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A12-week experiment was conducted to evaluate the influences of thiamine ongrowth performance, and intestinal mitochondrial biogenesis and function of Megalobramaamblycephala fed a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet. Fish (24·73 (sem 0·45) g) were randomly assigned to one of four diets: two carbohydrate (CHO) levels (30 and 45 %) and two thiamine levels (0 and 1·5 mg/kg). HC diets significantly decreased DGC, GRMBW, FIMBW, intestinal activities of amylase, lipase, Na+, K+-ATPase, CK, complexes I, III and IV, intestinal ML, number of mitochondrial per field, ΔΨm, the P-AMPK: T-AMPK ratio, PGC-1β protein expression as well as the transcriptions of AMPKα1, AMPKα2, PGC-1β, mitochondrial transcription factor A, Opa-1, ND-1 and COX-1 and 2, while the opposite was true for ATP, AMP and reactive oxygen species, and the transcriptions of dynamin-related protein-1, fission-1 and mitochondrial fission factor. Dietarythiamine concentrations significantly increased DGC, GRMBW, intestinal activities of amylase, Na+, K+-ATPase, CK, complexes I and IV, intestinal ML, number of mitochondrial per field, ΔΨm, the P-AMPK:T-AMPK ratio, PGC-1β protein expression as well as the transcriptions of AMPKα1, AMPKα2, PGC-1β, Opa-1, ND-1, COX-1 and 2, SGLT-1 and GLUT-2. Furthermore, a significant interaction between dietary CHO and thiamine was observed in DGC, GRMBW, intestinal activities of amylase, CK, complexes I and IV, ΔΨm, the AMP:ATP ratio, the P-AMPK:T-AMPK ratio, PGC-1β protein expression as well as the transcriptions of AMPKα1, AMPKα2, PGC-1β, Opa-1, COX-1 and 2, SGLT-1 and GLUT-2. Overall, thiamine supplementation improved growth performance, and intestinal mitochondrial biogenesis and function of M. amblycephala fed HC diets.
Nanosized incubational domain was observed in 10 at.% gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Dislocations were extensively observed in 10 at.% GDC instead of heavily doped 25 at.% GDC. By Fast Fourier Transform and Inverse Fast Fourier Transform analysis, it was noticed that the incubational domain existing in 10 at.% GDC has different lattice spacing and orientation from the neighboring ceria matrix. Furthermore, dislocations were usually observed in the interface region between the incubational domain and the ceria matrix. Based on experimental results, the formation mechanism of dislocation associated incubational domain in lightly gadolinium-doped ceria is rationalized.
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