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This study aimed to investigate the nurse-patient trust among in-patients in the context of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic; it further analyzed the related influencing factors, which will provide a theoretical basis for developing corresponding measures.
This study employed a mixed-method design and analyzed 149 patients at the Hongqi Hospital, affiliated with Mudanjiang Medical University, from December 2020 to February 2021. Quantitative analysis was carried out using the “Nurse Patient Trust Scale,” and qualitative analysis was performed using a semi-structured interview with in-patients.
The average score on the scale was 46.65 ± 2.83, and the scores of the 2 dimensions were: 23.24 ± 1.51 for ability and peace of mind, and 23.32 ± 1.53 for attitude and care. According to the interview data, the factors included 3 aspects: a comfortable hospital environment and humane management measures; the nurse’s own competence; and effective communication with patients.
During the COVID-19 epidemic, there are still many factors affecting patients’ trust in nurses that can be addressed by taking different measures. All these factors must be considered by the relevant managers and clinical nursing staff to maintain a better nurse-patient trust relationship.
Tremendous progress has been made in the field of ferroptosis since this regulated cell death process was first named in 2012. Ferroptosis is initiated upon redox imbalance and driven by excessive phospholipid peroxidation. Levels of multiple intracellular nutrients (iron, selenium, vitamin E and coenzyme Q10) are intimately related to the cellular antioxidant system and participate in the regulation of ferroptosis. Dietary intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) regulates ferroptosis by directly modifying the fatty acid composition in cell membranes. In addition, amino acids and glucose (energy stress) manipulate the ferroptosis pathway through the nutrient-sensitive kinases mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Understanding the molecular interaction between nutrient signals and ferroptosis sensors might help in the identification of the roles of ferroptosis in normal physiology and in the development of novel pharmacological targets for the treatment of ferroptosis-related diseases.
The mammary gland, a unique exocrine organ, is responsible for milk synthesis in mammals. Neonatal growth and health are predominantly determined by quality and quantity of milk production. Amino acids are crucial maternal nutrients that are the building blocks for milk protein and are potential energy sources for neonates. Recent advances made regarding the mammary gland further demonstrate that some functional amino acids also regulate milk protein and fat synthesis through distinct intracellular and extracellular pathways. In the present study, we discuss recent advances in the role of amino acids (especially branched-chain amino acids, methionine, arginine and lysine) in the regulation of milk synthesis. The present review also addresses the crucial questions of how amino acids are transported, sensed and transduced in the mammary gland.
A Pickering emulsion was prepared via synergistic stabilization of a lipase and palygorskite particles. The optimum conditions for the stabilization of the Pickering emulsion, such as the concentrations of the palygorskite particles and lipase, were explored. The morphology of emulsion droplets was examined using digital optical microscopy and polarizing optical microscopy. The palygorskite–lipase co-stabilized Pickering emulsions were investigated by determination of the adsorption rate, pH and zeta potential of the aqueous dispersion, as well as by determining the contact angle values of the lipase solution on a palygorskite disc that was immersed in toluene. The catalytic performance of the immobilized lipase in the Pickering emulsion was studied via the investigation of its thermal stability, storage stability and reusability. The immobilized lipase showed greater stability than the free lipase. The lipase immobilized by Pickering emulsion retained a high level of activity even after seven periods of recycling.
To assess helical tomotherapy (TOMO) current clinical application and practice in mainland China.
Materials and methods:
Data were collected for all TOMO units clinically operational in mainland China by 30 April 2016, including (a) the distribution of installation and staffing levels; (b) types of cancers treated; (c) utilisation efficiency; (d) quality assurance; (e) maintenance; (f) optional features; and (g) satisfaction levels. The data were collected as a census and analysed qualitatively and quantitatively.
As of 30 April 2016, 23 TOMO units were used clinically by 22 hospitals in mainland China. In the same period, 22,558 cancer patients were treated. For TOMO units with more than a year of clinical utilisation, a median of 378 cases were treated annually per machine. The median daily operation was 10·5 hours, and treatment headcount was 38·3 patients. The median service outage rate was 2·6%, and the most common cause was malfunction of the multi-leaf collimator. In terms of overall satisfaction levels, 3 hospitals were very satisfied, 16 were satisfied and 3 considered their satisfaction level as average.
The overall operation of TOMO is good, but there are some problems due to running at full capacity, lack of clinical efficacy research and insufficient quality assurance regulations.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ·Na2) supplementation on the reproductive performance and intestinal barrier functions of gestating and lactating female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats and their offspring. Dietary supplementation with PQQ·Na2 increased the number of implanted embryos per litter during gestation and lactation at GD 20 and increased the number of viable fetuses per litter, and the weight of uterine horns with fetuses increased at 1 d of newborn. The mRNA expression levels of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx2), superoxide dismutase (SOD1), solute carrier family 2 member 1 (Slc2a1) and solute carrier family 2 member 3 (Slc2a3) in the placenta were increased with dietary PQQ·Na2 supplementation. Dietary supplementation with PQQ·Na2 in gestating and lactating rats increased the CAT, SOD and GPx activities of the jejunal mucosa of weaned rats on PD 21. Dietary supplementation with PQQ·Na2 in female rats affected the expression of tight junction proteins (claudin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin) in the jejunal mucosa of their offspring by increasing the expression of ZO-1 mRNA in the expression of ZO-1 and claudin mRNA in the jejunal mucosa of weaned rats on PD 21. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with PQQ·Na2 in gestating and lactating female rats had positive effects on their reproductive performance and on the intestinal barrier of weaned rats.
