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Functional polymers were previously employed to minimize the susceptibility of metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) for aggregation. Herein, we intended to conjugate catechol moiety into the polymer chain end considering its anchoring ability to virtually most surfaces. Accordingly, catechol end-functionalized polysarcosine (cat-PSar) was successfully prepared from the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of sarcosine N-carboxyanhydrides (Sar-NCA) using dopamine hydrochloride initiator. ROP of Sar-NCA was carried out at different monomer to initiator feed ratios. The molecular structure of cat-PSar was confirmed by 1H NMR and MALDITOF. Afterward, the obtained catechol functionalized polymer was used for in-situ synthesis and stabilization of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in aqueous solution. The observed characteristic absorption peak at λmax of 415 nm indicates the formation of Ag-NPs. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images also elucidate the formation of Ag-NPs with the relatively small sizes of the nanocomposite at a high concentration of silver nitrate. Hence, biomimetic polymers could play a dual role as reducing and stabilizing agents in the preparation of monodispersed MNPs.
We examine the effects of authentic leadership on subordinates in the Chinese context. Drawing on attribution processes of self-disclosure, we propose that authentic leaders engaging in self-disclosure practices cultivate subordinates’ positive feelings that their leaders like and trust them. We further explain how and why authentic leadership particularly influences highly traditional Chinese subordinates. We propose that Chinese traditionality strengthens the positive effects of authentic leadership on subordinates’ perceptions that their leader practices interactional justice, which in turn positively relates to their in-role performance, creativity, and organizational citizenship behaviour. In Study 1, we surveyed 199 employees in 47 work units from nine high-technology organizations in China. The results support the hypothesized relationships. In Study 2, we surveyed 170 employees in 46 work units from various organizations in China. The results show that authentic leadership effects remain unchanged after controlling for the effects of transformational leadership. We discuss the implications for leadership effectiveness in the Chinese context.
X-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscope techniques were used to investigate the crystalline structures of one-dimensional tungsten oxide nanowires prepared by the hydrothermal method. The as-synthesized products were found to exhibit increasing crystallinity with increasing reaction time, and tungsten oxide nanowires have crystalline defects, including stacking faults, dislocations, and vacancies. The results on the crystal defects help us to obtain a better understanding of the temperature-dependent morphological evolution of the ultrathin nanowires synthesized under different thermal processes.
The film properties of two PECVD deposited dielectric copper barrier films
have been optimized to improve BEOL device reliability in terms of
electromigration. Two critical aspects that affect electromigration are the
dielectric barrier film hermeticity and adhesion to copper. We use a method
to quantify the barrier film hermeticity and have optimized the hermeticity
of the BLOκ™ low-κ dielectric barrier film to be similar to that of silicon
nitride. By using FT-IR we find that the film porosity has a much stronger
effect than the film stoichiometry on hermeticity. In addition, the
interfaces between Damascene Nitride™ with copper, as well as BLOκ with
copper have been engineered to improve the interfacial adhesion energy to
>10 J/m2 for both Damascene Nitride and BLOκ.
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