses or describes the extent of EMMA for the treatment of CSDH does not exist. Recently, the concept of a novel grading scale for EMMA in patients with CSDH has emerged. However, this has not been applied to a clinical case setting and inter-rater reliability has not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to validate the grading scale in clinical practice and to assess for inter-rater reliability.
Materials and Methods:
We retrospectively examined consecutive patients who underwent EMMA for CSDH. Patients were included if the whole head angiogram from common carotid as well as external carotid arteries before and after EMMA were available in the arterial, capillary as well as venous phases. Two independent readers, each with more than 5 years of experience in independent practice, assessed the angiograms for the grading of EMMA and assigned a score ranging between 0 and 3. The grading score between the two readers were compared using Cohen’s Kappa score to assess the inter-rater reliability.
In 19 patients, we found that EMMA had no periprocedural morbidity and mortality. The number of cases in each EMMA grading score category are as follows: 0 n =1; 1 n =3; 2 n =1; and 3 n =10. There was substantial inter-rater reliability for the assessment of grading of EMMA (Kappa = 0.74).
The novel EMMA grading scheme demonstrated substantial inter-rater reliability and appears promising.
Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are direct shunts between extracranial or meningeal arteries and dural sinuses, dural veins, or cortical veins. They account for 10%–15% of all intracranial vascular malformations. DAVFs are classified according to two classification systems, Borden and Cognard, both of which are based on the venous drainage pathway and presence of antegrade or retrograde venous flow. A multidisciplinary approach using endovascular techniques has become the mainstay of treatment. We present two cases of DAVF with cortical venous drainage (Borden type 3) that were successfully treated using a transvenous approach via the draining subarachnoid veins.
Endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) significantly improves outcomes for acute ischemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) who present in a time sensitive manner. Prolonged EVT access times may reduce benefits for eligible patients. We evaluated the efficiency of EVT services including EVT rates, onset-to-CTA time and onset-to-groin puncture time in our province.
Materials and methods:
Three areas were defined: zone I- urban region, zone II-areas within 1 h drive distance from the Comprehensive Stroke Center (CSC); and zone III-areas more than 1hr drive distance from the CSC. In this retrospective cohort study, EVT rate, onset-to-groin puncture time and onset-to-CTA time were compared among the three groups using Krustal–Wallis and Wilcoxon tests.
The EVT rate per 100,000 inhabitants for urban zone I was 8.6 as compared to 5.1 in zone II, and 7.5 in zone III. Compared to zone I (114 min; 95% CI (96, 132); n = 128), mean onset-to-CTA time was 19 min longer in zone II (133 min; 95% CI (77, 189); n = 23; p = 0.0459) and 103 min longer in zone III (217 min, 95% CI (162, 272); n = 44; p < 0.0001). Compared to zone I (209 min, 95% CI (181, 238)), mean onset-to-groin puncture time was 22 min longer in zone II (231 min, 95% CI (174, 288); p = 0.046) but 163 min longer in zone III (372 min, 95% CI (312, 432); p < 0.0001).
EVT access in rural areas is considerably reduced with significantly longer onset-to-groin puncture times and onset-to-CTA times when compared to our urban area. This may help in modifying the patient transfer policy for EVT referral.
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