Universal salt iodisation (USI) has been successfully implemented in China for more than 15 years. Recent evidence suggests that the definition of ‘adequate iodine’ (100–199 µg/l) be revised to ‘sufficient iodine’ (100–299 µg/l) based on the median urinary iodine concentration (MUI) in school-age children. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in populations after long-term salt iodisation and examine whether the definition of adequate iodine can be broadened to sufficient iodine based on the thyroid function in four population groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in six provinces in the northern, central and southern regions of China. Four population groups consisting of 657 children, 755 adults, 347 pregnant women and 348 lactating women were recruited. Three spot urinary samples were collected over a 10-d period and blood samples were collected on the 1st day. In the study, among the adults, pregnant women and lactating women, the prevalence rates of elevated thyroglobulin antibody and thyroid microsomal antibody levels were 12·4, 8·5 and 7·8 %, and 12·1, 9·1 and 9·1 %, respectively. Abnormally high thyroid dysfunction prevalence was not observed after more than 15 years of USI in China because the thyroid dysfunction rates were all <5 %. The recommended range should be cautiously broadened from adequate iodine to sufficient iodine according to the MUI of school-age children considering the high levels of hormones and antibodies in the other populations. Adults, particularly pregnant women positive for thyroid antibodies, should be closely monitored.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of l-carnitine and/or maize distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of gestating and lactating sows on the intestinal barrier functions of their offspring. The experiment was designed as a 2×2 factorial with two dietary treatments (soyabean meal v. DDGS) and two l-carnitine levels (0 v. 100 mg/kg in gestating diets and 0 v. 200 mg/kg in lactating diets). Sows (Landrace×Large White) with an average parity of 4·2 with similar body weight were randomly assigned to four groups of thirty each. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine increased the total superoxide dismutase activity but decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde of the jejunal mucosa in newborn piglets and weaning piglets on day 21. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine decreased the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-12 and TNF-α in the jejunal mucosa of newborn piglets and decreased the concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α in the jejunal mucosa of weaning piglets on day 21. There was an interaction between dietary treatment and l-carnitine on the bacterial numbers of total eubacteria in the digesta of caecum in weaning piglets on day 21. Bacterial numbers of total eubacteria in weaning piglets on day 21 were significantly increased by l-carnitine only in soyabean meal diet, but there was no significant effect of l-carnitine in DDGS-based diet. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine increased the bacterial numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and bifidobacteria spp. in the digesta of caecum in weaning piglets on day 21. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine in sows affected the expression of tight junction proteins (claudin 1, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin) in the jejunal mucosa of their offspring by increasing the expression of ZO-1 mRNA in the jejunal mucosa of newborn piglets, and by increasing the expression of ZO-1 and occludin mRNA in the jejunal mucosa of weaning piglets on day 21. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with l-carnitine in gestating and lactating sows had positive effects on intestinal barrier functions of newborn piglets and weaning piglets on day 21, but it did not have effects on intestinal barrier functions of growing–finishing pigs in the filial generation. There were no effects of dietary treatment of sows on intestinal barrier functions in their offspring.
xPb(Yb1/2Nb1/2)O3-(1 − x)Pb(Zr0.36Ti0.64)O3 (xPYN-(1 − x)PZT) piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by the conventional ceramic processing via a B-site oxide mixing route. The synthesized xPYN-(1 − x)PZT ceramics exhibit majority of perovskite structure with slight content of impurity, which exhibit typical tetragonal structure with slight orthorhombic distortion depending on compositions. All the xPYN-(1 − x)PZT ceramics exhibit high Curie temperature (TC/Tm), higher than 380 °C, and their dielectric behavior above TC/Tm can be fitted well by the Curie-Weiss law. The xPYN-(1 − x)PZT ceramics exhibit large resistivity, and excellent ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties, which provide promising for the high-power and high-temperature piezoelectric applications. However, electric energy density of the xPYN-(1 − x)PZT ceramics is small due to their nearly rectangular shape of polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis loop and early electric displacement saturation, which is not suitable for high energy and power storage applications.
In this study, a conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) or PEDOT, was used as binder in the sulfur electrode to study electrochemical performance of lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries. PEDOT-based sulfur electrode was compared with that of polyvinylidene difluoride binder based sulfur electrode. Different particle size sulfur materials including commercial micrometric sulfur particles and synthesized colloidal nanometric sulfur powders were chosen as active materials to study the impact of particle size on the cell performance. Different electrolytes including lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide in polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether (PEGDME) or 1,3-dioxolane-dimethoxy ethane were used in the Li–S batteries to investigate the impact of electrolyte on cell performance. The PEDOT and micrometric sulfur based electrode with PEGDME electrolyte had the best cycle performance, which showed a capacity retention of 68% and specific capacity of 578 mAh/g after 100 cycles. The increased conductivity by conductive polymer and the high viscosity of PEGDME play important roles in the improvement of cycle performance.
Tungsten carbide (WC) particle–reinforced iron matrix surface composites with different content of Cr were fabricated using vacuum evaporative pattern casting technique. It was found that the morphology of carbides changed from continuous net-shape to isolated block-shape patterns. The amount of carbides increase with the increasing Cr content in the matrices. Composites with different Cr content show better abrasive wear resistance than those without Cr. With the increase of Cr content in the matrices, the three-body abrasive wear resistance of the composites increased, while the impact abrasive wear resistance of the composites increased under 1 J impact load, but first increased and then decreased under 3 J impact load. The influences of the addition of Cr in the matrices on the abrasive wear resistance were the synergistic effects of two protecting effects and two supporting effects. The results might provide significant references for the design and practical application of WC particle–reinforced iron matrix surface composites.
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