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The ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using an atom-centered density matrix propagation method are carried out in the first time to investigate the dissociative electron attachment (DEA) processes of adenine and its tautomer in the gas phase. Since the incoming electron are captured on the lowest π∗ anti-bond orbital, which is led to the different N–H bond, the C–H bond and the C–N bond are broken. The dominant anion observed in DEA dissociation process is the closed-shell dehydrogenated anion (Ade − H)−. The additional anions (Ade − NH2)− and (Ade − 2H)− are also obtained in ADMP simulation. The results are well consistent with the previous DEA experimental results. Thus, the ADMP method is used to gain a more intuitive and better understanding of the necessary dissociation process in the DEA experiment.
To evaluate the effects of dietary Ca intake and Ca supplementation during pregnancy on low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) infants.
A birth cohort study was conducted in 2010–2012 at the Gansu Provincial Maternity and Child Care Hospital in Lanzhou, China.
A birth cohort study.
Totally, 9595 pregnant women who came to the hospital for delivery at 20 weeks of gestation or more, and who were 18 years of age or older.
Compared with non-users, Ca supplement users had a reduced risk of LBW infants (OR = 0·77, 95 % CI: 0·63, 0·95) and a reduced risk of nulliparous women giving birth to LBW infants (OR = 0·75, 95 % CI: 0·58, 0·98) (P < 0·05). More specifically, both the use of Ca supplement before conception and during pregnancy (OR = 0·44, 95 % CI: 0·19, 0·99) and during pregnancy only (OR = 0·80, 95 % CI: 0·65, 0·99) had the main effect of reducing risk of nulliparous women giving birth to LBW infants (P < 0·05). There was no association between Ca supplementation and SGA (OR = 0·87, 95 % CI: 0·75, 1·01) (P > 0·05). However, higher dietary Ca intake during pregnancy decreases the risk of both LBW (quartile 2: OR = 0·72, 95 % CI: 0·55, 0·94; quartile 3: OR = 0·68, 95 % CI: 0·50, 0·62) and SGA infants (quartile 2: OR = 0·77, 95 % CI: 0·63, 0·95; quartile 3: OR = 0·71, 95 % CI: 0·57, 0·88, quartile 4: OR = 0·71, 95 % CI: 0·57, 0·88) (P < 0·05).
Ca supplementation and adequate dietary intake of Ca during pregnancy are associated with a decreased risk of LBW infants born to nulliparous women.
Actin depolymerizing factors regulate actin dynamics involved in cellular processes such as morphogenesis, motility, development and infection. Here, a novel actin depolymerizing factor gene (CiADF2) was cloned from the cDNA library of Cryptocaryon irritans, a parasitic ciliate causing cryptocaryonosis. The full-length cDNA of CiADF2 was 531 bp. Its open reading frame (ORF) was 417 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 138 aa with typical features of the ADF/cofilin family. Reverse transcription-PCR suggested that CiADF2 is expressed in all stages of the life cycle. After site-directed mutagenesis of a non-universal genetic code, the ORF was subcloned in Escherichia coli. The bacteria were induced with the addition of isopropylthio-β-D-galactoside to express a fusion protein of recombinant CiADF2 (rCiADF2) with glutathione S transferase. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot confirmed the predicted molecular mass of rCiADF2 of 16·2 kDa. A mouse antibody against rCiADF2 recognized native CiADF2, and rCiADF2 reacted with mouse antisera against C. irritans trophonts. CiADF2 was abundant in the plasma around cytostomes, suggesting that CiADF2 is involved in ciliate movement. Moreover, rCiADF2 showed F-actin binding and depolymerizing activity. This study will help to clarify the pathogenic biology of the parasite and develop effective control measures for cryptocaryonosis.
The electron emission yield γ induced by Ne2+ and O2+ impacting on a clean tungsten surface has been measured. The range of projectile energy is from 3 keV/u to 14 keV/u. The total electron yield gradually increases with the projectile velocity. It is found simultaneously that the total electron yield for O2+ is larger than the total electron yield for Ne2+, which is opposite to the results for higher projectile velocity. After considering the contribution from recoiling atoms to the energy distribution and electron emission yield, we find that recoiling atoms are of crucial importance in electron emission in our energy range. Thus, the unexpected results in our experiment can be explained successfully.
Total electron emission yield for impact of slow Neq+(q = 2, 4, 6, 8) ions with various kinetic energy under normal incidence on n-type Si has been measured. It is shown that for the same charge state, the total electron yield γ increases linearly as the kinetic energy of projectile at impact increases, up to velocities corresponding to the “classical” threshold. Separation of kinetic electron yield γKE and potential electron yield γPE shows that γPE is proportional to the ion charge state and γKE increases linearly with projectile velocity. Finally, based on “single hole without hopping” hypothesis, the expression of the “CRF” F(q) is given, and the relation between γKE and q is obtained successfully for the first time, which is also a basis for judging whether the “trampoline effect” exists.
X-ray emission from Xe30+ ions at 350–600 keV impacting on an Au target was investigated at the Heavy Ion Research Facility at Lanzhou. Characteristic X-rays of Xe ions at energy of about 1.65 keV were observed. This X-ray emission is induced by the decay of very high Rydberg states of Xe ions. It was also found that the yield of such characteristic X-rays is decreasing with increasing the projectile kinetic energy. Simultaneously, the yield of the characteristic Au X-rays from the M shell increases also. These phenomena are qualitatively analyzed with the classical Coulomb over the Barrier Mode (COBM) for highly charged ions interacting with solid state surfaces.
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