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Rodents and shrews are major reservoirs of various pathogens that are related to zoonotic infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate co-infections of zoonotic pathogens in rodents and shrews trapped in four provinces of China. We sampled different rodent and shrew communities within and around human settlements in four provinces of China and characterised several important zoonotic viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens by PCR methods and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 864 rodents and shrews belonging to 24 and 13 species from RODENTIA and EULIPOTYPHLA orders were captured, respectively. For viral pathogens, two species of hantavirus (Hantaan orthohantavirus and Caobang orthohantavirus) were identified in 3.47% of rodents and shrews. The overall prevalence of Bartonella spp., Anaplasmataceae, Babesia spp., Leptospira spp., Spotted fever group Rickettsiae, Borrelia spp., and Coxiella burnetii were 31.25%, 8.91%, 4.17%, 3.94%, 3.59%, 3.47%, and 0.58%, respectively. Furthermore, the highest co-infection status of three pathogens was observed among Bartonella spp., Leptospira spp., and Anaplasmataceae with a co-infection rate of 0.46%. Our results suggested that species distribution and co-infections of zoonotic pathogens were prevalent in rodents and shrews, highlighting the necessity of active surveillance for zoonotic pathogens in wild mammals in wider regions.
Human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV-55) has recently caused multiple outbreaks. This study examined polymorphisms in CD46 to determine their involvement in HAdV-55 infection.
A total of 214 study subjects infected with HAdV-55 were included in our study. The study subjects were divided into those with silent infections (n=91), minor infections (n=85), and severe infections (n=38). Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from CD46 were examined.
Compared with the AA genotype, the TT genotype at rs2724385 (CD46, A/T) was associated with a protective effect against disease occurrence, with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.20 (0.04-0.97) (P=0.038). There were no significant differences between the patients with minor and severe infection and those who had silent HAdV-55 infection in the other CD46 SNPs. We next compared the polymorphisms of these genes according to disease severity in HAdV-55-infected patients with clinical symptoms. The results showed that there were no significant differences between minor infections and severe infections.
Our results suggested that the CD46 SNP at rs2724385 is associated with the occurrence of disease in HAdV-55-infected patients. A much larger number of samples is required to understand the role of CD46 polymorphisms in the occurrence and progression of infection by HAdV-55. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:427–430)
To determine dynamic changes in clinical characteristics by examining an outbreak of adenovirus infection that occurred from December 20, 2012, to February 25, 2013, in Tianjin, China.
Active surveillance for febrile respiratory illnesses was conducted, and medical records of patients were collected. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used for pathogen identification and viral genome study, respectively. Student’s t-test was used to compare the mean values of normally distributed continuous variables. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used if continuous variables were not normally distributed. Pearson’s chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test was used to compare categorical variables.
The outbreak was sourced from the index case diagnosed as the common cold on December 20, 2012; a total of 856 cases were reported in the following 66 days. The pathogen was identified as human adenovirus (HAdV) 55. The symptoms manifested differently in severe and mild cases. Routine blood examinations, liver function indexes, and heart function indexes showed different dynamic patterns over time in hospitalized patients.
Clinical characteristics and laboratory examinations may reveal unique patterns over the course of HAdV-55 infection. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:464–469)
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